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of the picture. Yet it deserves a closer examination. To begin with the central figure, that of the King. He has already received all the royal ornaments. The colobium sindonis may be very plainly made out; it is the undermost of all the vestments, touching the feet, and its sleeves reach to the wrists; in this point being unlike the modern colobium sindonis which has no sleeves. The sandals which appear below the colobium sindonis are yellow, and are most likely the ceremonial shoes put on with the tunicle. Upon the colobium sindonis is a red tunicle, which does not reach so low as the colobium sindonis, but the sleeves are tight and have a row of buttons along the forearm : they come to within a few inches of the wrists. Over this tunicle there is another tunicle, or dalmatic, rayed yellow and pale blue, the lower border of which can be plainly seen between the knees, where the upper furred pallium leaves a vacant space. This tunicle is girded, but it does not seem to be adorned magnis imaginibus aureis ante et retro,' as the rubric of Liber regalis requires ; nor can any appearance of the armilla be detected, and the left elbow of the King, to which the armilla should be attached as also to the right, can be seen disengaged. The outermost vestment of all is the pallium quadrum of the rubric, quattuor initiis formatum,which on the inside is furred with vair; on the outside it is of a very pale brown, but it has no embroidery; not, as it should be, aquilis aureis per totum contextum. It is fastened in front of the chest by a sexfoil golden brooch, behind which passes from the neck to the girdle of the tunicle a red band, the nature of which seems to me uncertain. The disposition of the pallium may be imitated by a rectangular sheet of linen, if the two upper corners of the sheet be fastened together in front of a man's breast, and the lower corners arranged after the manner of the plate, over his knees as he sits.
There is nothing to show that the King's hands are covered with gloves ; such would be shown by embroidery on their backs, or tassels hanging from the wrists. Of the gloves in the hand of the courtier on the King's right mention will be made presently. There is no ring on the fourth finger of the King's right hand, nor elsewhere on his hands: there is no indication of a coif on the King's head to protect the holy cream from irreverence, as Liber regalis directs.3
The crown on the King's head is a golden circlet on which are visible three Aeurons, so that a fourth may be inferred to exist on the semicircle turned away from the observer. It has no arches; but it is decorated with jewels on the circlet and between and on the fleurons.
In the King's right hand is a long golden rod surmounted by a finial of leaves, but there is no trace of a dove. In the left hand he holds a large orb red in colour with a long white cross attached to it.
The King sits on a throne which must be intended to be a representation of King Edward's chair now preserved in Westminster Abbey church, opposite the shrine of St. Edward. If the picture be compared with the throne there can hardly be a doubt that the painter had seen
1 Missale . . . Westm. ii. 699.
the throne and intended to represent it. In the picture the finials and crockets are of gold ; the back and arms are green ; there is a diapered cloth of gold on the seat similar to that on which the chair stands; this cloth again rests on a cloth pink with double red lines.
Behind the King's chair on his right stands a figure in a golden mitre and blue chasuble dotted with violet, red, and yellow, spots. The amice with a red apparel is plainly visible. The face of the figure is bearded, and the grey hair is long. With the left hand he holds one of the fleurons of the King's crown: with the right he opens the lid of a golden vessel held by a figure below. There is no orphrey on the chasuble ;' nor is a pall to be seen : but behind this figure is another likewise in golden mitre, amice with a green apparel, and scarlet chasuble. This figure holds a golden cross with a green staff. I do not suppose there will be much difference of opinion about these two figures : the one holding the King's crown is the Archbishop of Canterbury; that behind him the Bishop of Rochester, who was crossbearer to the metropolitical see.
On the King's left hand behind the chair is a figure in golden mitre, ? a pale violet cope spotted with red, and a girded alb and amice, with pale green apparels; the cope is lined with blue and fastened with a seven-leaved golden brooch. The face is bearded and the hair long, and blue in colour. With his right hand he likewise holds a fleuron of the crown; with his left hand he holds a golden cross, the staff of which is green. The cross is a sign of archiepiscopal dignity; and the figure is thus most likely intended for the Archbishop of York.
