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not use to send them such large tokens in money, for that may corrupt them. When I went to bind my brother Ned apprentice in Drapers-Hall, casting my eyes upon the chimney-piece of the great room, I might spie a picture of an ancient gentleman, and underneath, Thomas Howel ; I ask'd the clerk about him, and he told me that he had been a Spanish merchant in Henry the Eight's time, and coming home rich, and dying a bachelor, he gave that ball to the company of Drapers, with other things, so that he is accounted one of their cheifest benefactors. I told the clerk, that one of the sons of Thomas Howel came now thither to be bound, he answered, that if he be a right Howel, he may have, when he is free, three hundred pounds to help to set him mp, and pay no interest for five years. It may be hereafter we may make use of this. He told me also, that any maid, that can prove her father to be a true Howel, may come and demand fifty pounds towards her portion, of the said Hall. Because Mr. Hawes of Cheapside is lately dead, I have removed my brother Griffith to the Hen and Chickens, in Paternoster Row, to Mr. Taylor's, as gentile a shop as any in the city, but I gave a piece of plate of twenty nobles price to bis wife.”

The use of hackney coaches was but very trifling in 1626 ; for among the many monopolies granted by the king, was one, which gave rise to the use of sedan chairs in London *. This grant was made to Sir Sanders Duncomb, and expressed in the following terms: “ That whereas the streets of our cities of London and Westminster, and their suburbs, are of late so much incunibered with the unneceffary multitude of coaches, that many of our subjects are thereby exposed to great danger; and the necessary use of carts, and carriages for provisions, thereby much hindered :--and Sir Sanders Duncomb's petition, representing that in many parts beyond

Captain Bailey, an old sea officer, first set up four hackney coaches with the drivers in liveries, with directions to ply at the May-Pole in the Strand, where now the New Church is, and at what rate to carry pas. sengers about the towa. Gongk's British Topography.

sea,

sea, people are much carried in chairs that are covered ; whereby few coaches are used among them :

-wherefore we have granted to hin the sole privilege to use, let, or hire a number of the said covered chairs for fourteen years."

This patent was followed by a proclamation against hackney coaches, strictly commanding, “ That no hackney coach should be used in the city of London, or suburbs thereof, other than by carrying of people to and from their habitations in the country; and that no person should make use of a coach in the city, except such persons as could keep four able horses fit for his majesty's service, which were to be ready when called for, under a severe penalty.”

At this time, that part of Cheapside which extended from the Old Change to Bucklersbury, was denominated Goldsmith's Row ; and Rushworth, in the second volume of his Collection, records an order of the privy council, in 1629, to confine it and Lombard Street to the trade of goldsmiths only.

This year was productive of a privilege to a new branch of manufacture. The silk-workers of London were become so considerable, that they were incorporated by Charles, under the name of the Master, Warden, Assistants, and Commonalty, of Silk Throwers, of the city of London, and within four miles of it.

The suburbs being now encreased to an amazing extent, and vast numbers of regular tradesmen being of necessity obliged to exercise their avocations there, without the advantage of being ranked as citizens and members of the corporation of London, the king, in 1636, “ incorporated all the tradesmen and artificers inhabiting such places of the city of London as aru exempted from the freedom thereof; as also, those of the out-parts of Westminster and Middlesex, within three miles of the said city of London, excluding for the future all such persons as shall not have served seven years to their respective occupations, as well as all foreigners, from exercising their respective trades, in order to save those places from being pestered with inmates, and to pre

vent the prejudice done to such as were freemen of London.” These suburbs were, therefore, added to the jurisdiction of the lord mayor *

The principal streets of London. having been greatly incumbered by stalls and stands for bakers, butchers, poulterers, chandlers, fruiterers, sempsters, grocers, and venders of oysters, herbs, and tripe, in defiance of the laws against such nuisances, it was judged necessary by order of common-council, in 1631, to enact, “ That no inhabitant whatever should presume to sell any thing in the streets or Janes of the city, upon pain of forfeiting for the first offence twenty shillings, for the second offence forty shillings, for the third offence four pounds, and for each offence afterwards, the penalty to be doubled.” And in 1633, the enormities of engrossers, victuallers, bakers, &c. had arisen to such a height, that the court of Star Chamber issued a decree, “ That no person whatsoever should presume to engross any sort of provision: and particularly, that no chand. ler should buy corn, grain, meal or four to sell again at market or elsewhere: that no vintner should sell any thing but bread and wine, nor permit any flesh or any sort of pro. visions to be brought into his house, to be there eaten by any of his guests; that no baker should sell bread at any more than twelve, or at most thirteen loaves to the dozen : that the keepers of victualling-houses (in that dear time of scarcity) should take no more of each guest for a meal, than two shillings, including wine and beer, and of a servant eightpence: that no inn-holder within London and Westminster, and ten miles of the same, should take above sixpence in twenty-four hours, for hay for one horse, and no more than sixpence for a peck of oats: that to prevent the many in. conveniencies that might arise from the increase of the num. ber of livery stables in London, Westminster, and Southwark, it was decreed that the said stable keepers, after they

* In this year, queen Henrietta Maria was compelled by her priests to take a walk, by way of penance, to Tyburn. What her offence was, we are not told; but Charles was so disgusted at this insolence, that he soon after sent them, and all her majesty's French servants, out of the kingdom. Pennant. VOL. I. No. 8.

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