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ON THE MOST APPROVED SYSTEM,

EASTHAM, by the

TO CHESTER,

Want of Exercise and Employment.-Dr. Sydenham Madame Mara.-It has been reported that this once had a patient, whom he had long prescribed for, on celebrated singer had died abroad. The report is without gum-ammoniac, two ounces of yellow wax, six drachma

An excellent Remedy for Corns.-Take two outers account of one of these complaints. But his prescriptions foundation. She is alive, and resides, at Revel. She verdigris: melt them together over a slow fire, and spread were inefficient: and, at last, Sydenham acknowledged lately, indeed, was thrown down in the street, and a the ointment on a piece of linen or thin leather. Pared that his skill was exhaused--that he could not pretend to carriage passed over her ; but, strange to say, she only as much of the corn as you can, with a sharp perkrila advise him any farther : “but," said he, there is a Dr. received some severe bruises, from which she has recover- and apply the plaster to the part affected. It the com Robinson, who lives at Inverness, who is much more ed. Her property was entirely lost by the French invasion pot effectually eradicated in a week, renew the plastel skilled in complaints of this kind than I am; you had bet. at Moscow.- Provincial Paper.

but, unless in very bad corn cases, the second applicatis ter consult him. I will provide you with a letter of in.

of the plaster will be found unnecessary. troduction, and hope you will return much better." The patient was a man of fortune, and soon took the road;

Scientific Records. but travelling was a very different undertaking then, from

Advertisements. what it is now, and a journey from London to Inverness

Roberts's Smoke Hood.-Roberts, the inventor of an was not a trifling one. He arrived, however, at the place apparatus to prevent suffocation in dense smoke, lately

STAMMERING REMOVED, of destination ; but no Dr. Robinson was to be found, exhibited himself accoutred in this apparatus, at the Lon

BY MR. STAFFORD, OF LIVERPOOL, nor had any ope of that name ever been in the town. don Mechanics’ Institution, in the presence of Dr. Birk. he took the road back to London, raging, and vowing in a small

out-office
, which had windows that enabled

the feet for apwards of twenty years This, of course, encaged the gentleman very much ; and beck, and several other scientific gentlemen, and remained W Hosie, know ledge of the Art has been seguindia vengeance on the Doctor. Op his arrival, he vented all operator to be seen, and the place filled with a suffocating

Mr. S. was first led to study the subject in the year 1814 his rage on the latter, and abused him for sending him a smoke from moist shavings and

brimstone, from half.past from hearing a few observations made on tapsten seu journey of so many miles, for nothing. When his fury one o'clock until five minutes after two o'clock; and then by Mr. Cooke, the celebrated Tragedian.-M.. ne quite was a little abated. Well, now,” said Sydenham, “after he came out, by desire of the gentlemen present, who felt of two years before he could command bison utente all, is your health any better?" "Better!" said he; that he had remained sufficiently long to afford a test of tention, to discover the nature and cause of the best

his invention. A lighted candle, near a thermometer Mr. S. has been very successful in a great variety of was in my life; but no thanks to you for that."“ Yes, Sir, it is better. I am, Sir, as well as I ever within the window, soon went out, and the mercury in / in testimony of which, he has permission to ida va

Well said Sydenham, you have still reason to thank Dr. Ro- ihe thermometer rapidly ascended to 115, the highest the Rev. Dr. Wylde, Nottingham; the Rev. Ja see binson. I wanted to send you a journey, with an object graduation of which the glass tube is susceptible. Roberts Rector

of Hawkesworth, the Rev. Dr. Staunton, de in viere. I knew it would do you good in going, you was furnished, not at his own desire, for he was perfectly ton, near Newark: the Rey. Robert Lowe, Retat e had Dr. Robinson in contemplation; and, in returning, confident, but at that of a gentleman present, with a bel hamNotes: Thomas Morton, Esq. Cheshunt, you were equally busy in thinking of scolding nie.”-Belto ring in case of danger. The bell rung, not however Mountkearney, Newry, County of Down, Ireland: fast Magazine.

for the miner's knell, but for more fuel to increase the man, Esq. Lloyd's Coffee House, London; or C.F. Bu

hot vapour within, and this was several times repeated at Esq. Liverpool, Rev. Robert Amick, Rector of sit Good Friday.--(April 1.) Formerly " hot-cross-buns" his desire. It was curious to notice, on these occasions near Barnsley, Yorkshire; or George Seholes, Es, were commonly eaten in London by families at breakfast, of ringing, the effect of the sound becoming gradually Ireland; John

