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continued in this place until Geo. III. But in Geo. IV. its origin seems to have been forgotten, and it does not appear in any following order.
Behold O God (Protector noster aspice) is the anthem to the 84th psalm, Quam dilecta. Even when the anthem is dislocated in Jac. II. a remembrance of this psalm is preserved, as the anthem contained nothing but its 9th. 12th. 13th. verses : while in W. and M. there are added, at the last, verses from ps. 18. and the first book of Samuel. The verse from Samuel is left out in Anne and the other later orders.
The oblation and girding on of the Sword.
In Anne and all later orders the title of the chapter is : The presenting of the Spurs and Sword and the girding and oblation of the saiid Sword.
The first rubric of this chapter in Anne and the following orders relates to the Spurs : The spurs are brought from the altar by the Dean of Westminster, and delivered to a nobleman appointed thereto by the Queen, who, kneeling down, presents them to her, and forthwith sends them back to the altar.
Thus the rubric continues until Victoria, when the nobleman appointed, &c., is changed into the Lord Great Chamberlain, who, kneeling, &c.
After this the following rubric appears in Anne and the later orders :
Then the Lord who carries the Sword of State returning the said sword to ye officers of the Jewel House, which is thereupon deposited in the traverse in King Edward's Chapel; he receiveth thence in lieu thereof another sword in a scabbard of purple velvet provided for the Queen, to be girt withal, which he delivereth to the Archbishop, and the Archbishop laying it on the altar, saith the following prayer.
Hear our prayers, &c.] Instead of “sanctify and bless” in the second line there appears in Geo. III. and following orders “direct and support.”
In Geo. II., III., and IV. after the name of the King appears : “who is now to be girt with this Sword that he may not bear it in vain,” a return to the form of Jac. II.
“ Hear our prayers” is a version of Exaudi quæsumus in Liber regalis, which in Jac. I. and Car. I. appears in a word-for-word translation. In Jac. II. instead of “bless and sanctify this Sword” there is “Bless and Sanctify this Thy Servant James our King, who is now to be guirt with this Sword,” a very material alteration. After the word “Sword” the remainder of the prayer is new, and continues in W. and M. and the later orders. The following is the text of “Hear our prayers” taken from Jac. II.* :
Hear Our Praiers wee beseech thee O Lord, and by the right hand of thy mãtie : vouchsafe to bless and Sanctifie this thy Servant JAMES Our King, who is now to be guirt with this Sword ; that he may not bear it in vain, but vse it as the minister of God, for the punishment of evil doers and for ye Protection and Encouragement of all that doe well through Jesus Christ Our Lord. Amen."
Then the Archbishop takes the Sword] This rubric remains the same in later orders until Victoria. In Victoria, in place of the Bishops assisting, there is : (the Archbishops of York and Armagh, and the Bishops of London and Winchester and other Bishops, assisting and going along with him.
The address “Receive” &c., and rubric with the following address, “Remember Him,” remain much the same in the later orders until Wm. IV. and Victoria, when the rubric disappears, and the first part of the address from “Remember” to “ followers of him.” disappears also, the remainder of the second address following immediately upon the first address. Thus in Wm. IV. and Victoria the ancient girding of the sword seems to disappear.
Then the King & Queen rising up] This rubric continues in substance in all the later orders, except that in Wm. IV. and Victoria the words. ungirds his sword are omitted. In Victoria, after scabbard there is : delivering it to the Archbishop, who places it upon the Altar; the Queen then returns and sits down in King Edward's Chair. Also in Wm. IV. and Victoria the price, a hundred shillings, is also left out.
A rubric is added in Victoria : The Archbishops and Bishops who had assisted during this Oblation will return to their Places.
The Investing with the Royal Robes and the delivery of the
The rubric remains in Anne as in W. and M. “ermine being supplied in Anne and the later orders where the dots in W. and M. are. But in Geo. I., II., III., and IV. a rubric and address on delivering the Armill are prefixed. In Geo. I. it is :
Then the King arising the Dean of Westminster takes the Armill from ye Master of the great Wardrobe and putteth it about his Majestys Neck, and tieth it to the Bowings of his Arms and below the Elbows, the Archbishop saying Receive this Armill as a Token of Divine Mercy Embracing thee on every Side.
Geo. II., III., and IV. add after Elbows the words : with silk strings : the Archbishop standing before the King, and saying;
In Wm. IV. and Victoria the rubric and delivery of the Armill are again omitted.
The delivery “Receive this Armill” follows the Liber Regalis in the Stewart orders.
Though not mentioned in Victoria, the Armill was put upon the Queen, apparently not tied to the elbows, but hanging pendant, like a priest's stole ; not, as I once thought, like a deacon's. (See “The Sacring of the English Kings” in Archæological Journal, 1894, vol. li. p. 37, and plate iii.)
In Geo. I.* the armill is certainly said to be delivered after the royal Robe or purple Robe, but this must be a mistake.
