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Regard we beseech thee) This clause is borrowed from the blessing of the font in the Publick Baptism of Infants in the Book of Common Prayer. It appears first in W. and M. This clause is left out in Geo. III. and later orders.
Bless this Oil] The words “this oil” are left out in Anne, so that in this matter the form is brought back to the preface of Jac. II.* while the moment at which the Archbishop is to lay his hand upon the ampulla is transferred to the saying of the words “now to be anointed with this oil.” In the same way the words are left out and the direction transferred in all later orders.
Confirm & Stablish] This sentence is a conflation of the twelfth verse of the fifty-first psalm, Miserere mei Deus. “ Confirm” and “princely" are the words in the Latin version ; “stablish” and “free” are in the Prayer Book version.
The end of this form is taken from that of Confirmation in the Book of Common Prayer ; which in its turn is a version of the Latin form of Confirmation in use in the Church of England before the Reformation. There is a prayer for the descent of the sevenfold gifts of the holy Ghost upon the king in the collect said after the prayer for the church militant in the order for King James II.'s Accession (Feb. 6) in the prayer books of that king. (See above p. 133.)
It must be admitted that the form for the blessing of the oil is better in W. and M. than in Jac. II.*
In putting this prayer or consecratory preface together, the author may very well have had in his mind opinions like those contained in a letter of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, to Henry III.
“Hoc tamen non ignoramus quod regalis inunctio signum est praerogativae susceptionis septiformis doni sacratissimi Pneumatis quo septiformi munere tenetur rex inunctus praeminentius non unctis regibus, omnes regias et regiminis sui actiones dirigere. (Roberti Grosseteste episcopi quondam Lincolniensis epistolae, Rolls Series, ed. Luard, 1861, p. 350.) This passage may have been commonly known in the latter half of the seventeenth century, for it is quoted by John Selden from a manuscript. (Titles of Honor, Part i. Cap. viii. Si. sec. ed. Lond. 1631, p. 144.)
In the middle ages few kings were anointed, only the Kings of France, England, Jerusalem, and Sicily. (Modus Eligendi ... Imperatorem, Basileae, apud Pamphilum Gengenbach, 1519. A. iii. recto.) But by 1519. the right had been given by the holy see to other crowned heads.
In Car. II. the tinsen hose and sandals were put on before the anointing, certainly by a mistake, as they should have been put on just before the spurs. But, curiously enough, if we can trust Hovedene, there is an exact precedent for it in the coronation of King Richard I. (Chronica Magistri de Houedene, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1870, vol. iii. p. 10.)
The anthem Zadock the priest appears after the form of anointing in the Stewart orders up to Jac. II. In Jac. II. it is placed before, and continues thus in W. and M. and later orders.
The anthem Unxerunt Salomonem, of which Zadock the priest is a translation, is as old as any coronation service known to us. It appears in the Pontifical of Egbert (Surtees Society, 1853, p. 101) thought to be of the eighth century.
In the meantime] The first clause of this paragraph remains much the same after W. and M. until Wm. IV. when the paragraph is : In the mean time, the King rising from His Devotions, having been disrobed of his Crimson Robes, and having taken off his Cap of State goes before the Altar, supported and attended as before. In Victoria it is : At the Commencement of the Anthem the Queen, rising from Her Devotions, goes before the Altar, attended by Her Supporters, and assisted by the Lord Great
Chamberlain, the Sword of State being carried before Her, when Her Majesty is disrobed of Her Crimson Robes.
The second clause is omitted in all the Georgian orders.
The third clause And the Kings under Garment disappears with Anne, and is not seen again. With the diminution of the number of places to be anointed, the openings in the shirt at the boughs of the elbows, the shoulders, and between the shoulders would not be needed. The shirt of fine linen and the shirt of red sarcenet appear among the particulars of George III.'s coronation as well as amongst those of William and Mary (see above, p. 5). But of King George III.'s we are expressly told that though the shirt of fine linen and the red shirt were provided, yet they were not used. (See Appendix VII. p. 90.) The red shirt was not used at James I. or Charles I.'s (Car. I. 9.) or Charles II.'s coronation. (Car. II. 99.)