Gillespie, Esq. 'Rose Hall, Dumiries, so and some families still retain the usage. The “hot- more deadened, froin the atmosphere losing its power of or the Rev. James Fisher, M.A. Liverpool. cross-bun” is the most popular symbol of the Roman Ca- conducting it. Sir R. Wilson, who was present on one

In addition to the foregoing highly respectable Reter tholic Religion in England that the Reformation has left. of the occasions when a man opened the door to creep in Preislis

in possession of numerous Letters of the use of the cross, as a mark or sign in Papal worship and supply fresh fuel, put in his head for an instant, and, faction with his mode of treatment, which are sea and devotion, most readers are aware; for it has been though not unaccustomed, in the service, to "a sulphureous spection, at his residence, No. 91, Duke-street, insisted on by Roman Catholic writers, from the days of canopy,” could not endure it for a moment; and the application by letter, post paid. Constantine to Alban Butler himself, who, giving example bricklayer, who took courage to push in some pieces of CHEAP AND EXPEDITIOUS TRAVELLING, BY of its great virtue on Good Friday, says, “ to add one firewood to the pile, instandy receded to relieve himself more instance, out of many, St. Teresa assures us, in her by a fit of coughing, and on being asked how he liked it,

LADY STANLEY Steam own life, that one day the devil, by a phantom, appeared replied, expressively enough, “ Them has luck as can

in Two Hours and a half, what to sit on the letters of her book, to disturb her at her de l'stand it.” “All this time Roberts himself was standing

Coaches to Tarporley, Nanteie votions : but she drove him away thrice by the sign of the erect in the apartment. When he came out and removed

ham, Overton, Ellesmere cross, and at last sprinkled the book with holy water; after his apparatus, he appeared perfectly fresh. He offers the

Whitchurch, Wem,

Salop, Birna which he returned no more.” In the houses of some ig: fullest

inspection of the hood and tube, as well as to put London, and all parts of North and South Walese norant people, a Good Friday bun is still kept “ for luck,” himself in any situation to prove its protecting utility. First Packet, Eight o'clock in the Morning. and sometimes there hangs from the ceiling a hard biscuit

Second Ditto, Eleven o'clock in the Morning. like cake of open cross-work, baked on a Good Friday, to Poisons.-Mr. J. Murray, in, a paper in Brewster's Third Ditto, Three in the Afternoon. reinain there till displaced on the next Good Friday by one Edinburgh Journal of Science, just published, after detail. Likewise Coaches every day from Mr. Wooleserofts

Lion Inn, Chester, for Liverpool, as follows: of similar make; and of this the editor of the Every Day ing a number of experiments on frogs, rabbits, &c. says,

First Coach, Eight o'clock in the Morning. Book has heard affirmed, that it preserves the house from "I have no hesitation to pronounce, with most positive Second Ditto, Eleven o'clock in the Morning fire :-" no fire ever happened in a house that had one." certainty, that in ammonia will be found a complete an

Third Ditto, Three in the Afternoon. This undoubtedly is a relic of the old superstition; as is tidote to hydrocyanic (or prussic) acid, and, in ascetic Parcels and Passengers booked at Mr. Doo's,

Eastham Packet-house, James's-street, Liverpool also a vulgar notion in the west of England, that the acid, an effectual counter-poison to opium.”

there is good Accommodation for Travellers. straight stripe down the shoulders of the ass, intersected by the long one from the neck to the tail, is a cross of ho

The Mousewife. nour, conferred upon him by Christ; and that, before

Fares, from the Royal Mail Coach Office, SAAN

HEAD INN, Dale-street, Liverpool. Christ rode upon the ass, that animal was not so distin. Housekeeping and husbandry, if it be good,

HOLYHEAD ROYAL' MAIL, every Afternoot guished.-Hone's Every Day Book.

The wife, too, must husband as well as the mar,

LONDON ROYAL MAIL, every Evening at Or farewel thy husbandry, do what thou can."

fore Eight o'clock. The Origin of the Law, and the custom of Lawyers

BIRMINGHAM ROYAL MAIL, every Evenirs wearing Black.-Strabo (L. B. ) states, that the mode of

Home-baked Bread.- In cases of indigestion, it is not a past Nine o'clock. trial which prevailed amongst the ancient Britons, was very easy thing, although most desirable, to excite the re

LONDON ALEXANDER Post Coach (four in to decide by the augury of two crows. Each party made a gular peristaltic action of the bowels by diet ; and, conse.