Next the kobes Royal] This rubric continues up to Victoria. In Geo. I.,, II., III., IV. and Wm. IV. after the King standing is added the Crimson Robe which he wore before being first taken off by the Lord Great Chamberlain, but the addition again disappears in Victoria. It is somewhat hard to understand how the removal of the crimson robe can have been delayed to this moment. If the parliament robe worn during the procession and earlier part of the service be meant, it was most likely removed earlier as in W. and M., and taken into St. Edward's Chapel. (See above, p. 21.) Neither can it very well have been the crimson shirt.
In Geo. IV.* : “His Majesty then standing in front of his chair, was invested by the Dean of Westminster with the Imperial mantle, or Dalmatic Robe of State, of cloth of gold, the Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain fastening the clasps thereof. The richness of this Robe of State can scarcely be described. The ground, or outside, is shot with gold thread, brocaded with gold and silver, with large and small flowers of the same frosted ; all the ornaments and flowers being edged with purple or deep, Mazarine blue. It is lined with ermine.”
A collotype and coloured plate of the like vestment, worn by the Queen at the last coronation, are given in Archæological Journal quoted above. (li. plates iv. and v.) The imperial eagles may plainly be seen in the coloured plate.
Receive this imperial] The lines struck out in W. and M. are omitted in Anne and following orders.
In Geo. III. and following orders after “Christ” the delivery of the orb ends thus : “our Redeemer. For he is the Prince of the Kings of the Earth ; King of Kings, and Lord of Lords : So that no man can reign happily, who derives not his Authority from Him, and directs not all Actions according to His Laws."
The delivery of the Orb at the same time as the pall is first directed in Jac. II., and the words of delivery are altered. Before Jac. II. they
“Receive this Pall which is formed with four corners to let thee understand that the four quarters of the world are subject to the power of God and that no man can happily reign upon the earth who hath not received his authority from Heaven."
In Jac. II.* they are :
“Receive this Imperiall Pall and Orb; and Remember that the whole world is subject to the power and Empire of God, and that no man can reign happyly up [interlined] on earth, who hath not received his Auctority from Heaven."
The addition to the form of delivery of the pall has been made necessary by the interpolation of the delivery of the orb at this place. There seems good reason to believe that the orb and the sceptre with the cross are the same, but that the advisers of King James II. did not recognize this.
In Jac. II. the orb was delivered to the Dean of Westminster and the sword redeemed after the crowning and before the delivery of the ring. In Car. II. and I., Jac. I. and Liber regalis, the sword was ungirt and redeemed after the crowning and after the delivery of the ring, and before the delivery of the sceptres.
In Wm. IV. and Victoria there is this rubric: The King delivers his Orb to the Dean of Westminster, to be by him laid on the Altar.
The Investiture per annulum et baculum.
In Liber regalis and the Stewart orders this section came after the crowning
The rubric continues as in W. and M. in all the later orders ; save that instead of Ruby Anne and all after read jewel.
In the delivery of the rings in W. and M. there seems to have been some confusion, if we judge from the Queen's own words given above, (p. 129.) for she received the ring intended for the King. And the heralds have marked the paragraph concerning the rings with a query. (See above, Appendix VIII. p. 104.)
Receive the Ring] Anne and the later orders have the first two lines somewhat different : “Receive this ring, the ensign of kingly dignity and of defence of the catholick faith, that as," &c.
The older orders read as in W. and M.
Liber regalis, Car. I. and II. had a blessing of the ring before its delivery, but it is omitted in Jac. II. and a prayer was said after the delivery of the ring in Jac. I., Car. I. and II. and Liber regalis, but not in Jac. II.
In Géo. IV.*:“The Lord Chamberlain then delivered the Ruby Ring on a crimson cushion to the Archbishop.”
The Scepters and Rods] In Anne, the rubric is altered. The Queen redelivers her orb to the Dean of Westminster to be again laid upon the altar, and then the Dean of Westminster brings the scepter and rod to the Archbishop, and the Lord of the Manor of Worksop, who usually claims to hold an estate by the service of presenting to the Queen a right-hand glove on the day of her coronation, and supporting the Queen's right arm whilst she holds the scepter with the cross, delivers to the Queen a pair of rich gloves, and upon any occasion happening afterwards, supports her Majesty's right arm, or holds her scepter by her.
This continues in Geo. I. and substantially in Geo. II., III. and IV. But in Wm. IV. and Victoria the first lines about the orb are left out.
The presentation of rich Gloves before the sceptres, though mentioned in Liber regalis, does not appear in Jac. I. or Car. I. but in Car. II. (104) the claim being allowed to the Lord of Worksop “to Support the Kings right Arme whilest hee held the Scepter," he “first delivered him a paire of Rich Gloves, which the King putt on before hee received the Scepter."
In Jac. II. (95) the Lord of the Manor of Worksop in Nottinghamshire, presented His Majesty with a Rich Glove, which the King put on His Right Hand, immediately before He received the Scepter."
The London Gazette (Aug. 3, 1821, Number 17732, p. 1608.) says that “Bernard-Edward Duke of Norfolk, as Lord of the Manor of Worksop, then presented His Majesty with a pair of Gloves, richly embroidered with the arms of Howard, which His Majesty put on; and the Archbishop delivered the Sceptre with the Cross” &c.