The King and Queen sit down] This paragraph remains almost unchanged until Victoria.
“ Deni Creator being Sung, and the Holy Oyl Consecrated, Their Majesties were conducted to Their Regal Chairs placed on the Theatre (near the East side thereof) that they might be more Conspicuous to the Members of the House of Commons, (who, with their Speaker, were seated in the North Cross,) and were disrobed of their Crimson Velvet Mantles, and being Solemnly Anointed, were Presented with the Spurs." (W. and M.* 3.) The exposure of the anointing to the view of the House of Commons was rather a serious innovation. The pall held over the sovereign by four Knights of the Garter was in the first place intended to hide the ceremony of anointing from sight.
The rubric does not well agree with the statement that the chairs were placed on the Theatre; “plac'd in the midst of the Area over against the Altar," is the wording of the rubric. Possibly arrangements were altered at the last moment.
In Liber regalis and the Stewart orders as well as in Jac. II. the anthem Zadock was sung while the anointing took place. But in W. and M. the anthem comes before the anointing, until in Victoria the rubric declares that the anthem is to be concluded before the anointing shall be begun.
In the early Plantagenet coronations there is reason from the rubrics for believing that the King of England was anointed sitting in a chair. This may be gathered from the order said to be that for the coronation of Edward II. :
Finitis orationibus istis, assedeat princeps in cathedra coram metropolitano, vel episcopo, appositâ.
Qui verò cum accesserit metropolitanus vel episcopus, vestem quâ indutus fuerit princeps pallio super eum extenso, [s]cindat propriis usque ad cingulum manibus ; deinde manus principis sancto inungantur oleo, haec dicente metropolitano, vel episcopo.
(T. Rymer, Foedera, Lond. 1818. vol. ii. pars. I. 1307-1327. p. 33.)
But later on, in the days of the Tudors, it seems most likely that the King of England was anointed kneeling. At least it was so at the coronation of Henry VII. the “Cardinall, sitting, shall annoynte the King, kneling on quisshons, with holy oile.” (Rutland Papers, Camden Society, 1842. p. 16.). It does not seem certain whether James I. was anointed kneeling or sitting. (Car. I. 121.) Charles I. was anointed sitting ; for the chair on which he is to be anointed is spoken of; whether the “auntient Chayre” (Car. I. 31. note 11.) be the chair of St. Edward is not made plain.
But it is clear that Charles II. was not anointed in King Edward's chair, for the account (Car. II. 99.) runs thus after the blessing of the oil :
“After which the King arose from before the ffaldstoole, and went to the Altar (supported as before) where hee was disrobed by the Lord great Chamberlaine, & a Chaire being placed on the Northside between the Altar & St. Edwards Chaire hee sate downe therein.” In this chair between the Altar and St. Edward's chair the King was anointed.
James II. was anointed in King Edward's chair (Jac. II. 91.) but it is not so clear concerning the coronations from W. and M. to George II.
“Which Ended his Mãtie. removes to the Chair placed in the middle of the Area before the Altar, with a Faldstool before it, wherein he is to be anointed by the ArchbP." (Geo. I.*)
In Geo. III.* we are told, after the anthem : “In the mean time the King removed to St. Edward's Chair and sat down therein, and four Knights of the Garter" &c. (p. 207.) So in Geo. IV.* and Wm. IV.* we read : “St. Edward's Chair (covered with cloth of gold,) having been placed in front of the altar” the King sat down in it. In Victoria the rubric itself is plain : The Queen will then sit down in King Edward's Chair placed in the midst of the Area over against the Altar.
It would seem that it must be concluded of the majority of the coronations where we have data since the time of Charles I. that the Sovereign was anointed sitting in St. Edward's Chair. The only precise evidence to the contrary is given by that of Charles II.
