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ADOPT.

Or they [Adam and Eve) led the vine

records of the Pentateuch, that the daughter of Pharaoh ADOPT. To wed her cim; slie, spous’d, about him twives

adopted Moses (Exod. ii. 10.), and that afterwards
Her marriageable arms, and with her brings

Mordecai adopted Esther. (Esther ii. 7, 15.) Similar
Her dower, the adopted clusters, to adorn
His barren leaves.

customs prevailed throughout the eastern world. In Milton's Paradise Lost, b. v. the Gentoo laws, and the Institutes of Menu, the folDenis the sonne of Hamon tooke armes and drave Camasenuus, lowing regulations are found :-“ He who is desirous with luis wife Rhea, out of his father's kingdome, yet notwithstanding to adopt a child must inform the magistrate, and shall be retained with him their sonne Osiris and adopted him for his perform the jugg [sacrifice), and shall give gold and owne, but imposed an other name upon him, that is to say,

rice to the father of the child whom he would adopt." Jupiter, and gave him all the kingdome of Egypt.

Stow's Chronicle. A woman may not adopt a son child without her Ty the is not simply a Levitical duty, but respectively; not the husband's order.” “ He who has no son, or grandson, natural child of Moses's law, but the adoptive.

or grandson's son, or brother's son, shall adopt a son; Spelman's Larger Work of Tythes.

but while he has one, he shall not adopt a second.” There are some opinions, which when they began to be publicly “ He whom his father, or mother with her husband's received, began to be accounted prime traditions, and so became assent, gives to another as his son, provided the donee such, not by a native title, but by adoption. Taylor on the Liberty of Prophesying.

have no issue, if the boy be of the saine class, and Our language hath grown from time to time to be copious, and affectionately disposed, is a son given by water; i. e. still grons more rich, by adopting, or naturalizing rather, the choicest the gift being conferred by the pouring of water. He breign words of other nations.

who has no son, may appoint his daughter to raise up Howell's Letters.

a son to him, by saying, the male child, who shall be 'Tis man, said he, who wcak by nature,

born from her in wedlock, shall be mine, for the purpose
At first creeps, like his fellow-creature,

of performing my funeral obsequies. The son of a man
l'pon all-four; as years accruc,
With sturdy steps he walks on two;

is even as himself; and, as a son such is a daughter
In age, at length, grows weak and sick,

thus appointed. The son of a daughter, appointed as For his third leg adopts a stick.

just mentioned, shall inherit the whole estate of her Prior's Tuo Riddles.

father, who leaves no son. Between the sons of a son Spontaneous joys, where nature has it's play,

and of a daughter, thus appointed, there is no difference
The soul udopts, and owns their first-born sway:

in law."
Lightly they frolic o'er thic vacant mind,
L'nenvy’d, unmolested, unconfind.

Among the Greeks, adoption was called viorns, filiGoldsmith's Deserted Village: ation, and children were divided chiefly into three As the unkindness of parents was made a sufficient excuse for classes, termed I'vñoloi, lawfully begotten; Nó?o, born children to deny them relief in their old age, so the disobedience or of harlots; and Octoi, adopted. Persons who had no extravagance of children, whether natural or adopted, frequently lawful issue, were allowed to adopt whom they pleased, deprived them of the care and estate of their parents.

Potter's Greciun Antiquities.
whether their own natural sons, or (by consent of their

But such as were
I have admted the Roman sentiment, that it is more honourable parents) the sons of other men.
to save a citizen, than to kill an enemy, and have been more careful not, kúproc éavrūv, their own masters, were excepted;
to protect than to attack,

such were slaves, women, madmen; and all such as Johnson's Preface to Shakespeare. were under twenty-one years of age: for these not ADOPTION, the act by which a person takes a being capable of making wills, or managing their own stranger under his protection, constituting him one of estates, were not allowed to adopt heirs to theni. his own family, and appointing him the heir of his pos- Foreigners being excluded from the inheritance of sessions. This practice evidently originated in nature, estates at Athens, if any such were adopted, he was and is nothing more than an indication of that strong made free of the city. The adoption being made, the propensity which is implanted in man to diffuse his adopted person had his name enrolled in the tribe and influence, and to gratify his affections. If the parental ward of his new father; this was not done at the same disposition have no proper object on which to exercise time in which the children begotten of themselves were its energies, averse to remain inactive, it will bestow registered, but on the festival called Oapyýjdiu, in the itself in another way, and seek some legitimate sub- month Thorgelion. The Lacedemonians were very stitute. Hence, in every age and country, adoption cautious and wary in this affair; and, for the prehas, in some form or other, prevailed.

