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The shirt of fine linen, of red sarcenet, the surcoat of crimson satin, the under trousers and breeches over them with stockings, represent all the clothes that the King had on when the parliament robes were taken off immediately before the anointing. Hence the pall held by the Knights of the Garter to conceal the King during his anointing, provided on p. 6.
The linen gloves and coif were to protect the places anointed with the holy oil from irreverence, and are put on immediately after the anointing. These linen gloves are different from the rich silk gloves brought by the Lord of the manor of Worksop, which are for dignity, to be worn while the King carries his sceptres.
The silk towel or houseling cloth, held at time of communion before the King and Queen to prevent any particle of the Eucharist from falling to the ground, continues from Henry VII.'s time (Rutland Papers, Camden Society, 1842. P. 22) to that of George IV. At William IV.'s coronation it was discontinued.
The three swords, Curtana, and the other two have borne in the procession from Westminster Hall to the Abbey Church since the days of Richard I. (Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1870, vol. iii. p. 9.) In Richard III.'s days they were interpreted thus : Curtana to be the sword of mercy, from which the point was removed : Mr. St. John Hope derives its name from its being Curt or shortened. The second sword signified justice to the temporality. The third, justice to the spirituality. (Bodleian Library, Ashmole MS., 863, p. 439.)
On pp. 93, 95, and 97 above (Appendix VIII.) besides Curtana, the point of which is cut off entirely, there are mentioned a sword pointless, and a sword with a point. The same thing is shown in the plates of the three swords in Jac. II. There is, first, curtana, the end of which has no point, and is a mere rectangle; the second sword, that of justice to the spirituality, has a point the angle of which is little less acute than a rightangle ; the third, that of justice to the temporality, shows a sharp point. This may, perhaps, signify that the King's justice, exercised through the civil courts, could punish the wrong doer with any extremity, such as hanging, drawing, and quartering, while the King's justice, exercised through the courts Christian, could at its worst do nothing more than inflict stripes and imprisonment.
The persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine are mentioned at the coronation pageant soon after the end of the hundred years' war. They disappeared from the procession in the coronation of George IV. perhaps in consequence of the change in style made about 1800.
P. 6. The number of Barons of the Cinque Ports left blank in line 1 should be, it seems, sixteen.
Another chair, like St. Edward's chair, still exists, opposite to the shrine of the Confessor in his chapel at Westminster. Though the coverings and cushions for the second chair, which is to be “suitable” to St. Edward's chair, are paid for (see Appendix VI. pp. 82 and 85) yet the charge for the making of this second chair does not clearly appear in the accounts. It may have dropped out at the bottom of some page of the accounts, such as may be seen on p. 83 in Appendix VI.
For the Queen.
The Queen does not seem to have had the sacerdotal ornaments provided for her; so that the possibility of the Heralds' account (see above, p. 102, Appendix VIII.) being in accordance with facts is again somewhat diminished.
For the King.
P. 7. These robes are put on over the shirt of linen, that of red sarcenet, the surcoat of crimson, and the trousers and breeches spoken of on p. 5. These crimson robes the King is arrayed in on his rising in the morning, after the ceremonial bath.
Also the robes of purple velvet of the same fashion are laid upon the altar at the head of St. Edward's shrine for the King to put on after the coronation service is over, when he passes behind the high altar and is divested of the ornaments given to him during the coronation service. St. Edward's Crown is also taken off, and the imperial crown, doubtless intended to be lighter, is put on.
P. 8. Specimens of this medal, in gold, silver, and lead, are in the British Museum. The artist was John Roettier. (See Hawkins, Franks, & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations, London, 1885, vol. i. p. 662. No. 25.) They are “Inscribed on one side Ne totus absumatur, and on the other side Gulielmus & Maria Rex & Regina.” (W. and M.* 3.)
For the warrant for the anointing oil see Appendix V. p. 76.
P. 10. The direction that the coronation shall be on some Sunday or holiday may be traced back through Car I. and Jac. I. to Liber regalis. On this occasion, however, the rule was not observed, as April IIth was a Thursday, unmarked in the Prayer Book Calendar.
The church of Westminster is mentioned; but it would have been inconvenient to have remembered the rights of the see of Canterbury on this occasion. Whether they really were intrenched upon is disputed. Mr. W. H. Hutton (Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. Sancroft) holds that “on 15 March 1689 he [Sancroft) issued a commission which virtually empowered his suffragans to perform the coronation.” A commission to consecrate bishops was issued on March 15th by Dr. Sancroft ; and by special pleading the clause at the end, beginning Caeteraque omnia, inight be made to empower Dr. Compton to perform the coronation ; but the word premissis seems fatal to such a contention. (See the commission, printed in App. III. p. 73.)
Morning Prayer. No other coronation Order that I have seen has a similar service prefixed to it. But Richard II. heard divine service and mass before his coronation. (T. Rymer, Foedera, Lond. 1869, t. iv. p. 9.)
