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the bottom of this tower was placed a small corps-de-guard of twelve soldiers, who served to relieve the sentinels within. All along the stairs of the said tower, there were also posted seotinels at proper distances. In the first story was the room in which Damiens was confined. This room is round, and may be about twelve feet broad, every way; receiving no light but through two casements, or false windows, from eight to nine inches in breadth, by three feet in height. These openings are secured with double bars, and defended from the weather only by moveable frames with oil-paper. There was in this room neither chimney nor fire, but it was sufficiently warmed by a stove placed in the guard-room beneath it, and by the candles continually burnióg in the room. At first, they used tallow candles, but afterwards, by the advice of the physicians, for the preserving of the wholesomeness of the air, they burnt none but wax.

The bed of the prisoner was disposed as follows: the head of the bed fronted the door exactly, at the distance of three feet from the wall. The bed was placed on a bed-stead about six inches from the ground, and mattresses round, so as to project six inches beyond the bed-stead. The bed's head was in the whole breadth raised three feet above the bolster, and was likewise mattressed ; being so contrived with springs, to raise or lower, according as the convenience of the prisoner should require it. In this bed he was fastened by an assemblage of strong leather straps, two inches and a half broad. These straps kept his shoulders confined, and were, on each side of the bed, made fast to two rings stapled to the door. Two other straps formed a ligature for each of his arms, and were connected by another placed on the breast bone ; and these two branches formed a sort of band-cuff, that left the hand and arm no liberty, but as directed to the mouth. These straps were likewise tied at their ends, to two rings secured as the first. Two straps of the same form also confined his thighs, and were tied in like manner; so that from each side of the bed came three bunches of straps. Besides these, that which was placed on the breast, descending to the feet, formed a sort of surcingle, and was tied at the foot of the bed to a ring in the middle of the floor : the strap too over his shoulders, was fastened in like manner over the bed's head, to a ring stapled in the Aoor like the rest. Under the arms and hands of the prisoner was spread a large carpet of hide, that he might not contract any inflammatory heat, or excoriation.

Monday, March 28. At seven o'clock in the morning, the criminal was carried up to the torture room. From that moment he ceased to be under custody of the French guards, and according to custom, it was the Lieutenant of the Short-robe of the Chate. let wbo had charge of him.

The Recorder read the sentence to the criminal, who beard it through with attention and intrepidity, and, on raising himself, said, " that the day would be a sharp one."

A little before eight o'clock, six of the Commissaries being assembled in the torture room, the criminal was placed on the stool, and underwent his last interrogatory, which lasted near an hour and an half: Damiens all the time preserving his usual firmness. That over, the executioners of justice began to put the legs of the criminal into the boot, and the ropes were tightened with more vigor than had ever been practised; and perhaps this is the most exquisitely painful moment of the whole process of that torture. Damiens began to send forth the most piercing cries, and seemed even to faint away; but the physicians and surgeons, who are always present at the torture, on examination, knew that the swooning was not real. Damiens asked to drink; they gave him water, but he insisted on having some wine in it, “now or never strength is necessary." It was not till half an hour afterwards that the first wedge was applied. They had let this interval elapse, in order to have the numbness got over, which, commonly follows the violent compression of the ligature, and that the sensibility might be at its height; and indeed, at the application of the first wedge, Damiens made dreadful outcries, but without passion, or any indecent word. During the time, the First President renewed his interrogatories, and principally with respect to accomplices; and hav. ing asked who induced him to commit the crime, he cried out “It is Gautier.” (This was the first moment of his ever mentioning him.) Being asked who Gautier was, he told; as also where he lived; and charged him with having used very criminal expressions, in presence of Mons. le Maitre de Ferrieres, whose affairs this man managed, and lodged at his house. Upon this declaration, the Commissaries gave orders to the Lieutenant of the Short-robe to bring away directly before them, in that room, the said De Ferrieres and Gautier. Whilst they were gode for, the torture conLinued, with intervals of a quarter of an hour between the driving of each wedge, at every one of which Damiens renewed his shrieks and outcries. The most home and pressing interrogations

imaginable were all the while put to him; and after having remained two hours and a half under the torture, the physician and surgeon advised not to keep him longer in it, as it could not be done without danger of his life. Consequently he was untied and placed upon the mattress, where having heard the verbal process, and his answers, he persisted therein.

The Commissaries seeing there was nothing more to be expected from the criminal's declarations, ordered him to be led back to the Greve. He waited there some considerable time, because the executioner had not been careful enough to have every thing ready ; for which he was afterwards punished by commitment for several days to the dungeon.

When Damiens was stripped, it was observed, that he surveyed and considered all his body and limbs with attention, and that he looked round with firmness on the vast concourse of spectators.