The changes made in W. and M. for the anointing are considerable. First of all, the number of places anointed is diminished ; from six to three In Jac. II. and the other Stewart orders the places anointed were in the hands, ii. the breast, iii. between the shoulders, iv. both the shoulders, v. the bowings of the arms, vi. the crown of the head ; this order agrees with that of Liber regalis. But in W. and M. there are only : i. the crown of the head, ii. the breast, iii. the palms of both hands. Thus the order was inverted, the head being anointed first, and the hands last. This diminution may again have been suggested by the reading of John Selden's Titles of Honor (loc. cit.) who quotes, strange to say, St. Thomas of Canterbury, “Inunguntur enim Reges tribus in locis ; in Capite, in Pectore, in Brachiis, .quod significat Gloriam, Scientiam, Fortitudinem.” Richard I. was anointed only in three places, “in capite, in pectore, in brachiis, quod significat gloriam, fortitudinem, et scientiam.” (Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, ed. by W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1870. iii. 1o.) It should be noted that the same mystical significations are given. The mediaeval coronation orders do not precisely agree with this.
It should be noted that in the account of the Coronation furnished by the heralds in Appendix VIII. the places anointed are the same as in Jac. II. At the end of Appendix VIII. the heralds expressly disclaim responsibility for the liturgical part of the ceremonial ; and the variations between their account and W. and M. and W. and M.* are so great that for the account of the service in the church the heralds' document and the Processus factus must be scanned very closely. (See Introduction, p. xxiv.)
In Wm. IV. and Victoria the number of the anointings was still further diminished, and were only two in number ; viz., on the Crown of the Head and on the Palms of both the Hands, and the form at anointing instead of being repeated three times and expressing the part anointed, was said only once, thus : “Be Thou anointed with Holy Oil, as Kings, Priests, and Prophets were anointed.”
The word “consecrated” in the form of anointing is an addition made in W. and M., and continued ever since.
The prayer Prospice omnipotens Deus was said before the anointing in Liber regalis and the Stewart orders, until Jac. II. when it was omitted, and it does not appear to have been replaced in any later order.
Then the King and Queen kneel down] This rubric remains as in W. and M. in Anne and Geo. I. except that standing is inserted in both these later orders after Archbishop.
In Geo. II. and later orders the rubric appears as : Then the Dean of Westminster layeth the Ampulla and Spoon upon the Altar, and the King kneeleth down at the Faldstool, and the Archbishop standing on the Northside of the Altar, saith this Prayer or Blessing over Him.
Our Lord Jesus Christ] In Liber Regalis and the Stewart orders up to Jac. II. two prayers were said at this place, Deus Dei filius, and Deus qui es iustorum. But in Jac. II. only one prayer was said, beginning Deus Dei filius, but soon passing into a different form, as the following prayer taken from Jac. II.* and now printed will show. “So by this visible gift thou may receive invisible grace" is altered in Jac. II.* into “the assistance of that Grace" and in W. and M. into “by the assistance of his heavenly
“God the Son of God; Jesus Christ Our Lord, who was anointed by his Father with the Oyl of Gladness above his Fellows; by his holy annointing pour down upon thy head, and Heart the blessing of the holy Ghost : That so by ye assistance of that Grace, loving Righteousness and hating Iniquity, and leading thy People in the ways of Vertue and Holiness ; after a glorious Course of Governing prudently sinterlined over an erasure] and justly this Temporall Kingdom ; thou mayest be [interlined] made partaker of an eternal Kingdom, through the Same Jesus Christ Our Lord, Amen."
In W. and M. it was again considerably altered, as may be seen by comparing this form with that in the text. “Wealth, peace, and godliness" is a phrase taken from the second collect for the King in the communion service ; and the remainder of the prayer is an ill-conceived expansion of the end of the older prayer.
In Liber regalis and the Stewart orders it was directed that as soon as these prayers were over the shallow coif was to be put upon the King's head (in Jac. I. and II. the linen gloves are spoken of) the other anointed places having been dried with cotton wool; but in W. and M. the rubric in the text appears, while in Anne the mention of the closing of the undergarment disappears. (See above, p. 143.) The drying of the places by the Dean of Westminster lasts up to Geo. IV. In Wm. IV. the rubric appears as : This Prayer being ended, the King arises, and sits down again in his Chair, when the Dean of Westminster will invest His Majesty with the Supertunica. In Victoria the rubric is : This Prayer being ended, the Queen arises, and sits down again in Her Chair.