vention of rash and inconsiderate adoptions, had a law The practice of adoption seems to have existed among that they should be confirmed in the presence of their the ancient patriarchs of the Jewish nation, and their kings. Adopted children were called παίδες θετοι, Or successors the Israelites. Calmet, indeed, argues that citrOLNToi, and were invested in all the privileges and Jacob's adoption of his two grandsons, Ephraim and rights, and obliged to perform all the duties belonging Manasseh, as recorded in the forty-eighth chapter of the to such as were begotten, of their fathers : and being book of Genesis, ought to be regarded rather as a kind thus provided for in another family, they ceased to of substitution, by which he intended that they each of have any claim of inheritance or kindred in the family them should be entitled to his lot in Israel, because he which they had left, unless they first renounced their did not bestow upon their father Joseph any inherit- adoption, which the laws of Solon allowed them not to ance : but it is essentially the same act, though some do, except they had first begotten children to bear the what different in its application. Among the Israelites name of the person who had adopted them; thus proa surviving brother was under an obligation to marry viding against the ruin of families, which would have the widow of his deceased relation, in case of his dying been extinguished by the desertion of those who were without issue; and the children of this marriage were adopted to preserve them. It the adopted persons died to be regarded as belonging to the departed brother, without children, the inheritance could not be alienated and to take his name, It appears, from the historical from the family into which they were adopted, but

VOL. XVII,

ADOPT. returned to the relations of the persons who had adopted of the present marriage. Adoption by testament, con- ADOPT.

them. The Athenians are by some thought to have sists in making a person heir by will, upon the condi-
forbidden any man to marry, after he had adopted a tion of his assuming the name, arms, and other distinc-
son, without leave from the magistrate. And there is tions of the deceased adopter.
an instance in Tzetzes's Chiliads, of one Leogoras, who The law of Mahomet prescribes a very curious cere-
being ill used by Andocides the orator, who was his mony in adoption. The person adopted is required to
adopted son, desired leave to marry. However, it is pass through the shirt of the adopter; and hence the
certain some men married after they had adopted sons; phrase to draw another through one's shirt, is among
and if they begot legitimate children, their estates them expressive of adoption. An adopted son is
were equally shared between those begotten and those called Akietogli, that is, the son of another life.—D'Her-
adopted.- Potter's Archæologia Græca.

belot, Bibl. Orient. p. 47. Calinet remarks, that An adopted son could not adopt another ; so that something of the same kind prevailed among the Heif he had no legitimate son, his possessions received brews, and refers to the history of Elijah casting his by adoption must revert to the heirs of the adopting mantle over Elisha, his disciple and successor, when father, for there could not be two adopted sons at the he ascended in a fiery chariot to heaven; and to that same time. The adopted sons of a family, and those of Moses, who dressed Eleazar in Aaron's sacred garwho were born afterwards, should there be any, were ments, when that high-priest was about to be gathered co-heirs of the estate; but no adoption could be valid, to his fathers; intimating by this act that Eleazar sucif a man had legitimate sons born at the time. An ceeded to the functions of the priesthood, and was, in eunuch could not adopt a child; and the person a manner, adopted to exercise that dignity. God asadopted was required to be eighteen years younger sured Shebna, the captain of the temple, that he would than the person who adopted him.