Morning at Eight o'еlock. cake of grain, and steeped it in oil and wine; they then quently, purgative medicine is continually resorted to for ing at Ten o'clock.

LONDON CHAMPION (carrying four inside ter placed the cakes, so prepared, on the same plank by the this purpose. The continual use of purgatives is objec- LONDON UMPIRE Post Coach (four inside) side of a river or lake, and they watched until a pair of tionable: but how is it to be obviated? By home-baked

One o'clock. crows alighted and made a meal of them. It happened bread. Let the best and cleanest wheat be ground by an o'clock, through Birmingham and Oxford

LONDON ROCKET (four inside) every Afterne generally, that one of the cakes was entirely eaten up, and honest miller, without being dressed at all (no bran is to LONDON ROYAL EXPRESS, every Afternos the other but partially devoured. The man whose cake be taken from it) made into bread, and well baked. The o'clock. was eaten up gained the cause ! The ancient Druids seem first week any one tries this, who has been requiring

medi. Thursday, and Saturday Mornings, at Seven dreieck

NOTTINGHAM Post Coach (four inside) ereti to have foretold, by this allegory, the manner in which cine daily, he will find such benefit that he will not be BIRMINGHAM BANG-UP Post Coach (four inst justice would be one day administered in Britain. Crows inclined readily to part with it.-Correspondent in the Morning at Six o'clock. are voracious and noisy, their colour is black, and the Lancet.

BIRMINGHAM REGULATOR Post Coach for party who gains is often as effectually ruined as he who

every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday Morning loses.

Cure for a Pain in the Stomach.-Beat a pound of green walnuts, a pound of the best figs, a pound

of loaf-sugar, Evening at Six o'clock.

BATH and CHELTENHAM Coaches, every Morze American Great Tree.-The Yorkville Pioneer gives an and a handful and a half of rue, severally; then mix BRISTOL, SOUTH WALES, EXETER, PLY account of a sycamore

tree, which,
for its great size and them well together, in a stone mortar, and take the quan- FALMOUTH and YARMOUTH

Coaebes, Murnissan capacity, surpasses perhaps any one in the United States. tity of a nutmeg every morning fasting, and again at night, MANCHESTER Royal MAIL, every Day at Twain It is 72 feet in circumference, with 18 feet of a hollow in going to bed, washing it down with a glass of good Moun- COACHES to and from MANCHESTER fourtext diameter: has held within that space seven men on horse- tain or Madeira wine.

every Day, back. It stands near Howel's Ferry, South Carolina, on

CHESTER and SHREWSBURY Coach, every k shelter and afforded protection to many families during vitriol in boiling water, which pour upon a mixture of before seven o'clock. Broad River, on the York side. Tradition reports it gave a portion (according to the shade required) of Roman to all Parts of North Wales.

A cheap and beautiful Green Colour for

Walls. -Dissolve Eight, and every Afternoon at Three o'clock; frem

CARLISLE Telegraph Coach, every Morning, ata the lowering days of the American revolution.

lime and water, the lime being first finely powdered. Mix NORTH BRITON Post Coach (four inside) to EDDT The invalid Huet has just lost his wife, who was 90 years it well in a pail, and lay it on the walls with a painter's and GLASGOW, every afternoon at halui pe old; he has himself passed 120, by which it appears that brush: if a little melted glue be added to the composition Coach (four inside) every Afternoon at hall.pero he was born in the time of Louis XIV.- Paris Paper. it will bear the air better.

Performed by B, BRETHERTON 15

Must love one another as cousins in blood :

o'clock.

o'clock.

TO THE EDITOR.

TO THE EDITOR.

SEQUESTERED BURIAL-PLACES.

Correspondence.

in such case, act by Amateur as a certain wary lawyer (Continued from our last.)

did by a friend, who, after he had stated a case, and sim.

ply asked him “how he would have him to act," as simTHE CEMETERY OF MOUNT ST. LOUIS, OR THE

MUSICAL CRITICISM.

ply recommended him to “ take advice !"-I am, Sir, PERE LA CHAISE.

yours, &c.

MUSICUS. (FROM THE LITERARY SOUVENIR.)