In the Stewart orders the linen coif and gloves, colobium sindonis, supertunica, with its girdle, the tinsen hose and sandals were put on here (the first two by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the others by the Dean of Westminster) accompanied by the prayer O God the King of Kings. (Deus Rex regum.) But in W. and M. no mention of these ornaments occurs here, though they are provided in the “Particulars from the great Wardrobe.'' (p. 5.) The prayer also is omitted. The later orders also are silent, except Wm. IV.
Still, if the sword is to be attached to the girdle of the supertunica, it would be necessary that the King be already invested with the supertunica before the Sword is girt upon him : And as the colobium sindonis is put on before the supertunica this also must have been put on. Without illustrative documents, therefore, the time at which these ornaments were put on would seem to be the old place, to wit, immediately after the anointing, and while the anthem Behold O God was being sung. And this opinion is confirmed by the manuscript account preserved at the Heralds office of King George I.'s coronation.
For in Geo. I.* there is : “That done his Majesty arises and Sits down again in his Chair, and the Dean of Westm". dries or Wipes the Places anointed with fine Wool, or Linnen delivered to him by the Lord Great
Chamberlain, Closing again the places in his Garinent, which are to be opened for his Anointing.
“Then a Coife of Lawn or fine Linnen is to be delivered to the Archbp. by the Lord Great Chamberlain, Who is to put it on the King's head, and the Linnen Gloves are to be put on his hands; While these things are doing, an Anthem is to be Sung.
“After this the Dean of Westm". (the King standing up) is to put on his Majesty the Colobium Sindonis ; The Supertunica, or Close Pall of Cloth of Tissue is next to be put on his Majesty, with a girdle of the same by the Dean of Westm".
“The King sitting down, the Dean is to put on the Tissue hose, or Buskins and Sandalls of Cloth of Gold upon the King."
In Geo. III.*: “The Prayer being ended, the King sat down, and the Dean dryed the Anointed places, After which his Majesty put on a fine Linnen Coif Laced, and a pair of fine Linnen Gloves, presented him by the Lord Great Chamberlain, and returned to his chair on the south side the Area.” (p. 210.) It may be noted that at King George III.'s coronation neither the colobium sindonis nor supertunica was put on. (See Appendix VII. p. 90.) In Geo. III.* there is also no mention of the buskins and sandals.
In Geo. IV.* (37.) among the “particulars” there is mention of:
“A Colobium Sindonis of fine Holland, and a pair of Linen Coifes and Gloves.
* “A shirt of fine Linen laced for the Anointing, and another of Red Sarcenet to put over it, with a surcoat of Crimson Satin.
“A pair of Under Trowses and Breeches, with Stockings fastened to the Trowses, all of Crimson Silk.”
The buskins and sandals are not to be found in this list; nor are any of the above-mentioned particulars named as being worn during the ceremony itself (p. 123.)
Immediately after the anointing we read in Geo. IV.*: “The Dean of Westminster then received from the officers of the Wardrobe, the Supertunica of cloth of gold, and a girdle of the same for the Sword, with which the Dean arrayed His Majesty.” Wm. IV.* is to the same effect.
In the proof of the ceremonial of the last Coronation preserved at the Heralds' College there is direction here to invest the Queen with the supertunica ; but the direction has been struck through by two crossed pencil lines, while the other corrections are made in ink; and the published Ceremonial contains no longer the clause as to the supertunica. Yet we know the supertunica with the colobium sindonis is still among the coronation robes at St. James'. The contemporary portrait of the Queen in her coronation robes shows these ornaments being worn. The argument from omission is so uncertain that without further evidence it would hardly be safe to conclude that the supertunica was not used at the last coronation.
Thus it can hardly be doubted that, with the exception of the one coronation since W. and M. in which it is known that the colobium sindonis and supertunica were not worn, these ornaments have been put on very soon after the anointing, and in the old place indicated in the Stewart orders.
The Spurs are then] In Anne and all succeeding orders the presenting of the Spurs is moved into the section with the presenting of the sword. In the older orders, and the Liber regalis, the spurs and sword were presented together; so that this peculiarity of W. and M. may be an oversight.
Behold O God our defender] This is the introit of the Mass in Liber regalis : and it was sung at the beginning of the Eucharist in Car. I and II. But in Jac, II. it was sung immediately after the anointing and was