Behind the Archbishop of York but close to the throne, is a figure with a golden mitre and a scarlet vestment and amice with a green apparel; the face is close shaven, though the hair is long and yellow, unlike the monk seen on a level with him behind the Archbishop of York. This mitred figure may very likely be the Abbot of Westminster, qui semper lateri regis adhaerendo praesens debet esse.3 The monk behind the Archbishop of York may be the sacrist of Westminster.
Below the throne and beside it are numerous figures. On the right of the King is a figure in a mitre and chasuble, and an alb and amice with scarlet apparels. The face is bearded, and the hair long. The chasuble is rayed pink and yellow, showing double-headed eagles within roundels; it is lined with green. The buskins are black. There is no appearance of dalmatic or tunicle, stole or fanon. With the left hand a golden vessel, with stem, foot, and lid, is being lifted up, which lid the Archbishop of Canterbury is raising with his right hand. The inside is represented of the same golden colour as the outside and nothing can be detected within.
1 It may be noted that none of the chasubles represented in the picture have orphreys. This is exceedingly common in the mediæval representation of chasubles. Nor has the Archbishop of Canterbury the pall over the chasuble, though in the beautiful volume of the Coronation of Charles V. of France, lately edited for the Society by Mr. Dewick, the Archbishop of Rheims wears the pall in nearly every miniature. In 1238 the Archbishop of Canterbury obtained the papal permission to wear his pallium outside his diocese not only at the consecration of bishops and churches but at other solemn functions. (Calendar of entries in the papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. Bliss, Stationery Office, 1893. Vol. i. pp. 174. & 212.)
. All the mitres in the picture are represented as golden in colour. 3 Missale ... Westm. ii. 683.
On the left hand of the King is a figure similar in many respects to that on the right. He holds up a golden vessel with a lid, opening, but which none of the bystanders is touching; and of the rayed chasuble, the same in colour as his fellow's but without eagles, it may be said that the draughtsman seems to have begun to draw a chasuble, but changed it while working into a cope with a sex-foiled golden brooch. It is lined with blue; the apparel to the amice is golden while the apparels to the alb are green and yellow. On the middle finger of the right hand there is a ring yellow in colour. The buskins are black in both these mitred figures, and they have brown hair. Both the golden vessels have round knobs on their lids.
To return to the right side of the King. By the side of the mitred figure is a layman, the face bearded and the hair long, the head uncovered; he is clothed in a long red gown lined with fur over a green coat: from the hood hang two tabs : he has yellow hosen and red boots ; hair and beard blue in colour. In his right hand he holds a pair of white gloves. He would seem to be the forerunner in office of the Lord of the Manor of Worksop, who presents gloves to the King on the day of his coronation, and supports the right arm of the King while holding the sceptre royal.
On the left, corresponding to the figure just described, is another which from the white coif worn on his head may be thought to be a judge or serjeant, or some other dignitary of the law. He also has a red gown over a blue coat, and blue beard and hair. Just above him may be seen a head, apparently that of a layman; while considerably above this last is a figure with long blue hair and beard, wearing a furred red gown with sleeves over a green coat, and holding in his hand a round piece of gold. In after times this mark of gold was delivered to the King by the Great Chamberlain. Corresponding to this figure on the right side of the King is another dignitary of the law, if we may judge by the coif, long blue-grey gown, and furred blue hood which he wears.
Other heads are scattered about the picture mainly it would seem to fill up the vacant space. And on the background of the picture is a diaper of squares, divided into two by the top finial of the King's chair. On the right side of the King the diaper is pink; the left blue. In these the artist has amused himself by drawing what look like human faces, to represent, it may be thought, the maxima plebis confluentia or the turba confluens, looking through the cancelli ; against which crowding Liber regalis says special precautions are to be taken.”
If this picture represent the coronation of any particular King
1 Mr. W. H. St. John Hope tells me that similar tabs may be seen on monumental effigies at Wadworth near Doncaster and Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire,
2 Missale ... Westm. ii. 682. 707.
Edward, it would seem to represent that of Edward II. rather than that of Edward III. as the King is bearded. Edward III. was only fourteen at the time of his coronation, while Edward II. was twenty-three. It would seem, however, more likely that it is the coronation, not any particular coronation, that is intended.