SIR,-Although I am favoured with a regular trans“ The Grave of France." -Lord Byron. mission of your very pleasing miscellany the Kalcidoscope,

MADRAS SYSTEM. several weeks sometimes pass over without my obtaining "his burial ground, in which stands the now deserted a glance at one, when, perhaps, I indulge in the turning ise of the celebrated Père La Chaise, the Confessor of over half-a-dozen at once. Allow me thus to account (i is XIV. is beyond all comparison the most picturesque can hardly

consider it apologising) for again adverting to point, whether Dr. Bell or Mr. Lancaster are entitled to

SIR,-You have repeatedly promised to discuss the advantageous of those points of view, with which the an article which will, by this time, be pretty well out of the merit of having discovered the new system of edughbourhood of Paris abounds. The prospect from the the recollection, I apprehend, of even those few of your cation,” but still you defer giving us the satisfaction we h parts of the ground is commanding and beautiful in readers whose attention may have been drawn to it at the

may probably derive from your own opinion on the subextreme, and stretches from the Castle of Vincennes time pending.

ject, or from the information afforded by your corresponfont-Martre, an angle of about one hundred and sixty A musical correspondent of yours, under the modest

dents. rees. The city of Paris, with its splendid spires and signature of Amateur, asked for information on two points olas burning in the glories of a setting sun, forms a of musical science. Different gentlemen replied to his never seen occasion to aiter it. But I did not form it on

My own opinion has been long ago formed, and I have king contrast to the scene immediately around you. queries ; but, very properly, spoke positively to one only; mere conjecture, nor was I swayed by the slightest prejue surface of the cemetery, which extends over a space having doubts upon the other. As I had no doubt at all dice in favour of either one of these gentlemen or the sixty acres, is much varied, and of this, judicious ad- upon either, I spoke conclusively to both, and herein other. My opinion rests on facts which are indisputable, tage has been taken in dotting it with willow, cypress, certainly considered myself his most satisfactory informant. and to which

thousands can bear testimony. The truth of other characteristic shrubs. A rich and varied fore- I did him the favour, moreover, to remark on one of his these facts can never successfully be called in question, so ad is often presented to the eye by these plantations chords, which he himself passed by; and I considered long as the publications to which I shall refer are in the portions of the distant city. A line of trees marks to that I still further added to my good and valuable service hands of countless numbers, and which are more than gaze the sweep of the gay and bustling Boulevard, so in my hint to him upon the subject of specification and sufficient to convince all those persons who are not wilfully b at variance with the melancholy repose of the scene completeness in the employment of terms; the importance blind. My principle is, " render to all their due;" and nd, chequered as it is by marble monuments, arbours of which to science generally your correspondent has to while I freely acknowledge all the merit due to Mr. Lanillow and cypress, garlands of funereal herbs and learn cannot be invalidated, or at all affected, by a h continually rise upon the view. The mind becomes “negligent" and " slovenly,” that the expression by which we wreathed around the stories, and religious crosses silly sneer. I fear, however, from his quoting the words caster, I cannot allow him to bear away the palm of dis

covery, which so notoriously belongs to another.

The general principle which constitutes the new system pathetic records to the majestic splendour of the I have conveyed this hint is the thing which has excited of education is mutual tuition, or the method of teaching Babel in the distance, glistening in the departing so much of ill temper as to have betrayed him into no a school through the medium of the scholars themselves. $ of a summer sun. if, in wandering through this small inconsistency ;-in first, modestly enough, asking On this hinge the whole system turns, and it was disof the dead, your eye momentarily encounters the informati on, which, having received, he turns round on covered in India by Doctor Bell himself. After having Feosigns of life and activity, or your ear is saluted his informant, and tells him, " in his humble opinion," been successfully practised there for several years, the itaph, a name of departed greatness, or the pauper's he knows nothing of the matter. The foolish tirade about whole process was detailed in a report of the Madras , rendered still more affecting by the deep stillness my self-contradiction, 'tis true, merits no reply; but that Asylum, to the Court of Directors of the East India Comå you, recals your wandering thoughts from sublu- J. M. X. who has favoured Amateur with his notice, pany, in London.” This report was printed after its arconsiderations, to the contemplation of that subduing may perceive clearly what I wish to convey in saying rival in London, in the year 1797, and may be read by all within whose immediate territory you are walking, that the general rule of resolving discords is, in many who wish to see so unquestionable and important a docu. hose wild and melancholy emblems are flashing on e in every direction.

