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found in Mr. Maskell's work ;' and a part of it has also appeared in Mr. Warren's edition of the Leofric Missal. Thus a new edition of this order was plainly unnecessary.

The second Latin recension is that called without much authority the coronation order of Æthelred II. It is easily accessible in the editions of Selden, and Mr. Arthur Taylor, somewhat imperfect, and of Dr. Henderson. A variety of this recension contained in MS. 44 at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with notes of the variations from other manuscripts, is now printed in this volume. The very considerable differences in the text of the prayers, and the additions to the order, made it worth while to edit this variety, which, to my knowledge, had hitherto not been brought out.

The third Latin recension is that attributed to Henry I. on grounds as slight as those on which the second recension has been attributed to Æthelred II. It has been edited by Dr. Henderson in the York pontifical brought out by him, and is thus easily accessible. It is closely allied to the fourth recension, of which it may be considered a forerunner. Another edition thus seemed unnecessary.

The fourth Latin recension is contained in the book known as Liber Regalis, of which there are several copies in manuscript, but the most important is that in the custody of the Dean of Westminster. The copies of Liber regalis differ in the rubrics ; there are three recensions of the rubrics. A short recension, , possibly earlier than the others, is printed in the notes to the edition of Liber regalis, distributed to members in 1893 as part of the second fasciculus of the Westminster Missal, the text of


1 W. Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae, Oxford, 1882. Vol. ii. p. 77. 2 F. E. Warren, Leofric Missal, Oxford, 1883. p. 230.

John Selden, Titles of Honor, Part I. ch. viii. in the third volume of Works, London, 1726.

4 Arthur Taylor, Glory of Regality, London, 1820. App. to Book iv. No. 2. p. 395.

5 Liber pontificalis Chr. Bainbridge Archiep. Ebor. edited by Dr. W. G. Henderson, Surtees Society, 1875. p. 270. See p. 267 for a classification of the orders.

6 W. G. Henderson, op. cit. p. 214.

which contains the rubrics in their longer recension. Both the longer and shorter recension of rubrics were thus placed before members; but a third recension of the rubrics, which I have hitherto found only in one manuscript, that in the Cambridge University Library (Mm. 3. 21. fo. 196.) which Mr. Henry Bradshaw considered to be a Lincoln Pontifical, had been edited by Mr. W. Maskell in his Monumenta Ritualia, and was thus probably already known to many of our members, so that further printing of it might be considered superfluous.

The present volume contains an edition of an Anglo-French version of Liber Regalis in its shorter recension. Of this text a fragment, discovered at Westminster, was printed a few years ago, and I do not know of any other edition or manuscript.

With the last Latin recension we pass into the first of the English, Liber regalis having been translated into English for the coronation of James I. This, the first of the English or post-Reformation recensions, was used at the coronation of James I., Charles I., and Charles II. It was almost unknown to students until the order of Charles I. edited from unpublished manuscripts by Mr. Christopher Wordsworth, and distributed to members of the Society for the year 1892.

The second English recension is represented by a single order, that of James II., sumptuously edited by Sandford, and thus easily accessible. A blemish in this edition is that only the


1 There is the order of James I. printed by Prynne in a confused manner. (Signal Loyalty, &c., London, 1660. Part ii. p. 263.)

2 Francis Sandford, History of the Coronation of .. King James II. in the Savoy, 1687. It is almost a matter for regret that Sandford should have edited the coronation of James II. with such magnificence. It has caused the coronation of James II. to be taken as the type of English coronations, whereas it really stands by itself, unlike what went before it and unlike what came after it. Mr. Arthur Taylor's book on Coronations (Glory of Regality, London, 1820.) is still the best that we have, and still looked upon by some of our first historical scholars as authoritative ; but it is doubtless owing to the influence of Sandford that on p. 189. Taylor tells us that Te invocamus still follows Veni Creator, and that the oil is still blessed by a preface beginning Sursum corda. At Hanover at the time of the coronation of George II. a tract, which is a version into German almost word for word of Sandford, appeared with this title : Vollständige Beschreibung der Ceremonien, welche sowohl bey den Englischen Crönungen überhaupt vorgehen, besonders aber bey aem Höchst-beglückten

first words of the liturgical forms are given, a defect which I have tried to remedy in this volume by giving the liturgical forms of James II. in full in the notes to the coronation order of William and Mary.

The third English recension is that now in use, and it was prepared for the coronation of William and Mary. With some few verbal alterations which have not, however, affected the structure of the service, it has been used at the coronation of all English sovereigns from William and Mary to Victoria inclusive. An edition of the order of William and Mary, which does not seem to have been printed before, is contained in this volume.

Thus with Mr. Christopher Wordsworth's edition of the Order for the Coronation of King Charles I. and with the edition of Liber Regalis in the Westminster Missal, together with the appearance of the present volume, there have been filled up a good many of the gaps that existed at the time of the foundation of the Society in our knowledge of the coronation orders. If any pledge were then given to complete the series of coronation orders, it may be hoped that that pledge has now been very nearly fulfilled.

In the following pages an obelus has been placed after words to which it is desired to call attention as reproducing the exact spelling or expression of the manuscript.

For facilities in the work of editing the Three Coronation Orders which form this volume, I have to thank Mr. Everard Green, Rougedragon, Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries; and Mr. C. W. Moule, Fellow and Librarian of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Both of these gentlemen have

Crönungs-Fest Ihro Königl. Königl. Maj. Maj. Georgië des II. u. s. w. Hanover, Förster, 1728. The engravings of Sandsord have been slavishly reproduced at almost every coronation, even when, as at the last coronation, there was no procession from Westminster Hall to the Abbey Church.

shown extraordinary patience in enduring frequent visits from me, not only for the purposes of transcription, but also of correcting proofs and of amending faults afterwards discovered in the proofs.

I have also received great kindness at the hands of Mr. Francis B. Bickley, of the British Museum, and Mr. Hubert Hall, F.S.A., of the Record Office. Mr. Thomas Preston, F.S.A., has allowed me to transcribe that part of the Privy Council Register which relates to the Coronation of William and Mary, and he has given me every opportunity for this work and all the assistance in his power.

I have also to thank the Lord Chamberlain for permission to transcribe and print several of the appendices to this volume, which have been taken from the accounts of his office now preserved in the Public Record Office in Chancery Lane.

Dom Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., was good enough to use his influence at Douai to procure for ine the transcription of a coronation order in an English pontifical, preserved in the public library of that town. To Mr. Alfred Rogers I am indebted for the transcription of the two manuscripts now edited which are in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. To the Master and Fellows of this Society I am very grateful for the permission so readily given for the editing of the manuscripts in their possession.


December, 1900.

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