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“ And now I shall relate to you the manner of the Roman approaches nearer to London. For they always took care to secure all behind them by their several camps or situations on their new made military ways. These led along Kent Street, on the left hand leading to London, and pointed directly to Dowgate, now so called, through an arch since built by the bishop of Winchester at his stairs, which to this day is called Stone Street, and came directly out of Surry.

It was at this very place (as I take it) that the Roman legions forded over the river of Thames, first the horse, and then the foot, which might not then take them up to the shoulders. And this they might attempt (as we may conjecture) when the tide was first coming in, they then making an angle, and directing their course against the stream of the river. When they came to the middle of the stream, the tide drove them to their intended landing place, which was Dowgate. For you must suppose the river was much wider, and consequently much shallower than it is now, there being then no wharf, key, nor bridge, but a smooth sand to land upon. Neither was there at that time any mud, such as is now caused by vessels and timbers lying on the shore.

• Afterwards it happened ferrys were made use of on that part of the river, although they have been discontinued for some hundreds of years past. For the sands are in many places removed since the building of the bridge, which was first of wood and then of stone. After that, fording was more westward, as, for instance, at the end of the outward Temple, since called Essex House; next to which was Milford, so called from a mill to grind corn, and is to this day called Milford Lane, just against St. Clement's Church at that end of the Strond next Temple Bar. And all that shore to Westminster, long before it was built, was called the Strond.

“ Against York House is another fordable place, but hath not been made use of for some years.


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to have been several stair-cases to go to the several offices. I bave often viewed this chapel, and much admired its antiquity. It is commonly reported to have been built by Julius Cæsar, which I look upon as a good argument to shew that it is of the Roman times. It is not improbable that the Saxons made use of the same fortifications for their security after the Romans had left this island. For when the chapel was fitted up for reception of records, there remained many Saxon inscriptions. No doubt William the Conqueror considerably augmented it to keep the citizens in awe upon any insurrection that might happen. For they had a reciprocal affection for each other.

“ I shall pass over a farther account of the antiquities of this place, and next observe, that not far distant from this station of the Romans, I mean the Tower, there was a burying place, which of late years was found to be in that ground, which commonly goes by the name of Goodman's Field's. These fields are mentioned by John Stow, but he takes no notice that they were a Roman burying-place. In digging the foundations for building of houses in or about the year 1678-9 there were found many urns, together with the ashes and bones of the dead, and several other antiquities, as brass and silver money, with an unusual urn in copper, curiously enamelled in colours, red, blue, and yellow, which was preserved by the then earl of Peterborough. I have seen many other antiquities found here, and had some of them formerly in my own possession.

“ I shall next turn towards Spittle Fields, where the like antiquities have been found many years ago, and were seen by John Stow, and are mentioned by Weever and others.

“ These fields lie against Goodman's Fields, crossing White Chapel Street; where, on the farther side thereof next Bishopsgate Street, was another station of the Romans, in that part which formerly bore the name of the Old Artillery Ground, and was their field of Mars, in which place the Romans trained up and exercised their young soldiers, and likewise the youth of the neighbouring Britains, in the skill and exercise of arms, that they might be more expert in the use of


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