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event took place, February 10th, 1676. The whole of that flourishing plantation, containing above fifty faunilies, was destroyed. Most of the houses were burnt. A quarter part of the men were. instantly killed or reseryed for torture. About twenty of the women and children were carried into captivity, among whom was. the wife of their minister, the Rev. Mr. Rowlandson, who upon her return, published a minute history of her “twenty removes." About six weeks after this desolation, the town was abandoned, and remained in that state for four years.
The death of Philip, in August of that year, put an end to hostil.. ities in this part of the country. He was killed by one of his own tribe to whom be had given some offence. His body which was identified by a remarkable scar upon the right hand, was treated with indignities, more worthy the malignant triumphs of barbari-. ans, than of conquerors who boasted civilization and christianity. This noted right hand which had achieved so many feats of valor, was shown about the country for money. The body was hung in quarters, and his head carried in triumph to Plymouth, where it was received on a Thanksgiving day.* His followers immediately shared his fate, or filed with precipitation from our borders, and were incorporated with the more distant tribes. Most of the Indians who had been converted to christianity took no part in this controversy and those who have since resided here, were all, probably, descendants from those faithful disciples. In reviewing this period, a thousand interesting reflexions crowd upon the mind. The brief limits set to this retrospect of our history forces us to reserve for a future opportunity many of the remarks fitted for this occasion. In trac ing the progress of society in New England, the present generation, while they find many causes for humiliation, must also find much for gratitude, and much to felicitate themselves upon their present situation. Great allowance must, undoubtedly, be made for the era rors of the age in which our fathers were placed, and much for the exasperated state of mind into which they were thrown by the cruel barbarities of the Savages. Out of their scattered population, six hundred at least fell victims in this war, and the same number of dwelling houses were burnt. The most impartial historian informs us that there was scarcely a person in the two colonies, but mourned the loss of a relation or near friend. Living as we do at this remote period with more exalted ideas of justice and the rights of men; with better notions of international law; and influenced as we
* Math. Mag. Il-499. + Hutchinson I-277.
ought to be, by more liberal sentiments of christianity, it is difficult for us to judge properly of the merits of this great controversy. In their early treaties with the Savages, our fathers undoubtedly obtained more than they intended, and the natives yielded much that they expected to retain. Neither party could foresee the consequences of two independent nations, with different laws, customs and religions, inhabiting the same territory. That our ancestors were scrupulously conscientious of right in their early contracts with the Indians, no facts from history will lead us to doubt. They proceeded upon erroneous principles, when they attempted to coerce them to allegiance to their King, or to enforce penal laws against them for the exercise of what they conceived to be the religion of their fathers.*
New provocations daily springing up, they were at last driven to all the horrors of a civil war. , It resulted in a war of mutual extermination. The superior prowess of civilized life prevailed over the rude violence of barbarian warfare, and the ancient inhabitants of New England were erased from the lists of nations.
After this war, it was long before our infant plantations again struggled into existence. In 1680, the re-settlement of Lancaster commenced. It advanced prosperously until the year 1689, when the great French Monarch, Louis XIV. espousing the cause of the renegade King, James II. of England, the Colonies were again involved in a most bloody contest, called King William's war. The French from Canada with their Indian allies, again carried all the atrocities of savage warfare into the frontier settlements. Many of the inbabitants were barbarously butchered in their houses or fields, and many endured the sufferings of captivity in the wilderness.Worcester was settled about the year 1685. The sufferings of the inhabitants were great, but not to the extent of their neighbors at Lancaster. Mendon was also re-settled about the same time, but the precautionary measures taken by the planters, prevented any enormities by the Savages. History, at least, is silent upon the subject. In 1692, Brookfield was so far re-built, as that a Committee of the General Court was appointed to manage the affairs as formerly. In the summer of that year it received several attacks from the Indians, and many lives were lost.f
In 1686, a number of families of French protestants or Hugo
* Colony Laws–61, Sect. 19, A. D. 1646. † Rev. Mr. Fiske's History of Brookfield, and Rev. Mr. Whitney. These venerable authors mistake, in placing this mischief in Queen Ann's war.
nots Aying from the sanguinary persecutions that followed the revocation of the edict of Nantz, planted themselves in Oxford in this County ; but in this war they were destroyed, or driven off by the natives. After the peace, many of them returned to their possessions, and their descendants have been found among the most respectable inhabitants of that town.
