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minster and the Bishops assists (viz') the Preacher and those two who read the Litanie, and those two that read the Epistle & Gospel) have communicated in both kinds, the Archbishop Administreth the Bread and the Dean of Westminster the Cup, to the King, the Bishops Assistants holding a Towel of white silk or fine linnen before the King while he receives.
The first part of this rubric remains with a few verbal alterations until Victoria ; but in Geo. II. III. and IV. the part about the towel is put off until after the words of administration, and in Geo. IV. it is only a bishop in the singular who holds a towel ; while in Wm. IV. and Victoria the direction for the towel disappears altogether. (See above, p. 132.)
In Victoria there is a slight change at the end ; after communicated in both kinds is the Queen advances to the Altar and kneels down, and the Archbishop shall administer the Bread and the Dean of Westminster the Cup, to Her. This direction to advance to the altar is a return to a direction in Liber regalis.
In Car. İí. the directions are :
“ Then the Bishop proceeded to the Consecration of the Sacrament, who Comunicated first, then the Deane of Westmer & after the Bishops of Durham & Bath.
“Then the Bp. administered the Bread to the King, And the Deane of Westmer the Cup.
“The Bishops of Carlisle & Hereford held the Towell before him whilst hee received.
“After a little pause the King arose, putt on his Crowne, & tooke the Scepters in his hands and (attended as before) went to his Throne."
In Car. I. as far as the additions made to the original manuscript allow us. to judge, the direction seems to be :
And when he and his Assistants haue communicated (the King still kneeling before the Altar) He administreth the Body & y Deane of Westminster ye Cup to ye Ring.
An addition has been made : Two Bishops then present are to hold before the King a towell of white silke.
At James I.'s coronation (T. Milles, Catalogue of Honor, London, W. Laggard, 1610, p. 60.) there is :
"After the Archbi. hath communicated himselfe, and those which assisted him, the King and Queene come to the steps of the Altar, there to receiue the holy Sacrament.
“The Archb. ministreth the body, the Abbot + the Cup." Neither in Jac. I. nor in Liber Regalis is the houseling cloth spoken of.
In Wm. IV.*:“When the Archbishop and the Dean have communicated, Their Majesties will approach the Altar, and receive the Sacrament."
The Arch B'. goes on From Geo. II. to Geo. IV. this rubric is preceded by the direction concerning the houseling cloth. While the King and Queen receive, the Bishops appointed for that Service, shall hold Towels of white Silk, or fine Linen, before Them. In Victoria it is preceded by this rubric: The Queen then puts on Her Crown, and taking the Sceptres in Her Hands again, repairs to Her Throne.
The Quire sing Glory! Thus in Anne and Geo. I. In Geo. II. and III. Then shall be sung Glory. In Geo. IV. Wm. IV. and Victoria Then shall be said Glory.
After Gloria in excelsis in Victoria is : “The Choir sing the following Anthem.
“ANTHEM. Hallelujah : for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth” &c. followed by this rubric:
After the anthem the Archbishop reads the final Prayers.
to Wm. IV. but in Victoria the rubric given immediately above takes its place.
Cap. 19. The Final Prayers. These remain, with the necessary changes, the same in all succeeding orders including that of Victoria.
There is no appearance of these final prayers in Jac. I. Car. I. and II. nor in Liber regalis. They appear for the first time in Jac. II. as a sort of substitute for the Communion service ; and they follow immediately upon the coronation of the Queen. This rubric precedes them :
“After the Anthem, there being no Communion) the KING and QUEEN descended, and kneeled at Their Faldestools upon the Theatre, at the Foot of Their Thrones, whilst the Archbishop said the Final Prayers.”
The final prayers in Jac. II.* are first : “Assist us mercifully O Lord” &c., as in the Book of Common Prayer.
“O Lord, Our God, who upholdest, & governest all things in Heaven & earth ; Receive our humble Praiers, with Our Thanksgivings, for Our Soveraign Lord JAMES (interlined over James in ordinary letters set over us by thy Grace, and Providence to be Our King : And so together with him, bless his Royall Consort, Our gracious Queen MARY Catherine the Queen Dowager, Their Royall Highnesses Mary ye [interlined Princess of Orange [in margin) and the Princess Anne of Denmark, and the whole Royal Family, with ye dew of thy Heavenly Spirit ; that they ever trusting in thy goodness, protected by thy Power, and Crowned with thy gracious, & Endless Favour; may continue before thee in Health Peace, Joy, & Honour a long, & happy Life upon Earth : & after Death obtain Everlasting Life, & glory in the Kingdom of Heaven, by the merits, & mediation of Christ Jesu Our Saviour ; who with the Father, & the holy Spirit, liveth, & Reigneth ever one God. World without end Amen."
Thirdly: “And grant () Lord we beseech thee that the course of this world ” &c., as in the Prayer Book.
Fourthly : '“The peace of God” &c., as in the final blessing in the communion service.
Cap. 20, The Recess. This chapter remains much the same in Anne and Geo. I. saving the necessary verbal alterations ; but in Geo. II. though the directions remain essentially the same, yet the wording is a good deal altered, besides the changes brought about by the part taken bya Queen Consort in the ceremonial. Geo. III. and IV. are very much the same as Geo. II. excepting in Geo. IV. the parts which deal with the presence of a Queen Consort. In Wm. IV. the first paragraph is the same as in Geo. II. but in the second paragraph there is no mention of the King taking off his crown: but there is added : And the Gold Spurs and St. Edwards Staff are given into the hands of the Dean of Westminster, and by him laid there also.