deprive him of his honourable station, and substitute Two forms of adoption were practised by the Ro. Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, in his room. “ And mans: the one called adoptio, which was transacted I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him before the prætor, the other termed adrogatio, per- with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government formed, during the commonwealth, at an assembly of into his hand.” Is. xxii. 21. The expressions used by the people, and subsequently by a rescript of the St. Paul, in various passages of the New Testament, are emperor. In the former case, the natural father pre- considered as illustrative of the same subject.— Rom. senting himself to the magistrate, stated that he eman- xiii. 14; Gal. iii. 27; Eph. iv. 24; Col. ii. 10; and cipated his son, relinquished all further authority over by St. John. Comp. John i. 12; 1 John iii. 2. him, and agreed that he should pass into the family of This ceremony is frequently performed in the difthe person who was desirous of adopting him : in the ferent parts of the east, merely by the adopting person latter instance, the individual or the persons to be exchanging girdles with the person adopted, who sucadopted being already free, it only remained that the ceeds to all the privileges and possessions of a son. names and distinctions should be altered, so that the In order to prevent their estates falling into the hands adopted party assumed the name, and surname of of the grand seignior, when there is no probability of the adopter. When Augustus adopted the two sons their having children of their own, it is not uncommon of Agrippa and Julia, he required the father to make for the Turks to choose a child of either sex, and perover to him his right to the children by a kind of legal haps from among the lowest classes of the people, and sale, and gave them his name in return. The senate take it with its parents before the cadi, where they decreed, in the reign of Nero, that fraudulent adop. make a solemn declaration that they receive the child tions should be null and void; so that no honours could for their heir. The parents renounce all claim to it in succeed to the adopted persons, nor could they be en- future, and a writing is drawn up and properly wittitled to the whole of an inheritance, of which they nessed; so that a child thus adopted cannot by any might otherwise have become possessed. The Romans means afterwards be disinherited.. borrowed the custom of adoption from the Greeks, and ADOPTIOx, in a theological sense, signifies an act of it was practised among them with much greater fre. divine goodness, by which we are received into the quency than among the latter people.

number, and have a right to all the privileges of the Adoption having been practised on various occasions, sons of God. 'Transgressors are said to be adopted and by different modes, among different nations, se into the family of heaven by the propitiation of our Saveral terms, expressive of these peculiarities, are found viour, and the impartation of his merit: so that for his in their history. Adoption by arms, among the ancient sake they are regarded as spiritual children. It also Germans, was the term applied to the presentation of includes God's acknowledgment of his people at the last arms to any person by a prince, in consideration of day; as when the Apostle speaks of the manifestadistinguished merit: and it involved the obligation to tion of the sons of God” at that period. Rom. viii. 19. defend and protect the father from all injuries and for the Romans first adopted the child in private ; affronts. From this practice originated the ceremony and, as has been stated, by purchase; but when that of dubbing knights. The arms thus assigned were child arrived at the age of puberty, he was carried to terined adoptire arms, and are distinguished from arms the Forum, and the adoption became a public and of alliance. Adoption by baptism, signifies the afhnity recognized act, sanctioned by all the legal and binding acquired in the ceremony of baptism by god-fathers forms of the age. Thus God's children are now supand god-children. It was first introduced into the posed to be adopted really; but in the day of general Greek church, and was afterwards used by the ancient judgment they shall be openly recognized or manifested; Franks. Adoption by matrimony, is the appropriat- the adoption shall be complete in all its advantages, as ing the children of a former marriage, and admitting well as in all its forms. There is, however, a difference them into the family upon an equality with those between civil and spiritual adoption, as the latter has been

&DOPT. designated. The former provided for the relief of those

Dye rather, die, and dying doe her serue,

ADORE.

Dying her serue, and liuing her adore ; who had no children of their own; but this reason

Thy life shiee gave, thy life she doth deserue: ADORE does not exist in spiritual adoption, to which the

Dye rather, die, than euer from her seruice swerue. Almighty was under no conceivable obligation, since

Spenser's Faerie Rveene, book iij. canto v. he had created innumerable beings, and all the intel The priests of elder times deluded their apprehensions with soothligent ranks of creation may be considered as his saying, and such oblique idolatries, and even their credulities to the children. The occasion of one person adopting another, literal and downright udorement of cats, &c.

Brown's Vulgar Errours. amongst men, is their possession, or supposed pos

Rejoicing, but with awe, session, of certain qualities or excellencies which at

In adoration at his feet I fell tract the adopter's regard; but the introduction of

Submiss. mankind into the family of heaven must be considered

Milton's Paradise Lost, book viii. as resulting from no such existing merit. In the case

The God of Nature ordain'd from the beginning, that he should of civil adoption, though there is an alteration of the be worshipped in various and sundry forns of adorations, which nevergame and external distinctions of the person chosen, it theless, like so many lines, should tend all to the saine centre.