cases, virtually abided by, although apparently infracted, ment. Mt. Lancaster informs us, in his “ Improvements number of tombs has greatly increased during the I will employ the example he has himself adduced for in Education,” &c. which went through three editions, w years, and fashion and ostentation, which play so a succession of discords. freaks on the busy stage of life, intrude their follies

from 1803 to 1805, that " in the year 1798 he opened a heir fripperies even into this quiet and beautiful

school for the instruction of poor children, in reading, ary; and the modest stone with its emblematic

writing, and arithmetic, and the knowledge of the Holy over which the cypress mourned, and the willow

Scriptures; the children were taught at the low price of drooped, has given place to the obelisk, the pyra. nd the temple; for it seems to be the object now to

foúrpence per week.” And he adds, “ I knew of no ach succeeding tomb surpass in expense and mag

modes of tuition, but those usually in practice.” Mr. L. ce the previous erections, and display at once the

in another part of the same publication, says,

* Doctor nd extravagance of those who raise them.

Bell's method has been crowned with complete success ; circumference of the burial ground of Mount St The same, with the resolving notes written, which are, in and I have been endeavouring to walk in his footsteps. I is upwards of two miles. The house of the Jesuit, the former, supplied by the mind : a Chaise, is rendered, by its situation, a command.

refer the reader to Doctor Bell's pamphlet; he cannot do

EXAMPLE 2. ject; but its architecture is mean, and its tout-en

better than procure one, and read it himself, which will by no means picturesque. It is uninhabited, but

save me going more into detail, and afford him greater atch-dogs are chained during the day in its lower

satisfaction.” Père La Chaise was the general of his order ;

These quotations are, I think, sufficiently decisive conalso Confessor to his monarch, and having fulfilled

cerning a question on which every one ought long ago ies of that important situation thirty-four years, 20th of January, 1709, aged eighty-five years.

to have been convinced, especially as the new system was are many tombs in the burial ground of Mount

discovered and practised for several years before Mr. Lanis to which the eye of the stranger is particularly As I have, in my former notice, set down, in very sim- caster ever taught a school, as its details were published ; some being objects of curiosity on account of ple terms, why the thing, which, in Amateur's " humble in London, in 1797, and as Mr. L. did not attempt to brity of the characters they commemorate, and or the beauty and simplicity of their epitaphial in- opinion," is, cannot be, I am not to be induced to say adopt it till 1801. Before be adopted it in his school, it IS. Of the former class, the tomb of the poet more thereupon, however “ preposterous" my arguments, had also been practised, according to Dr. Bell's instrucwhich is situated in the higher part of the ground, viz. that because it is the chord of F, F* cannot, con- tions, in the school of St. Botolph, Aldgate, London, and le shade of a bower of linden trees, is one of the veniently, be concerned in it; and, although “ I have at Kendal, in Westmorland.

Mr. Lancaster's mode of operation was, in many respects, elard, Madame Cottin, Marshals Massena and spoken, yet said nothing,” had Amateur preserved the ith many others of characters scarcely less distin. modest demeanour with which he set out, and which my different from that of Dr. Bell; but the principle was the

are also well worthy of notice. As a specimen of expression (meant as it was in perfectly good humour, same, and was, confessedly, borrowed from the Doctot. letic simplicity which is not unfrequently to be and which I would have as readily addressed in a similar and as to his mode of operation, experience has proved it b, in the inscriptions on tombs in this burial case to any friend) by no means warranted him to put off, to be so very inferior and inadequate to the ends in view, we may instance the following brief, but touch.

I might have been content, upon his secking, to have that it is now universally superseded by that of Dr. Bell, ph on a young girl.

enlightened him a little further; but, as I am not satisfied even in schools where such a change was least to be exA SA FAMILLE

with his mode of acknowledgment, he will not get any pected. I am, Sir, your humble servant. S. ELLE APPORTA LE BONHEUR; IL S'ENFUIT AVEC ELLE!

further information from me so cheaply. I shall hereafter, Liverpool, March 3, 1825.

EXAMPLE 1.

态 f

&c.

&c.

Barometer.

meter

Rearts

6 30 34 7 30 35 8 30 34 9 30 15 10 30 16 11 29 93 12 | 29 86

51 0
50 0
45 20
50 0
45 20
45 0

S.E. Fair.

54 20 41 20
55
54 0
56 20

GYMNASIA.
reprobate such conduct, esteeming it wholly unwarrant-

1

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. able and discreditable to our prefession. And we ear

(From the Liverpool Courier.]

