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where we had left our carriage and resumed our ride to Lake George. The distance is three miles, and the road is through an uneven tract of country. We crossed the little river by which the waters of Lake George are discharged into Champlain, and visited at a little distance from the former a very considerable fall or cascade in this river, though the effect of it is almost entirely lost by being used and diverted towards carrying mills that are situated
Lake George is a great number of feet higher than Champlain, and though its waters are forced by their fall into the latter with considerable violence, they seem reluctant to mingle with its turbid waters, and for a considerable distance retain much of their clearness and transparency. We found a steam boat waiting for us at the outlet of the lake, and very soon embarked in it for Caldwell's.
We were attracted by a man considerably advanced in years who stood upon the shore near the steam boat, with a number of stones of one kind and another arrayed upon
board for show as we presumed. Having, however, a curiosity to learn his object in such a display, we enquired of him what they were, and were at once astounded with a catalogue of hard names which he rattled off as we thought at random, and were moreover equally astonished to hear him repeat with the utmost composure the opinions of various professors and other great men, as to the genus and varie.' ty of certain pebbles that he held in his hand, giving his own opinion at the same time with the utmost confidence.. We were much amused with this dealer in bard pames, and common pebble stones, and calling up as much of our mineralogy and geology as we could recollect of the little we learned in college, we began to talk and look wise, much to his delight. He told us that he employed his time in traversing the mountains to collect minerals to sell to'such passengers and visitors as wished to purchase, and that he got a tolerably good business out of it. We bought a variety of his specimens, the names of which we minuted Jown as he gave them, and when exhibiting the result of our scientific tour have acquired not a little credit as our betters have before us, by claiming as our own, the labors of others.
The lake for a considerable distance, is very narrow, and has more the appearance of a river than a lake, as it winds among the mountains that enclose it on both sides. The grand scenery for which this lake is so well known, begins at its outlet and extends in
uninterrupted succession to its head at Caldwell. Both shores almost the whole distance, are bold and precipitons, and rarely preserting any thing like cultivation upon the sides of the mountajos, These rise often to the height of 1000 or 1500 feet, and besides their great height, have all the grandeur of bare and projecting cliffs. The primitive forests with their dark foliage, hang over the ravines between the mountains, 'or in some places crown their tall summits. This lake and its vicinity, is a favorite resort of the sportsman, as it furnishes the finest fish, in great abundancey and its shores are yet: he haunt of the deer, that are often to be seen swimming across the lake from one shore to the other. The lake is from half a mile to one and two miles wide ; the whole extent from its outlet to its head is thirty six miles, and the scenery is uniformly grand the whole distance upon either bank. The course of the lake being far from direct, the various angles and windings it makes, present this scenery in so many different points of view and unequal distances that it loses none of its interest by its uniformity. This lake so calm, so sheltered from the world beyond it,and studded with its three hundred and sixty islands, combines 80 much of the beautiful with the sublimity of the scenery around it, that we doubt whether it can be rivalled by any spot in our couDtry. It is not entirely destitute of interesting associations to add to its attractions. Tradition points out to the traveller the spots where feats of desperate courage have been done on its shores; when the white man was almost a stranger here, and the savage yet ranged its mountains for his game or traversed them to fall apon some defenceless frontier settlement. Along this läke, so quiet and secluded, the armies of contending nations have been borne, and at either extremity of it, the crumbling ramparts of deserted fortresses tell of days when war had fixed its seat amidst these now peaceful scenes. A strong resemblance is said to exist between this lake and its surrounding scenery and that of Loch Katrine, wbich has been immortalized by the muse of Scott: A gentleman, a fellow passenger, pointed out a little island of a few acres extent, covered with evergreen near which we passed as almost exactly resembling in size and situation, the island which that poet chose for the scene of his beautiful poem, "twas all so close with copsc wood bound;" yet it wanted the lodge and the mountain maiden;" and the harp of white haired Allan Bain, was not heard on the shore. Bat still the island, the mountains on either shore, and the deep bay of hounds that rung along the fastnesses of the mountains that was
then heard, recalled the animated description of the scene of the poet, made this spot almost classical gcound. Some future poet will do justice to this lake, and its associations and to this will the pilgrim of a future day bead his way with the same interest with which he visits the romantic lakes and mountains of Scotland. We passed near the " diamond isle" so called, which looked barren and uncomfortable though it has one small hut upon it, which is said to be the residence of a lonely female, called by the way of jest, the “Lady of the lake." We saw an object on the shore as we passed, but it had so little of the beau'ideal of Ellen of Loch Katrine that we almost doubted its claim to be kipdred to the sex.