Towards five o'clock, he was placed on the scaffold which had been erected in the middle of the inclosed area, and was raised about three feet and a half from the ground; the leogth from eight to nine feet, and about the same breadth. The criminal was instantly tied, and afterwards fastened by iron gives which confined him under the arms and above the thighs. The first torment he underwent, was that of having his hand burnt in the flame of brimstone: the pain of which made him send forth such a terrible cry as might be heard a great way off. A moment afterwards he raised his head, and looked for some time earnestly at his hand, without renewing his cries, and without expressiog any passion, or breaking out into any imprecation. To this first torment succeeded that of pinching him with red hot pinchers, in the arms, thighs and breasts. At each pinch he was heard to shriek in the same manner, as when his hand was burnt. He looked and gazed at each wound, and his cries ceased as soon as the pinching was over. They afterwards poured boiling oil, and melted lead and rosin, into every wound, excepting those of the breast, which produced, in all those circumstances, the same effect as the two first tortures. The tenor of his articulated exclamations, at times, was as follows: “Strengthen me, Lord God; strengthen me !-Lord God, have pity on me!-O Lord, my God, what do I not suffer !Lord God, give me patience !"

At length they proceeded to the ligatures of his arms, legs and thighs, in order to dismember him. This operation was very long and painful, the cords, straightly tied, bearing grievously upon the

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fresh wounds. This drew new cries from the sufferer; but did not binder him from viewing and considering himself with a strange and singular curiosity.

The horses having been put to the draught, the pulls were re. peated a long time, with frightful cries on the part of the sufferer: the extension of whose members was incredible, and yet no signs of dismemberment taking place.

In spite of the straining efforts of the horses, which were young and vigorous, and, perhaps, too much so, being the more restive and unmanageable for drawing in concert, this last torment had now lasted more than an hour, without any prospect of its ending. The physician and surgeon certified to the commissaries, that it was almost impossible to accomplish the dismemberment, if the action of the horses was not aided by cutting the principal sinews, which might, indeed, suffer a length of extension, but not be separated without amputation. Upon this attestation the commissaries sent an order to the executioner, to make such amputation, with regard especially to the night coming on, as it seemed to them fitting that the execution should be over before the close of the day.

In consequence of this order, the sinews of the sufferer were cut at the joints of the arms and thighs. The horses then drew afresh, and after several pulls, a thigh and arm were seen to sunder from the body. Damiens still looked at this painful separation, and seemed to preserve some sense and kuowledge after both thighs, and one arm were thus severed from his body; nor was it till the other arm went away that he expired.

As soon as it was certain, that there was no life, the body and scattered limbs were thrown into a fire prepared for that purpose near the scaffold, where they were all reduced to ashes.



So passed the night of the 30th, a night of deep anxiety to many, and of high excitement to all; and many a will was made, as soldiers make their wills before morning. About an hour before day, the troops were as usual, under arms—and then the final orders were given for the assault. The division was to enter the trenches about ten o'clock, in what is called light marching order; that is, leaving their knapsacks, blankets, &c. behind, and carrying with them only their arms and ammunition ; and their forlorn hope was to prepare to move forward, as soon as the tide should appear

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sufficiently low to permit their crossing the river. This post was assigned to certain detachments of volunteers, who had come down from the various divisions of the army, for the purpose of assisting in the assault of the place. These were to be followed by the 1st, or royal regiment of foot; that by the 4th; that by the 9th, and it again by the 47th ; while several corps of Portuguese were to remain behind as a reserve, and to act as circumstances should require, for the support or cover of the assailing brigades. Such were the orders issued at day break on the 30th of August, and these orders, all who heard them, cheerfully prepared to obey.

It is a curious fact, but it is a fact, that the morning of the 31st, rose darkly and gloomily, as if the elements themselves had been aware of the approaching conflict, and were determined to add to its awfulness by their disorder. A close and oppressive heat pervaded the atmosphere, while lowering and sulphurous clouds corered the face of the sky, and hindered the sun from darting upon us one intervening ray, from morning till night. A sort of preternatural stillness too, was in the air; the birds were silent in the groves, the very dogs and horses in the camp, and cattle besides, gazed in apparent alarm about them. As the day passed on, and the hour of attack drew near, the clouds gradually collected into one black mass, directly over the devoted city; and almost at the instant when our troops began to march into the trenches, the storm burst forth. Still, it was comparatively mild in its effects. An occasional flash of lightning, succeeded by a burst of thunder, was all of it which we felt, though it was enough to divert our attention.

The forlorn hope took its station at the mouth of the most advanced trench, about half past ten o'clock. The tide which had long turned, was now fast ebbing, and these gallant fellows beheld its departure with a degree of feverish anxiety, such as he only can imagine who has stood in a similar situation. This was the first time that a town was stormed by day light since the commencement of the war, and the storming party were enabled distinctly to perceive the preparations which were making for their reception. There was, therefore, something, not only interesting but novel, in beholding the muzzles of the enemy's cannon, from the castle and other batteries, turned in such a direction as to flank the breaches; whilst the glancing of bayonets, and the occasional rise of caps and feathers, gave notice of the line of infantry which was forming underneath the parapet. There an officer could, from time to time

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