Houell's Letters. implies no necessary change of disposition, principle, or character ; but the reverse is true of spiritual adoption,

Let our admiration be given to God, seeing deliberate wondering in which the adopted person is assimilated to the Being being raised up to an height, is part of adoration, and cannot be given

any whose name he is permitted to assume.

Fuller's Worthies. The evidences of adoption are stated by divines as

They (Salmasius and Scaliger) were vilified therefore, and tracomprising the renunciation of all former sources of duced by those who, if they had been of their own communion, dependence and hope, combined with that implicit would have almost adored them. submission to the will of the adopter, which arises out

Bentley on the Epistles of Phalaris. Preface. of the parental character, as well as the supreme au

llad some fierce tyrant in her stead been found,

The poor adorer sure liad hang'd, or drown'd: thority of God. Adoption is evinced also by a newly

But she, your ser's mirrour, free from pride, cherished and ardent affection to him who has con

Was much too meek to prove a homicide. ferred this honour, which it is obvious cannot be always

Pope's January and May. secured in the case of civil adoption. It is displayed

Ye distant spires, ye antique towers, further by an obedient spirit, by a filial feeling per

That crown the watery glade, vading all our devotional intercourse with heaven, and

Where grateful science still adores

Her Henry's holy shade. by a patient expectance and humble anticipation of the

Gray's Ode on a distant Prospect of Eton College. final and everlasting inheritance.

James made his publick entry into Dublin, amidst the acclamaADORE', . Ad: oro, os oris, the mouth; (oro tions of the inhabitants. He was met at the castle-gate by a proADOR'ABLE, ab ore factum proprie significat ore

cession of popish bishops and priests in their pontificals, bearing

the bost, which he publickly adored. ADOR'ANT, precor. Vossius.)

Smollett's England, ADOR A'TION, To speak to, in prayer, suppli

That the more immediate objects of popular adoration amongst ADOR E'MENT, cation, with reverence, with awe, the heathens were deified human beings, is a fact attested by all

Ador'er. with love; and consequently, to antiquity, whether Pagan, Jewish, or Christian. pray to, to supplicate, to worship, to reverence, to

Farmer on Miracles. love.

ADORATION, in a Theological sense, is, strictly
With that my fader vincust stert on fute,

speaking, an act of worship, due to God only; but
And to the goddis carpis to be our bute,

offered also to idols and to mortal men by the servility
The haly sterne udorit die rycht thare,
Now, now, quod he, I tary no langare,

of their fellow-creatures. The derivation of the term
I follow, and quhidder ze gide me sall I wend.

plainly indicates the action in which it primarily conDouglas, book ii. p. 62. Æneid. sisted; namely, in applying the hand to the mouth to My father vanquist, then beheld the skies,

kiss it, in token of extraordinary respect to any person Spake to the gods, and tholy sterre adored :

or object. In the ancient book of Job it is said, “If I Now, now, quod he, no longer l abide :

beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in
Felow I shall where ye me guide at hand.

Surrey, Ib. brightness, and my mouth hath kissed my hand, this also
The good old man with suppliant hands implor'd

were iniquity.” (Chap. xxxi. 26, 27.) Minutius Felix
The gods protection, and their star adored :

states, “ that as Cacilius passed before the statue of Now, now, said he, my son, no more delay,

Serapis he kissed his hand, as is the custom of supersti1 yield, I follow where heav'n shews the way.

tious people." (In Oct.) And Jerome mentions that Dryden, ID.

those who adore used to kiss their hands and to bow And miche more excecrable is it to serue or worship the images] down their heads. (Cont. Rufin. 16. 1.) It is a matwith any reuereut bebauiour ether by adoracion prostracion knelyng ter of general notoriety that the word “kissing? is the or kissing. The Esposicion of Daniel by George Joye, fol. 35. col. 2. usual idiom of the Hebrew language to signify ado

ration. Votum in ge scriptures hath not one only sygnyfycacyon, but many. Some where it is a knowledgyng of gods benefyghtes, some