It will not be doubted that the picture represents the English coronation. But it may be disputed whether it represent a particular moment in the ceremony, or whether it be merely a sort of general view in which more than one ceremony is combined. If the former view be adopted, it will be at once allowed that the time is after the act of coronation, and that it does not represent the setting of the crown on the King's head by the two archbishops. For in Liber regalis the crown was delivered before the sceptre and verge ; and the King in the picture has both these ornaments already in his hands. Therefore the moment depicted must be after the placing of the crown on the King's head. Liber regalis directs that the crown shall be supported by those of royal blood after the homage ;' and though it is not members of the royal family who support the crown, but the two archbishops, it is reasonable to suppose that the picture represents the action spoken of in Liber regalis : which takes place after the actual coronation, the aim being to lighten the weight of the crown during the remainder of the service.
What then is being done?
My son has elaborated a theory that it is the offertory which is being represented. The two lower mitred figures are the chancellor and treasurer, who carry respectively the stone chalice of St. Edward and the paten, as Liber regalis directs : or they are the bishops who act as gospeller and epistoler. They are about to present these vessels to the King in order that he may offer them at the altar in accordance with the rubrice ; the King is about to rise, and give the orb and the staff to the figures with the coif on the one side and with the white gloves on the other. Above the figure with the coif is the officer who presents the King with the mark of gold which is offered at the altar after the bread and wine.
The weak point in this theory is that it does not explain the attitude of the two archbishops at the side of the King holding his crown. At the moment of the offertory it may be supposed that the Archbishop of Canterbury would be at the altar, not supporting the King's crown. And the listing up of the lid of the chalice, or whatever the vessel may be, is not explained, unless it be said that its contents are being exhibited to the King, like the contents of the other vessel called a paten, but which more resembles a pyx for obleys than a paten. It must be owned that these vessels have hitherto been a great puzzle. At one time I had fancied that they were for the cream and holy oil ; but the moment for anointing has been long past when the King has received the crown and sceptres, not to speak of the robes of St. Edward. In
1 Missale ... Westm. ii. 708. · ? Missale ... Westm. ii. 679.
3 Device for the Coronation of King Henry VII. Rutland Papers, Camden Society, 1842. p. 21.
4 op. cit. ii. 716.
support of the view that one of the vessels, at least, is a chrismatory, our Treasurer, Mr. Dewick, points out to me a vessel, very like that on the left hand of the King, on fo. 12 of Egerton MS. 1067 in the British Museum, which the clerk holds by the side of a bishop administering confirmation, and which is therefore very likely indeed to be a chrismatory. There is also another example of a flattened vessel of the same kind in use at the coronation of St. Louis, from which it would seem unction is being administered.?
On the other hand, Mr. Dewick thinks that we have no particular moment represented ; but the King is shown with the great officers about him who take part in the ceremonial; that it depicts a sort of Glory of Regality, the King crowned and vested, with all the courtiers around him that serve in the coronation, with the symbols of their respective duties. Still, the picture shows none of the three swords, which go back to the coronation of Richard I.
During Mr. E. J. L. Scott's researches in the Muniment Room of Westminster Abbey, he discovered a large fragment of an AngloFrench version of the Liber regalis, which he edited at the expense of Dr. Bradley, the present Dean of Westminster, who, with great courtesy, has given me some copies of this print. I have collated Mr. Scott's work with the text in this volume and given the variants under the symbol W.
There is a document akin to this version which I have printed as Appendix XI. Certain points in the ceremonial of the mediaeval coronation have light thrown upon them by this short paper.
A version into French of the order for the coronation of Charles V. of France was made by a Carmelite friar in 1372, and explanations given of the ceremonies after the manner of Durandus. It has been edited by Charles Barthélemy.3
Thirty two miniatures from a Book of Hours of Joan II. Queen of Navarre, Roxburghe Club, 1899, plate xxiii.
2 See below, p. 116.
3 See his translation of Durandus, Rational ou Manuel des Divins Offices, Paris, 1854. t. i. p. 377. There is no need to remind members of the Henry Bradshaw Society of the sumptuous edition put forth by Mr. Dewick in 1899 of the coronation order of this same prince.