This Order for Morning Prayer is derived from The Form of Prayer with Thanksgiving to Almighty God; authorised by James II. for the Sixth of February, the day of his accession. In the proclamation dated at Whitehall, Dec. 23, 1685, the king notes that the “Pious Custom” of celebrating the accession with thanksgiving had “received lately a long and doleful Interruption upon Occasion of the Barbarous Murder of Our most Dear Father of blessed Memory, which changed the Day, on which Our late most Dear Brother Succeeded to the Crown, into a Day of Sorrow and Fasting. But now We thinking fit to revive the former Laudable and Religious Practice, and having caused a Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving to be Composed by Our Bishops for that purpose ; Our Will and Pleasure is,” &c. (See The Book of Common Prayer, printed by Charles Bill, Henry Hills, &c. in folio, 1687.)
This morning Prayer of James II. has been much influenced by the form
used for the accession of Charles I. James II.'s forin, again, has influenced the form authorised under Queen Anne, which appears to be in substance that which the Queen authorised at her Accession in 1837.
For the comparison of the services of Charles I. and Queen Anne I have used a modern reprint. (A. P. Perceval, Original Services for the State Holidays, London, 1838, p. 86.)
The Sentence “Repent ye” is not in James II. Charles I. or Queen Anne. “I exhort” is in James II. Charles I. and Queen Anne.
P. 11. The cento, instead of Venite, is derived from James II. with omissions. In Queen Anne's morning Prayer it is again shortened.
P. 12. In James II. Proper Psalms are xx. xxi. lxxxv. cxviii.
I s The first, Jos. J. Te Deum. Proper Lessons The second, Rom. xiii. Jubilate Deo. These are the same as in Charles I. except that for the first lesson a choice is given of II. Chron. i. and Benedictus for Jubilate.
In Queen Anne's morning prayer the proper psalms are xx. xxi. ci. Lessons and Canticles as in text above. In King James II.'s book in the British Museum which I have used (3406. f. 15.] the proper psalms in the text have been added by hand before morning Prayer.
The suffrages after the Creed are much the same in Charles I. James II. and the text, except that the text omits the versicle and respond for peace.
P. 13. This conflation of the two collects for the King in the Communion Service appears in substance in James II. At the first occurrence of “whose Minister he is” in James II. the text has in its place “whose authority they have.”
The second prayer seems new; and, in accordance with the compact made, there is no mention of Queen Mary. (See Appendix II.)
The same may be said of the prayer before that of St. Chrysostom. In the last line of p. 13. the change of "honesty” into “honor” is remarkable.
Cap. 1. The Entrance into the Church. At the beginning of the Coronation Order of Geo. II. and thence to Victoria is set this rubric:
In the morning upon the day of the Coronation Early, Care is to be taken that the Ampulla be filled with Oil, and together with the Spoon, be layd ready upon the Altar in the Abby-Church.
There is something like it in MS. L. 14, St. John's College, Cambridge, Sancroft's copy of James II.'s order. “In the morning of ye Day of Coronation early, Care is to be taken, yt ye Ampulla, in form of an Eagle, wth ye Holy Oil in it, & the Spoon wth it; & also ye Robes (calld S. Edward's) wlh wch ye Kğ is to be invested, be laid reddy & left upo ye Altar in Westm”.”
According to W. and M.* it was half an hour past eleven before “Their Majesties and the whole Proceeding were conducted into Westminster-Hall, at the upper end whereof a Throne being Erected, Their Majesties repaired thereunto, and took Their Seats under Their States on the inside of the Table."
In Geo. III.* (p. 206.) it is stated that it was half an hour after twelve when their Majesties entered the Abbey ; the proceedings having been an hour late in beginning in Westminster Hall. (p. 198. note.)
· The King and Queen.] This rubric continues hardly changed until Wm. IV.
In Geo. II. and III. the last six words are altered to: then going next before the Queen's Regalia, to sing.
In Geo. IV. it is altered to: then going next before the Regalia, to sing.
In Wm. IV. the rubric ceases with the words : Choir of Westminster. In Victoria with : choir.
The reason is that at the two last coronations the procession from Westminster Hall to the Abbey Church was discontinued.
In Gcorge IV.* (p. 111.) the singing in the procession from Westminster Hall is spoken of, thus : "the anthem O Lord, grant the King a long life,' being sung in parts, in succession with His Majesty's band playing, the sounding of trumpets, and the beating of drums, until the arrival in the Abbey."
The practice of singing in the procession from Westminster Hall to the Abbey Church goes back to the time of Richard I. (“Cum ordinata processione, et cantu glorioso." Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, edited by W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1870, vol. iii. p. 9.) At Queen Elizabeth's coronation, the procession sang “as they passed, Salve festa dies." (J. Strype, Annals of the Reformation, Oxford, 1824, vol. i. Part i. § iii. p. 44.)