It was near sunset when we arrived in sight of Caldwell which is at the head of Lake George upon the west side of it. It has rather a neat appearance from the lake being sheltered by mountains and forests on two sides and open to the lake upon the other, and having several fine buildings among which is the court house. The soil however is very poor and sandy, and the first is the most favorable impression one receives of the town. There is no navigation carried on upon this lake, save by the steam boat, which is intended merely for a passage boat. We saw no craft of any kind upon the lake, except a few fishing skiffs or canoes, except the boat we were in.
After tea we went out along the head of the lake to visit the sites of the old Fort's George and Wm. Herry. Fort George is in sight of the tavern in Caldwell and its walls are still standing, to the height of 20 or 30 feet and quite entire. It is situate about 50 rods from the lake, and about 60 rods, south east of fort Wm. Henry. The lines around it appear to have been pretty extensive, though the lateness of the hour prevented our examining them particularly. We returned from Fort George to Wm. Henry which was much earlier built and was abandoned before the erection of Fort George. It was built of earth and though it has mouldered away and forest trees of considerable magnitude are growing on its walls and within its intrenchments, the dițch is in many places of considerable depth and the outlines of the Fort which appears to have occupied a considerable space of ground are easily traced.
This Fort and its vicinty has been the scene of much bloodshed in the early history of our country. Here Baron Dieskau and Col. Williams fell in '55 and here in '57 was the memorable massacre of the English and American troops, who had surrendered this Fort to the French commander, Marquis de Montcalm, after bravely defend
ing it against unequal numbers and amidst difficulties the most discouraging, till valor was in vain and courage and resolution were no longer of any avail. This fort was then dismantled and never rebuilt.
OF THE STRUCTURE OF VEGETABLES. The most visible structure of vegetables is found in trees. is the same in the trunk and branches, extending to the smallest twigs, so that a knowledge of the component parts of the trunk embraces a knowledge of the whole. If the trunk be cut transversely, three different structures, on a superficial view, are observed, viz:- The Bark, Wood, and Pith. But microscopical observations have detected six distinct textures.
1. THE FIRST IS THE CUTICLE OR OUTER BARK-This extends to all the branches and leaves and forms a covering for every part of the tree. On the trunks of old trees, it is broken in pieces and ob
Pores for perspiration and absorption are supposed to exist in the outer bark. This texture is the most distinct in the wbite Birch and the Cherry. It serves as a protection to the very fine and delicately wrought part beneath, which is
2. THE CELLULAR INTEGMENT.--Renewing the cuticle or outer bark, the cellular integment is seen. It is usually of a reddish or greenish color, composed of a mass of cells, like those of a honey comb. It enters into the leaves, giving them their color, and constitutes the pulpy parts of fruit: e. g. the cells of the Peach, Lemon and Orange, so geometrically arranged, and in which the juice resides are a continuation of this texture. In the Musbroom, it constitutes most of the substances of the plant. In the branches of trees and even in the trunk, it is very thin, but it cannot be mistaken, as it is what gives the color to the part immediately under the outer Bark.
3. LIBER OR INNER BARK.-This was called Liber by the Antients, because they used it for writing before the invention of paper, Liber, meaning Book. It is in the inner Bark that the fluide circulate, in their course from the branches. In young shoots, the Inner Bark, is a single ring. The next year, a new circle grows, and pushes out one of last year, hence the thickness of the bark in old trees. New rings of bark sur cessively form and press out the old ones; the sap circulates less and less freely in them, antil finally
the texture of the vessels is broken up, and the bark falls off. The
The three textures above described are generally all pealed off together, and are, in the lump, vulgarly called the bark.
4. CAMBIUM.This name is given to that soft, gelatinous texture between the inner bark and wood. It is this which causes the bark to slip from the wood in the spring. Every boy, who has made whistles, is acquainted with this fact. From this juicy texture, (in which the sap is supposed to have undergone the process necessary to fit it for the nourishment of the tree) is annually deposited a circle of bark on one side, and a circle of wood on the other. Next to this is the wood.
5. Wood.-The wood consists of an assemblage of tubes and vessels running longitudinally, the insterstices being filled with cross cells. The wood in a tree of one year's growth is a single circle. Each year adds a new ring. In an old tree, the inner circles àre compressed by the yearly addition of a new one, so that the circulation ceases in them; these are called the heart wood.
The alburnum is a name given to the outer circle of wood; that formed by the last growth, and in which the ascending vessels, i. e. those from the roots to the branches, exist most perfectly and which being soft and spongy in consequence, is rejected by artificers in wood. It is vulgarly called sap wood : as a ring of wood is formed each year, the age of the tree inay be told by counting them, if the heart be not decayed. In most trees, particularly the Oak, there is a number of transverse plates forming beautiful silvery radiations from the centre to the circumference. They are commonly called silver lines. In the centre is 36. THE PITH.This is made up of Hexagonal cells, of a spongy texture, the use of which is not known: a tree' will grow if it be taken out.