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“ King James I. in the preamble of his second charter, makes a full and general confirmation of all former charters granted to the city of London, and repeats the several names of the corporations of the city of London; and likewise grants them a restitution of all liberties to all intents and purposes, as fully and largely as their ancestors enjoyed them; and although they have not used, or have abused them, nevertheless he grants that they may use them for the time to come.

“ He grants likewise, that they hold their precincts as they were formerly accustomed, and determines the liberties of the city of London to extend and stretch forth likewise to Duke's Place, St. Bartholomew's Great and Less, Black Friers, White Friers, and Cold Harburgh, tive inhabitants thereof, to be within the precincts of London, with a proviso that the inhabitants of Black and White Friers, be exempt from certain taxes, fifteens, &c. and that the inhabitants aforesaid be quit from the office of constable, scavenger, &c.

Nevertheless he grants, that the mayor, &c. by their own officers, may levy all such aids, tallages, grants, and contributions, which are not excepted in the said charter; and that the justices of London should have jurisdiction in Black Friers, White Friers, Duke's Place, Great and Little St. Bartholomew's, and Cold Harburgh, with power to take security for the preservation of the peace, and to commit the refusers to prison.

“ He further grants, that the mayor and recorder, and such other justices that are customarily justices in the city, be justices of oyer and terminer, and that the mayor for the time being, and the recorder, be always of the quorum, and that no other justices do intermeddle in the city and liberties aforesaid ; and that the sheriffs of London be aiding and assisting to the said justices.

“ He likewise grants, that all treasures found within the said city, all waifs, estrays, and all goods and chattels of felons, fugitives, &c. belong to the said city, and that they Dd 2


have these letters patent under the great seal, without any fee or fine in the Hanaper, &c.

“ In his third charter, London is stiled his Royal Chamber, and therein is granted, that the city have the measuring of all coals brought to the city of London, as likewise the weighing of coals, with all the fees and profits belonging to the same; and that the said office be executed by the mayor, or his deputies.

In the same charter, the fees for weighing of coals are settled at eight-pence per ton, the same to be to the use of the mayor and commonalty of the city of London ; and withal it is provided, that no merchant unlade his coals till the mayor have notice, to the intent, that having a true estimate of the quantity of coals brought to the city of London, he may be able to satisfy the king in that particular, when demanded.

“ In the same charter all forestalling and regrating of coals is prohibited, all selling of coals by retail in lighters forbidden, and no markets for the future to be in lighters, And further he grants, that if, after the sealing of these letters patent, any defect should appear, others should be granted more advantageous and effectual.

“ King Charles I. begins his first charter with an acknow. ledgement of the good services of the city of London, and confirms all their former letters patent, except those in the same charter excepted. He likewise repeats the several names of the corporations of London, and makes a restitution of all their liberties, except some few that are therein excepted.

6 In the same charter a recital is made of the charter of the twenty-sixth of October, in the twenty-third year of Henry VI. and likewise the soil, &c. of the streets, and of the Thames, is granted to the city; and then all other charters of the said king Henry VI. are made void, and some doubts are mentioned concerning the validity of the charter granted to the city of London, the twentieth of Henry VII. after which the said king Charles grants as follows.

" That

" That the mayor, recorder, and aldermen, belonging to the city of London, be justices of the peace; and to commit those to the prison of Newgate, &c. who shall refuse to find securities for the preservation of the peace, as aforesaid ; and to do and execute all such things which justices and keepers of the peace in any county of England do, or are wont to do.

“ He likewise grants, that four of the said justices, the mayor, or recorder to be always one, may hold a sessions, to enquire into several offences, viz. into weights and measures, and selling victuals contrary to the statutes, &c. to receive and inspect into indictments taken before them, to make and continue process, and punish offenders according to the laws of the kingdom, and the custom of the city; and also grants them power to execute the laws as fully and largely as any other justices of the peace in any other county; and that the sheriffs, &c. attend, aid, and assist the said justices when desired.

“ He also grants them the forfeiture of recognizances, particularly those relating to bastard children, inmates, and alehouses; with recognizances for appearance at the sessions of gaol delivery, fines and issues of jurors within the city of London, excepting only royal issues, &c.