There is no mention of singing in the procession from Westminster Hall to the Church in W. and M.*
In Jac. II. (80) the choirs sang all the way from Westminster Hall to the church an anthem O Lord grant the King a long life, accompanied no doubt by the two sackbuts and double courtal. At Car. I. (xlix.) they were “ singing all the way." Where sackbuts and double courtals appear in the procession, it may perhaps be that anthems were also sung all the way.
At the entering in of the church in Jac. II. the choir sang verses 1. 4. 5.6. 7. of ps. 122. mainly according to the prayer book version.
Before Jac. II. Quam dilectu (ps. 84) had been sung as well as ps. 122, the latter of which appears first in Car. I.
In W. and M. the anthem is still ps. 122 but based upon the authorised version, a few words here and there being supplied from the prayer book version.
It continued in this form till Geo. IV. when it was reduced to vv. I. 5. 6. 7. from the Prayer book version, and thus it has continued.
In Geo. IV.* (120) there is: “And on His Majesty's entering the Abbey, the Choirs sang the Hallelujah Chorus in Handel's Oratorio of the Messiah, after which a scene from the Oratorio of Saul, followed by the anthem, “I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the House of the Lord.' Immediately after the conclusion of the Hallelujah Chorus, and before the remainder of the music, the King's Scholars of Westminster School, from the platform gallery over the entrance into the Choir, with their Masters, greeted His Majesty with repeated shouts of `VIVAT GEORGIUS REX.'"
Jac. II. (83) tells us that: “When the QUEEN Entred the Choir, the Kings Scholars of Westminster-School, in Number Forty, all in Surplices, being placed in a Gallery adjoyning to the Great Organ-Loft, Entertained Her MAJESTY with this Short Prayer or Salutation, VIVAT REGINA MARIA ; which they continued to Sing until His MAJESTY entred the Choir, whom they entertained in like manner with this Prayer or Salutation, VIVÁTJACOBUS REX, which they continued to Sing until His MAJESTY ascended the Theatre."
The second rubric appears in all the later orders with the needful changes in the case where only one sovereign is to be crowned.
The direction for the King to pass on the south, the Queen on the north, is altered in Anne, Geo. I. and Geo. II. to she sor he or they] with the procession on the south side makes, &c. In Geo. III. there is no mention of the two processions passing on the south and north sides, but it is preserved in leo. III.* and in Wm. IV.*
The word “faldstool” had in the seventeenth century already begun to mean, not a folding chair upon which one may sit, or at which one may kneel, but a desk like a prie-dieu. (See Dr. J. A. H. Murray's New English Dictionary, s.v. faldstool.)
Cap. 2. The Recognition. This rubric and address are found in all later orders with the necessary alterations to confine the recognition to the reigning Sovereign.
The Lord Keeper is altered to Lord Chancellor in Geo. I. and later orders. “Undoubted King and Queen of this realm” continues in all later orders, The interlineations and erasures are noteworthy. It may have been that at first it was not intended to make any allusion to the claims of W. and M. like those made by the ancient phrase "Rightful Inheritor of the Crown of this Realm” (Jac. II. 84 ; so also Car. II. and I. and Jac. I.) which was plainly inappropriate for W. and M. but afterwards it may have been considered more politic to state the bare fact of possession. In William III.'s. declarations he announces that he has been called by God to the throne. (His Majesty's most gracious answer to the address, 1689, and Declaration against the French King.)
This anthem is quite new. The psalms are from the Prayer book version. In Liber regalis (682) Jac. I. Car. I. and II. and Jac. II. it is Firmetur manus and ps. 89. Misericordias Domini ; which last, however, is omitted by Jac. II. possibly to shorten the service, though in Car. I. only the first six verses of the psalm were sung. In the early stages of the coronation order, no doubt the psalm Misericordias Domini was the important thing, to which Firmetur manus was merely the anthem. Then by a process of liturgical corruption, just as we see in the history of the introit, the psalm alınost disappears, and the anthem remains, and is looked upon as the important thing.
From Anne to Geo. III. the anthem has become : The Queen (King) shall rejoice ; but at the last three coronations the anthem has altogether disappeared from this place, and its words are sung after the putting on of the Crown. In B.M. MS. Add. 6336. fo. 166. the anthem as in W. and M. is. first written, but afterwards struck out, and The Queen shall rejoice is interleaved.
“Being entred the Church .... the Bishop of London, who perform'd this great Solemnity, began the Recognition, which being concluded with a mighty shout of all the People present, Their Majesties came to the Altar, and made their first Oblation; which done the Lords who carried the Regalia, presented them severally at the Altar to be there deposited." (W. and M.* p. 3.)
Cap. 3. The First Oblation. This rubric throws into definite shape the customs practised in earlier coronations. It has continued with some unimportant variations to the last coronation.
The Bishops who are to bear any part in the Office is altered in the later orders from Geo. I. to the Bishops who are to sing the Litany.
Also in Geo. II. and following orders there is prefixed before the second paragraph · And here, first the Bible, Paten, and Cup are to be brought and