The peace of Ryswick, Dec. 10, 1697, put an end to hostilities between the parent countries, and the Indians,unsupported by their French allies, ceased any further depredations.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 136. Nothing now being necessary with regard to the rate of depreciation, but the approbation of the whole court, it was accordingly submitted to them on the 1st January, where it met with the most violent opposition; and after fully debating the matter previous to the final vote, they passed the following kesolve, viz:
In the House of Representatives, January 6, 1780. Whereas, it is just and reasonable, that all advances which have been made to that part of the army, raised in this State, in consequence of the high prices of the necessaries of life, should be taken into the account when their wages are made good, therefore, Resolved, That the committee who have been appointed to settle the accounts of the army, be, and they are hereby directed to reckon to the accounts of any of the non-commissioned officers or private soldiers, any bounties they already have or may receive, from any town or individual person in this State; provided proper return of the same is made, agreeable to the orders of this court; the resolve of November 25th, 1779, to the contrary notwithstanding. Sent up for concurrence.
JOHN HANCOCK, Speaker.
JOHN AVERY, D. Secretary.
JOHN AVERY, D. Secretary. This Resolve being agreed to by both Houses, the Court then approved of the rate of depreciation, and proceeded to enact the following Law,
State of Massachusetts Bay, in the year of our Lord, one Thousand
Seven Hundred and Eighty. An Act to provide for the security and payment of the balances that may appear to be due by virtue of a Resolution of the General Assembly, of the 6th of February, 1779, to this State's Quoia of the Continental Army, agreeable to the recommendation of Congress, and for supplying the Treasury with a sum of money for that purpose.
Whereas, it is necessary immediately to make provision, to enable the Treasurer of this State, to pay to this State's Quota of the Continental Army, the balance which may appear to be due to them on the first day of January in this present year.—Be it there. fore enacted by the Council and House of Representatives in General Court Assembled, and by the Authority of the same, that the Treasurer of this State, be, and he hereby is directed, on the credit thereof, to issue his notes, for the payment of the balances which shall appear, were on the said first day of January, due to each Officer and Soldier, belonging to this State's Quola of the Continental Arroy, (opon receiving a Warrant from the Council of this State for the same,) in the manner and form following, viz:
State of Massachusetts Bay the first day of January, A. D. 1780.
In behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay, I the subscriber, do hereby promise and oblige myself and successors in the office of Treasurer of said State, to pay unto
or to his order, the sum of
on or before the first day of March, in the year of our Lord one Thousand Seven Hundred and with interest at six per cent. per annum; both principal and interest to be paid in the then current money of said State in a greater or less sum, according as five bushels of Corn, sixty-eight pounds and four-sev. enth parts of a pound of Beef-ten pounds of Sheep's Woolmand sixteen pounds of Sole Leather, shall then cost more or less than one hundred and thirty pounds current money at the then current prices of said articles, this sum being thirty two times and an half what the same quantities of the same articles would cost at the prices affixed to them, in a law of this State, made in the year of our Lord, 1777, intitled “ an act to prevent monopoly and oppression,” the current prices of said articles, and the consequent value of every pound, of the sum herein promised, to be determined agreeable to a Law of this State Intitled, “An act 10 provide for the security and payment of the balances that may appear to be due by virtue of Resolution of the General Assembly of the sixth
of February, 1779, to this State's Quota of the Continental army, agreeable to the recommendation of Congress, and for supplying the Treasurer with a sum of money for that purpose.
Witness my hand,
H. G. Treasurer: } COMMITTEE. Which form shall be printed on good paper, to be procured by the Treasurer, with a suitable Border round the same, within which shall be inserted the Words, - State of Massachusetts Bay,' the word "Committee,' the words Witness my hand,'and the word 'Treasürer-struck off from a Copper plate, which the Treasurer is likewise directed to procure, and each Blank shall be stamped in some convenient part of it, with a stamp to be procured by the Treasurer for that purpose, and when said notes are issued, a counterpart indented of each pote, shall be kept by the Treasurer.
And be it further enacted, That Thomas Dawes and Richard Cranch, Esqrs. be a committee to sign Blank notes in the form prescribed, at the left hand, and to number them before they are filled np by the Treasurer.
And be it further enacted, That the Treasurer be, and he is hereby directed, to issue to each of said officers and soldiers, in favor of whom a warrant shall be drawn by the Council of this state, for their respective balances, four notes, (in form aforesaid,) of equal sums as near as may be, the whole containing the balance due to them respectively; one of which notes to be payable the first day of March, Anno Domini, one thousand seven hundred and eighty one, another payable the first day of March, 1782, the third payable the first day of March, 1783, and the fourth payable the first day of March, 1784, and the Council are hereby empowered and requested to issue their warrants in favor of any of the said officers and soldiers, upon its being certified to them by the Committee of this Court, appointed to settle with the army, what is the balance due to such officer and soldier; provided it shall appear by à return made by a General officer or Commanding officer of a Regiment, that any such General, Field, Staff, or Commissioned officer, belongs to this State's Quota of the Continental army, during such returns, specifying to what Company, Regiment or Corps they belong
And be it further enacted, That the Treasurer of this State be, and he is hereby directed and empowered to issue his notes, in the manner and form aforesaid, to each non-commissioned officer, and