Although it cannot be imagined that one attitude or where a faythe in hys promyses, some wher an adorac yon, a wor mode of indicating reverence is, in itself considered, shypp Bale's Apology, fol. 52. col. 1.

more acceptable to the Supreme Being than another, The said Sir John Bushe, did not onely attribute to himn wordly inasmuch as his omniscient inspection primarily regards honours, but diuyne names, inuentyng flatteryng wordes, and vnused the affections of the worshipper: yet there is an evident termes, and to a mortall man not conuenient, for as oft as he spake decorum and respect implied in one posture more than vato the king in his throne, be cast bis handes abrode, as he had in others, varying in different countries and at different adoured and worshipped God, besechyng his excelse, bigh, and adorant maiestie, that he woulde witsafe to graant him this or that.

periods according to the general opinion and established Grafton, repr. 1809, vol. i. p. 465. usages of society--but with which sentiments of devo

his

ADORE. tion are inseparably connected. Upon the principle metans always observe this practice when they enter ADORE.

that one mode of address to a superior is deemed their mosques. Mr. Wilkins mentions, upon respectful, and another the reverse, and consequently pressing a wish to enter the inner hall of the college of the attitudes and motions of the body are believed to Seiks, at Patna, he was informed it was a place of worbe expressive of certain corresponding emotions in the ship, and it was necessary for him to take off his shoes: mind, and that religion cannot be totally separated and a very credible traveller reports that there are seen from its forms, the genuine worshipper of God will be as many slippers and sandals at the doors of an Indian solicitous about his external appearance in his presence; pagoda, as there are hats hanging up in our churches. nor have the votaries of superstition and idolatry been Kissing the ground, was an ancient mode of adoration indifferent to this view of the subject. These senti- which usually accompanied the act of prostration. ments and forms of address have by a very natural Whenever the Persians met, if the parties were upon association been transferred to the intercourse of ordi an equality, or nearly so, they kissed each other; but nary life, and have been made to denote either a proper if the difference were considerable, the inferior prostrated or an extravagant and impious degree of veneration. himself and worshipped the other. The kings of Persia

With regard to the different modes of Adoration, never admitted any one into their presence without this reference has already been made to the kissing of the ceremony; and if the individual were a vanquished hand. This is one of the principal tokens of respect in prince, he was required to kiss the prints of the horsethe east, and was, as appears from Herodotus, pro- shoe of his conqueror, repeating these stanzas :bably of Persian origin.

“ The mark that the foot of your horse has left upon Travellers mention a large tree at Surat which is held the dust, serves me now for a crown. in great veneration. There hangs a bell aloft, which “ The ring, which I wear as the badge of my slavery, the persons who come out to pay their devotions, first is become my richest ornament. of all ring, as if to call the idol to hear them ; then “ While I have the happiness to kiss the dust of your they commence their adoration by extending both hands feet, I shall think that fortune favours me with her downwards as much as possible, joining them together tenderest caresses, and her sweetest kisses.” in a praying posture; then, lifting them up again by The above instance of extreme servility is cited by little and little, they bring them to their mouths if to d'Herbelot. kiss thein; and lastly, extend them so joined together Apollonius relates that a golden statue of the king as high as they can over their heads, which gesticula- of Babylon was exposed to all who entered the city, tion is used only to idols and sacred things.—De la and that they could not be admitted within the gates, Valle.

until they had fallen down and worshipped it: a homage The Romans, having their head covered, applied the which Conon refused to Artaxerxes, and Callisthenes right hand to the lips, the forefinger resting on the to Alexander the Great. thumb, which was erect, and thus bowing the head, the Standing was sometimes an attitude of adoration; the worshippers turned themselves round from left to right. body being inclined forward and the eyes cast down to To this mode of kissing, the term 'osculum labratum' the earth. The hands also probably rested on the was applied, for they did not dare to touch the images knees. In the first book of Kings and in the eighth of the gods themselves with their profane lips. Saturn chapter, it is recorded that Solomon “stood before the and Hercules were adored with the head bare: and altar of the Lord, in the presence of all the congregation hence the worship of the latter received the epithet of of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven." • institutum peregrinum'andó ritus Græcanius,' as differ- The priests also were accustomed to stand in the service ing from the ordinary method of the Romans, who of the temple. This was a posture practised both by usually concealed the person with a veil, and drew their the Greeks and Romans. garments up to their ears.