In the second paragraph the “royal and imperial crowns" are said to be taken off, and laid on the altar in St. Edward's chapel. This error continues in Anne and Geo. I. and the mistake is only remedied in Geo. II. It is of course St. Edward's crown with which the king is crowned after the anointing, and the imperial crown is given to him during the recess. The same inattention may be noticed in the warrant for the regalia. (See Appendix V. p. 77.) The heralds, however (Appendix VIII. p. 107.) say correctly that the imperial crowns were delivered at the recess.
The third and fourth paragraphs in Wm. IV. are as follows:
The Archbishop, being still vested in his Cope, will then place the Orb in His Majesty's Left Hand. Which being done, the Archbishop and Bishops will divest themselves of their Copes, and leave them there, proceeding in their usual Habits.
Then Their Majesties will proceed through the Choir to the West Door of the Abbey, in the same manner as They came, wearing Their Crowns. The King bearing in His Right Hand the Sceptre with the Cross, and in His Left the Orb; the Queen bearing in Her Right Hand Her Sceptre with the Cross, and in Her Left the Ivory Rod with the Dove; all Peers wearing their Coronets, and the Archbishops and Bishops their Caps.
In Victoria, the paragraphs are much the same as in Win. IV. omitting whatever refers to the Queen Consort. At the end of the first paragraph there is the Organ and other Instruments all the while playing instead of the Organs. The directions as to the Gold Spurs and King Edward's Staff come in the third paragraph immediately before Which being done.
The original of the rubrics of this chapter in W. and M. may be found in Jac. II. Jac. II. again is an expansion of the directions in Car. II. and I. and Liber regalis.
NOTES ON THE ANGLO-FRENCH VERSION.
The two first paragraphs of this page are a summary of the longer recension of the rubrics in Liber regalis (Missale ... Westm. ii. 677-681).
line 2. qatre. The four great nobles are spoken of in Appendix XI. p. 121. They are to support the king the whole day.
line 19. suth orretz is in the Latin deauratis : Appendix XI. has sus orrez.
C'est la manere. Here begins the version of the shorter recension of the rubrics of Liber regalis.
line 1. chaucee sancz plus de chauces. Here again appears the direction that in going from Westminster Hall to the church the King is to wear only stockings, not shoes. In an English Forma et modus (British Museum, Tib. E. viii. fo. 32) it is expressly said "without Shoone.” So also another MS. in the British Museum (Harl. 2115, fo. 124b, formerly 1526), describing the coronation of Richard III. in 1483, it is said of the procession, “the kinge and queene going upon red clothe barefote.”
line 9. Here Edward is given as the name of the prince to be crowned, and the same name occurs in several other places below (p. 42, lines 9 and 42, p. 44, line 19, p. 45, line 6, and elsewhere). The manuscript was certainly written at the time when an Edward was reigning ; but it may be considered as a mere symbol, to indicate any English King, much as Louis is used of any French King.
E puis serra chante. Here Appendix XI. gives more light than the Latin or French. The seven penitential psalıns are to be said par bas voice, while the litany is sung by two bishops or chanters; which may correspond to the Latin infra litaniam.
line 7. coueit dun drap dor. The Latin does not speak of a cloth of gold, merely pallio super eum interim extenso. The parliament robes being taken off the king, he had only his linen and silken shirts, his crimson coat, his breeches and stockings left upon him : and the shirt was torn by the archbishop down to the girdle, as directed on line 10, so that some covering became needful. This developed afterwards into the pall of cloth of gold held by four knights of the garter over the King during his anointing.
line 19. a Iosue is probably a mistranslation of laeti. line 6 from bottom : engleis is in the Latin ecclesiarum.
Maintenant le pis. Pis is no doubt the breast; in the Latin it is Postea vero pectus. But it may be that the word pis has been mistaken to mean feet, and thus a sort of opinion that the feet of the King of England were anointed in his coronation, has come into existence. A late Elizabethan manuscript in the British Museum (Harl. 3504, fo. 234) says plainly that Edward VI. was “anoynted on the breast, on the soles of his feete, his elbowes, his wrest of his handes, and his crowne of his heade.” There is, indeed, another instance of the practice of anointing the feet of a King at his coronation, which has been pointed out to me by Mr. Dewick. It is contained in the pontifical of Peter de Tregny, bishop of Senlis from 1351 to 1356, printed by Martene in De antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus, Lib. ii. cap. x. Ordo ix. (Antuerp. 1736. t. i. col. 637). Deinde inunguantur pedes, Eo scapulae ambaeque compages brachiorum, &C. There may be here the same confusion between pectus and pedes which has been hinted at above. For if we omit the head, which is anointed first in the French coronation, the order of places to be anointed is the same as that of the French King (see Martene, loc. cit. Ordo vi. Col. 613) if we suppose pedes to be a mistake for pectus.
line 8. In this collect we may notice that in the French there is no equivalent of Spiritus paracleti.
line 5 from bottom, note 20. Tir may be here atire, attire, equipment. (Henry Bradley, Stratmann's Middle English Dictionary, Oxford, 1891, p. 610.)
line 7. There is nothing in the French equivalent to Ecclesiarum in the Latin.
line 6 from bottom : huretz has operationes as its equivalent in the Latin. p. 47.
line 13. There is nothing in the French version equivalent to the prayer Deus cuius est omnis.
line 3. Heus is derived from ostium which is the word in Liber regalis. Eops is apparently a substitution by a would-be clever scribe for what is very probably uis in the original ; which he confused with ues, the equivalent of opus.
line 9. ualeys is a translation of the collibus of Liber regalis. This is repeated in line 19, where the aeternorum collium of Liber regalis is translated by pardurables ualeies.
line 3 from bottom. The French text omits anything equivalent to tingat in oleo pedem suum; cornua rhinocerotis cornua illius, &c., of Liber regalis.