At the last Coronation the Queen did not wear the gloves presented by the Lord of the manor of Worksop.
The delivery of the two sceptres continues through the later orders as in W. and M. save that a few verbal alterations are introduced in the longer form in Geo. III. and succeeding orders.
Considerable changes were introduced in Jac. II. in the forms at the delivery of the sceptres. They are now printed from Jac. II.* On delivering the sceptre with the Cross was said :
“Receive the Scepter, the Ensign of Kingly power, and Justice.”
This with the addition of “Royal” before “Scepter" is the same as in W. and M. and later orders.
On delivering the Sceptre with the dove there was said in Jac. II.* :
“Receive the Rod of Equity, and Mercy. And God from whom all holy Desires, all good Councells, and all Just Works do proceed, Look Down Graciously upon thee ; Direct, and assist thee in the administration of that Dignity, which he hath given thee: That thou mayst Defend the Holy Church, and Christian people, committed by God unto thy Charge ; punish the Wicked ; protect and Cherish the just, and lead them all in the way of Righteousness ; show the way to those, that go astray ; offer thy hand to those that fall; repress the proud, and lift up the lowly: And so in all things follow him, of whom the Profittt David saith, The Scepter of thy Kingdome is a right Scepter; thou lovest righteousness, and hatest iniquity; even Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.”
The beginning and the end (which is unfortunate) of this address are evidently reminiscences of the Stewart orders and Liber regalis ; but the central part is more new. This again in W. and M. has been changed, and is less like the old.
Liber regalis, Jac. I. Car. I. and II. are almost identical in form, and the delivery of the sceptres is followed in Liber regalis by a blessing in form of an episcopal benediction ; in Jac. I. Car. I. and II. by a shorter blessing, and Te Deum. The blessing in W. and M. and later orders is postponed until immediately before Te Deum.
In Jac. II. at which coronation there was no communion, after the delivery of the sceptres, the second oblation was made, followed by the blessing, and Te Deum.
The rubric remains the same in the later orders, though in Anne and Geo. I. after Crown is added called K. Edward's crown : but the prayer “ O God the Crown of the faithful” is altered at once.
In Anne, Geo. I. and 11. it begins thus :
“O God, the Saviour and Rewarder of them that faithfully serve thee, who alone dost crown them with mercy and loving kindness, bless and sanctify this thy Servant” &c.
In Geo. III. and following orders it is thus :
“O God who crownest thy faithful servants with Mercy and loving Kindness ; Look down upon this thy Servant" &c.
The remainder of the prayer is the same in all the orders after W. and M.
The change in Jac. II.* and W. and M. from Liber regalis and the Stewart orders is considerable. In these it is a prayer for a blessing on the crown, so that he who weareth it may be filled with grace. The prayer in Jac. II.* and W. and M. is a new prayer preserving nothing of the old form but the opening words, and these are lost immediately in Anne and later orders. The first change in Jac. II.* is thus :
“O God the Crown of the Faithfull ; Bless we beseech thet and sanctify this thy servant James our King : and as thou dost this Day set a Crown of pure Gold upon his head ; so Enrich his Royall heart with thine abundant Grace, and Crown him with all Princely Virtues, through the King Eternal Jesus Christ our Lord Amen."
Then the King & Queen] This rubric evidently could serve for only one occasion. In Anne accordingly it is altered to:
Then the Queen sitting down in her chair, the Archbishop, assisted with other bishops, comes from the altar, the Dean of Westminster brings the crown, the Archbishop taking it of him, reverently putteth it on the Queen's head.
The rubric remains thus in Geo. I. but in Geo. II., III., IV. and Wm. IV. the chair is called King Edward's Chair. In Victoria the beginning of the rubric runs thus : Then the Queen still sitting in King Edward's Chair, the Archbishop, assisted with the same Archbishops and Bishops as before, comes from the Altar; &c.
In W. and M.* “at Four of the Clock the Crowns were put upon Their Majesties Heads by the Lord Bishop of London, assisted by the Lord Bishop of Rochester, (Dean of Westminster) at sight whereof all the People shouted, the Drums Beat and Trumpets Sounded, and the great Guns at the Tower, and in St. James's Park, &c. were discharged, and all the Peers and Peeresses put on their Coronets."
At sight whereof] This rubric continues in Anne and later orders.
In Victoria at the end of this rubric is added : As soon as the Queen is crowned, the Peers &vc put on their Coronels and Caps. In the earlier orders this does not appear until after the anthem.
The noise ceasing] Thus in all later orders, save in Victoria, which has : The Acclamation ceasing. In Jac. II. there is : The noise and acclamations ceasing.
God crown You] This continues unaltered till Geo. III. when the first part is as follows : “ The Lord of Hosts be unto You for a Crown of Glory, and for a Diadem of Beauty. And may You be also a Crown of Glory in the hand of the Lord, and a Royal Diadem in the hand of Your God. Be strong” &c.
In Geo. IV. and following orders all this first part is left out and the form begins with “Be strong."