Sitting, with the under part of the thighs resting on Kissing the feet, is also a mode of worship or adora- the heels was an ancient eastern practice, which servants tion, adopted particularly in modern times among the still do when in attendance upon their masters. Most, papists, who express in this manner their reverence if not all, the Egyptian figures of worshippers in their of the pope of Rome. It seems to have been de- sacred edifices are represented in this attitude, and it is rived from the imperial court; but at what precise often alluded to in the scriptures. Thus David period it was introduced, cannot now be determined. before” God on one of the most important occasions of The eighth century is the generally assigned period, worship. I Chron. xvii. 16. but some have found examples of it, as they believe, Kneeling was extremely common, and seems very in the third. Dioclesian is said to have had gems naturally to import a person's endeavouring to lessen fastened to his shoes, that divine bonours might be his own self-importance in the presence of a superior. more willingly paid him, by kissing his feet. Hence The worshippers in eastern nations generally turn the popes fastened crucifixes to their slippers, that the their faces toward the sun or to the east. adoration intended for the pope's person might be Mr. Ward, one of the Baptist missionaries at Seramsupposed to be transferred to Christ. Princes have pore, in a work on the History and Literature of the sometimes practised this singular homage; and Gregory Hindoos, has given the following curious account of the XIII. claimed it as a duty. It was rendered in the modes of adoration, which they call POOJA.“ Preancient church to bishops, the people kissing their viously to entering on this act of idolatry,” says he, feet and exclaiming - TPOCKVW 0e, I adore thee.' “the person bathes: returning home he washes his

At the adoration of the cross on Good Friday the feet, spreads a blanket or some other proper thing to Roman catholics walk barefooted. In the east it is a sit

upon,

and then sits down before the idol, having the sign of the greatest respect to take off the shoes and articles necessary for worship before him: a kosha or approach to render homage barefooted. The Maho- metal bason, and a koshee, or smaller one; a small

sat

With every

ADORE.

wooden stand, a metal plate, an iron stand to hold five sour-milk, clarified butter, sugar, sugar-candy, &c. &c. ADORE. lamps, a censer, a brass stand with a small shell placed After presenting the offerings, the person repeats the

ADORN. on it, a metal plate on which to place flowers, a metal name of a god for some time, and then prostrates bowl into which the water and Aowers are thrown after himself (the spectators doing the same); putting the they have been presented to the idol, a metal jug for cloth round his neck and joining his nands, he offers holding water, a metal plate to be used as a bell; a praise to the god and prostrates himself again. The shell, or sacred conch, which sounds like a horn; with dinner follows, consisting of fried greens, and several a number of dishes, cups, and other utensils for other dishes made up of kidney-beans, varttakee, cocoaholding rice, paint, incense, betel, water, milk, butter, nuts, &c. fried together; split-peas, and several kinds curds, sweatmeats, flowers, clarified butter, &c. Hav- of fried herbs or fruits; four kinds of fish; boiled and ing all these articles ready, the worshipper takes water fried goat's fiesh, venison, and turtie; ditfirent fruits from the kosha with the koshee, and, letting it fall into prepared with treacle; rice and milk boiled with sugar; his hand, drinks it; he then takes a drop more, and things prepared with pounded rice; cards, sweetthen a drop more, repeating incantations. After this, meats, &c. The fish, Hesh, fried greens, and every with the finger and thumb of his right hand, he touches thing of this kind, is eaten with boiled rice. A dish his mouth, nose, eyes, ears, navel, breast, shoulders, called kecooree, consisting of rice, split peas, clarified and the crown of his head, repeating certain forms. butter, turmeric and spices, boiled together, is also He then washes his hands, makes a number of motions presented; and then water to drink. with his fingers, and strikes the earth with his left heel article of food a separate prayer is offered. Water is three times, repeating incantations. When this is next presented to wash the mouth, and a straw to pick done, he flirts the first finger and thumb of his right the teeth, with prayers; then the burnt-offering is hand, waving his hand toward the ten divisions of the made, and a present of money given. At last the earth; closes his eyes, and repeats incantations to person prostrates himself before the objet of worship, purify his mind, his body, the place where he sits, as and then retires to feast on the offerings with other well as the offerings about to be presented (which it is bramhuns. This is a detail of the form of worship on supposed may have become unclean by having been a large scale, at which time it occupies the officiating seen or touched by a cat, a dog, a shackal, a shoodru, bramhun two hours.” Vol. ii. p. 64, et seq. 8vo. or a Mussulman). Next, he takes a flower, which he

