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es within a certain distance of the consent. One day be assembled bis congregation under a tree, wherein a magpie had built her nest; into which he had previously found means to convey a small box filled with gunpowder, which he had well secured therein ; and out of the box hung a long thin match, that was to burn slowly, and was hidden among the leaves of the tree. As soon as the monk or his confederate, had touched the match with a lighted coal, he
began his sermon. In the meanwbile, the magpie returned to her | 13 nest; and, finding in it a strange body, which she could not re
move, she fell into a violent passion, and began to scratch with her feet, and shatter unmercifully. The friar affected to hear without emotion, and continued his sermon with great composure; only he would now and then lift up his eyes towards the top of the tree, as if he wanted to see what was the matter. At last, when he judged the fire was very near reaching the gunpowder, he pretended to be quite out of patience, he cursed the magpie, and wished St. Anthony's fire might consume her, and went on again with his ser
mon; but he had scarcely pronounced a few periods, when the 1 match, on a sudden, produced its effect, and blew up the magpie
with her nest; which miracle wonderfully raised the character of the friar, and proved, afterwards, very beneficial both to him and his convent.
Janssen of the honor of inventing it; the great Des Cartes attributing the invention to one Metins of Alcmaer.
None of the first telescopes, however, appear to have been properly framed for astronomical observations, until Galileo, astronomer to the Grand-duke of Tuscany, hearing of this discovery for bringing objects Dearer, made such great improvements therein as gained him in the opinion of many, the honor of the invention itself, by giving the telescope the appellation of Galileo's tube.
Sir Isaac Newton was the inventor of the reflecting telescope ; which is considered as much more exact and useful than the common or reflecting one.
. He completed two small ones in the year 1672.
The achromatic telescope, which destroys the colors and gives a more perfect image, was the invention of Mr. Peter Dollond.
PAPER. The materials on which mankind have contrived to write their sentiments in different ages and different countries, have been extremely various. The most ancient, perhaps, were stone and plates of metal. Tablets of wood, particularly of the cedar wood, were afterwards used; and these were again followed by tablets covered with wax, which were written on according to the fashion of the time, either with iron bodkins, the bones of birds, or reeds cut into the form of pens.
At length the papyrus of Egypt was invented, which not only gave a great facility to the art of writing, but was a portable material. It was formed of thin coats stripped from the reed which grows upon the banks of the Nile. The date of its discovery and the date of its disuse have been equally disputed. Nor is it yet completely ascertained whether its first application may be ascribed to an earlier or a later date than the conquest of Egypt by the Macedonians.
Parchment was the next invention ; originating in a country where no such material as the papyrus reed could be discovered; and it has been found at once so durable and useful that it is still employed upon important occasions in every European country.
The art of making paper, such as we now see it, was a late discovery; and its first material was cotton. The linen paper which is now in use, is supposed to have followed the discovery. They are both dated by the generality of writers at the eleventh
tee or twelfth century, though the honor of the discorery is claimed not only by different but distant nations.
The first book which was printed on paper, manufactured in Di England, came out without a date, about 1495 or 1496 ; though for toy a long while afterwards it was principally brought from abroad.
The first paper mill in England was established about 1590 at 191 Dartford in Kent, by one Spilman, who died in 1607.
WRITING PENS. In ancient times, when people wrote on tables covered with was, they were obliged to use a style, or bodkin; but, when they began to write with colored liquids, they employed a reed, and afterwards quills or feathers.
The most beautiful reeds grew formerly in Egypt, as well as in Armenia and Italy.
Sir John Chardio speaks of the reeds which grow in the marshes of Persia, which are sold and much sought after in the Levant, particularly for writing. They are transported, he says, throughout the whole East. Miller, in bis Gardener's Dictionary, says, the best writing reeds are procured from the southern provinces of Persia. They are still used by the Turks, Moors, and other East
ern people. These reeds are split, and formed to a point like our to quills; but it is not possible to make so clear or fine strokes with them, or to write so long or so conveniently.
The oldest certain account, however, known at present resa pecting writing quills, is a passage in an author (Isidore,) who died in the
year 636, and who, among the instruments employed for writing, mentions reeds and feathers.
Alcuinus, who lived in England in the eighth century, speaks of the pen ; so that it must have been used in this country almost
early as the art of writing was known.
Yet on this wave the mountain's brot
Once glowed in morning's beam;
Out sprang the crystal stream;
And the peach's luxury,
Perfumed the deep blue sky.
Where are thy bright and brave?
Look on that azure wave!
Long guilty, long forgiven;
And there it scoff'd at Heaven.
NOTES OF A VISIT IN CAXADA.
The ancient capital of Canada is seated on a promontory formed by the confluence of the beautiful Saint Charles with the majestic Saint Lawrence. Descending from Montreal on the broad expanse of the latter stream, the outlet of the noble lakes and the drain of the regions of the north, the course is in a direction varying from the eastern point by a few degrees of southern inclination. The traveller finds the banks of moderate elevation, and the country in tbe vicinity of the river, low, level, and fertile, spreading out in rich tracts of alluvial plain studded with brilliant white coto tages. On approaching Quebec, the river sinks down in the deep channel worn out by the ceaseless rushing of its waters over the rocks, and is bounded on both sides by steep and lofty banks. On the northeastern shore, extends a ridge of land terminating abruptly in a precipice elevated three hundred and forty five feet above the tide dashing on its base. Here are placed the ramparts and battlements of the grand military fortress of the new world, in the centre of a magnificent amphitheatre of hills. On the north is the estuary of the Saint Charles : southward and eastward, the precipi. tous banks terminating in the lofty and almost perpendicular rock of Cape Diamond, washed by the broad stream and the spacious basin of the Saint Lawrence. Thus fortified on three sides by nature, the city can be approached in one direction only by land; and there art has been exhausted in constructions for defence Westward are the heights of Abraham, overlooked by towers and paraa pets, curtains and bastions, loaded with all the implements ingenuity has contrived for the work of destruction, and prepared to impede the progress of an enemy.
That we may enable the reader, who has never been rolled in stages and tossed in steam boats so long and so far as to view the castellated heights of Quebec, to perceive the situation of that spot connected with the melancholy yet glorious remembrances of our history, to appreciate the natural strength of its position, and to understand the inaccessible and wild grandeur of its appearance, we must invite him to accompany us on a topographical excursion in its vicinity: we more willingly impose this tax on his patience now, because we wish, in some future chapter, to wander with him over the fields where the desolating tempest of war has broken;