“ He likewise grants them all recognizances taken, or to be taken, for the security of the peace or good behaviour, with all recognizances taken in the court for the river of Thames, and all things thereunto appertaining; as likewise all fines, amerciaments and penalties, adjudged by the mayor, &c. relating or any ways belonging to his said courts, as conservator of the river Thames; and also all fines, &c. imposed by commissioners of sewers, the same to be holden to the mayor, &c. without account.

“ He likewise grants to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London, and their successors, the fields commonly known by the name of Moorfields, both outward and inward, and likewise the field commonly called West Smithfield, with liberty to hold fairs and markets in the said fields,

with all tolls, profits, &c. thereunto belonging: reserving the streets, waste ground, common soil, &c. within the city liberties; to hold the same in free burgage, and not in capite, with pardon and remittance of all issues relating to the said premisses, without any writ of ad quod damnum,; and also pardon of all intrusions, except such which relate to churches and church walls.

“ He also grants the office of garbling spices, &c. to the mayor

and citizens of London. The said mayor, &c. to hold and enjoy the said office, with all the fees, profits, &c. without rendering any account to the king, his heirs, or suca cessors, the garbling of tobacco only excepted.

“ He likewise grants the mayor, commonalty, and citizens, the office of gauging, with all the fees, profits, and emoluments, lawfully belonging to the said office, the same to be executed by them or their deputy, without account, and the fees, &c. to be appointed and allowed by the lords chancellor, treasurer, and president of the council, and the two chief justices of the King's Bench and Common Pleas.

“ He also grants to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens, the office of keeper of the great balance or weight within the city of London, for weighing all merchandizes of avoirdupois, and also all other weights for weighing any sort of wares or merchandizes within the said city, with all the fees and profits, &c. thereto belonging, &c.

“ He also grants to the mayor, commonalty, &c. the office of outrouper, or common-crier, with liberty to exercise the same by themselves, or deputy. The said deputy to be chosen by the mayor, commonalty, and citizens, in common council, with power to take the fees expressed in a schedule annexed to his said charter, and that no other presume to sell any goods by outcriers within the city and liberties of London, under the pain of the royal displeasure.

" He likewise grants, that freemens widows should use their husbands arts and manual occupations, so long as they continued widows, notwithstanding the statute made the fifth year of the reign of queen Elizabeth, or any other sta


tute to the contrary. He likewise for the benefit of the city of London grants, that there be no market within seven miles of the said city; and further grants, that according to the antient custom of the said city, the mayor and aldermen, &c. should record their customs by the mouth of their recorder, touching any plea, deed, cause or business relating to the city of London.

“ He further grants to the said mayor, &c. all treasure found in the city of London, and liberties thereof, with all waived or strayed goods and chattels of all felons, fugitives, &c. He likewise grants, that the mayor of London for the time being, should nominate two aldermen for justices of the peace, the one to act, and be inserted in all commissions in Middlesex, the other in the county of Surrey.

“ He likewise grants, touching freemen, that the sons of freemen and others, should be obliged to take up their freedom, &c. and that no person should transport any goods from the port of London, or use any merchandize within ten miles distance of any port thereof, without becoming a freeman, and producing a testimonial under the hands of the chamberlain, to prove the same; and that no merchant, free of London, from henceforth, take any person to serve him after the manner of an apprentice, for any less term than seven years.

“ He likewise grants the city of London a court of con. science or request, for the trying all small debts under forty shillings; the said court to be kept in the Guildhall, and the proceedings to be by way of plaint and summons, and the officers of the said court to be in the choice of the mayor, commonalty, &c. and to take such fees which are expressed in the schedule annexed to his letters patent.

“ He also grants to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens, the office of brokers of pawns, &c. and that the fees be the same that are expressed in the schedule annexed: and that the citizens for the better finding out their respective dwellings, might hang out signs. And likewise grants to the said mayor, commonalty, &c. the keeping of the hospital called Bethlem, with the manors, lands, &c. belonging to the same;


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