The OBJECTS of adoration have been greatly diver-lays on his left hand, and putting his right hand upon sified. We have before remarked that the Supreme it, revolves in his mind the form of the god he is wor

Being is the only proper object of worship, but that shipping. He then lays the flower on his head, and

man has most shamefully prostituted himself to othersjoining his hands together, closes his eyes, thinks upon

to fellow men and to idols. Adoration of the latter the form of the god, that he has a nose, eyes, four

was often performed by placing crowns or garlands arms, four heads, &c. and then recites the outward

on the statues of the gods. It was common to lie forms of worship in his mind. He now presents the down in the temples, as if to receive responses from offerings: first, a square piece of gold or silver, as a

their gods during their sleep; and the sick, in particular, seal for the god, inviting him to come and sit down, practised this ceremony in the temple of Æsculapius. or visit him; and then, asking the god if he be happy, The Romish church offers an adoration to martyrs, repeats for him, “ very happy.". After this, he pre- images, crucifixes, relics, the virgin, and the host; to sents water to wash the feet; takes up water with the which protestants strongly object. The Phænicians (the koshee, and pours it into the metal bowl; and presents first navigators) adored the winds, on account of the at once rice, a vilwu leaf, eight blades of doorva grass, terrible effects produced by them; a practice adopted by paint, and water, with incantations. He then presents most other nations. The Persians paid adoration to water to wash the mouth, curds, sugar, honey; then the sun and fire; some say also to the elements. The water to wash the mouth again, and water to bathe in, Greeks and Romans adored fire, under the name of with pravers; then cloth, jewels, gold, silver, ornaments, bedsteads, curtains, a bed, pillow, cloth, printed gently clapping the hands.

Vesta. Pliny mentions the adoration of lightning by

The Egyptians adored cloth; clothes for men, women, or children ; shoes, animals, plants, and fishes; the Arabs, stones; the brass drinking cups, candlesticks, and whatever would Seythians, swords; the Chinese, the statues of their be proper presents to the bramhuns.* After this, paint, ancestors. The Hindoos have not only an amazing vaeither red or white, is presented on a flower; then riety of gods, but they worship human beings, beasts, eight or ten flowers; leaves of the vilwu tree; a neck- birds, trees, rivers, fish, books, and stones. See“ Ward's lace of flowers; incense of three kinds, and a lighted View of the History, Literature, and Religion of the lamp, with incantations. After the bloody sacrifices, Hindoos,” passim. the offerings are presented, comprising rice, split peas, different kinds of peas, shaddocks, pomegranates, pine

ADORN', c.

Ad: orno.

Orno, Vossius

ADORN', n. apples, netted custard-apples, another specics of cus

derives from the Gr. Spa, time; tard-apples, bread-fruit or jakus, mangoes, water

A DORN'ING, adj. the time of spring, the seamelons, cucumbers, plantains, oranges, ginger, cocoa

ADORN'MENT. sonable time, of youth, of manuts, almonds, raisins, guavas, dates, jambus, jujubes, turity, of beauty; and consequently that which beautifies. wood-apples, melons, sugar-canes, radishes, sweet

Wiclif uses the simple word ourn.
potatoes, kesooru, water, milk, curds, cream, butter, To deck, dress, apparel, gaily, handsomely; so as to

display to the best advantage; to decorate, to embellish..
It must not be supposed that all these articles are presented
daily by the Hiudoos. This account describes what is performed at Of which ther be not withoutforth curious ournyng of heer, either
festivals. In the daily worship, flowers, leaves, sacred grass, a doyng aboute of gold, either ournyng of clothing, but thilke that is
little rice, &c. are presented.

thë hid man of herte in ancorrupcioun, and of mylde spirit whiche is,

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