Thermo- Thermo-Extreme State of
TO THE EDITOR.
Destly recommend this subject to the serious consideration

mcler 8

daring

the SIR, -As you are always ready to listen to the proposal of all students in anatomy ; entreating them, under a

morning noon. Night. Wind. of any measure that may tend to the advantage of your sense of moral principle, not to be misled herein by the April fellow-townsmen, I would call your attention as well as practices of others, who have thoughtlessly (as we hope) but

590 44 0 S. Fair.

60 0 43 0S.S.E. Fair. others to a society which is now forming in London, for unfortunately, degraded researches otherwise so meritorious gymnastic exercises, under the superintendence of a cele- and important.-[Here follow about forty names, wbich

044 0 N.W. Fair.

45 0 N.N.W. Fair. brated German, who has made the teaching of these his we not conceive it necessary to repeat. )

44 20 W.S.W.Cloudy, particular study in his native country, and with great

500 | 51 20 47 0 success. In my opinion, this will, perhaps, form a new era in

An American's opinion of Liverpool.—The American To Correspondents. the habits of our youth, and I would be happy to see it papers publish the following extract of a letter from a

Falr Play makes his approach tinder a very prepongesting the universally followed throughout the country, particularly Virginia lawyer, in England, to his friend in the city of

as there is nothing we more admire than fait par la in our great commercial towns, where there is so much to New York:

not difficult, however, to perceive something in the mazer

Liverpool, 1824. of this correspondent which does not evtly secured with enervate and efteininate the minds and bodies of both

“ DEAR SIR,You see that there was something more than his name; and this we discovered with tassed readiez. young and old. To those who are confined in counting-houses, during talk about a visit to this country: for here I am, after a tem

We do not feel called upon to reply to as part of the

letter except the query in the postseript, which, jdete the greater part of the day, some kind of exercise is ne here only two days, I have seen little as yet ; but have, for the pestuous voyage, safely arrived in England. Having been

from the tone of the letter itself, was, no donde, cessary for the preservation of health of body and vigour short time, experienced much of kindness and hospitality.

as a sneer, or insinuation that we had not acted files,

shall give the paragraph first, and then reply to fit. of mind; and where could a short time be more profitably and agreeably spent, for this purpose, than in a gymna- been in Liverpool in miniature. The docks are stupendous Indeed, one who has been in New York may be said to have “By the bye, Mr. Editor, why do you not nekograd

where you got your chapter on churchyards from; wa sium? As it now is, the Sabbath is generally the only works of art, and in this way the tempestuous Irish sea, and

it not from Blackwood's Magasinet time allowed for recreation, and, in too many instances, the torrent of the Mersey, are brought perfectly into subju

This query was, in our opinion, intended to converte

pression that we had been passing off for our own dia this day is much abused and perverted. I would sincerely rejoice to see one of these institutions anticipation. I put up the first day at the King's Arms, which gation. The shipping and business of the place transcend all position of another. Before we repel such insusita,

must inform Fair Play that the reason why we dida formed in this town, and am fully persuaded that many is to Liverpool what the City Hotel is to New York. They

knowledge whence we took the article in queit, of my brother quill-drivers would with pleasure take ad. order some things at their public inns better than they do in

simply, that we were ignorant of it. We are not be vantage of such an opportunity of engaging in manly and the United States; nor do I find the charges higher. I have

habit of seeing Blackwood's Magasine; and, as

from which we copied it did not name that said healthy exercises. The notice I saw of the London in.

not seen a beggar in the street since my arrival. i found no source from which it derived the chapter, as oer ditza stitution was in the last number of the Examiner, and I hope you, or some other gentleman of influence, will take without a bribe; nor have I found difficulty in any way since difficulty in getting my baggage through the Custom-house,

dent calls it, we could not make the expected an

We have passed nothing off as origical up this subject warmly, in which I have little doubt of

was such. The first of the series of articles on the my arrival. Indeed, I am inclined to think, that John Bull ample support.--Yours, &c. S.

of sequestered burying grounds was a brief dat has been slandered by some journalists in the United States, the New Low-hill Cemetery, which secompen Liverpool, March 29, 1825.

for the slanders perpetrated against him. I shall remain here graving, in the Kaleidoscope of the 5th inst. The a few days, and proceed slowly on through the many towns to

lowed up, In the same publication, with an originals

article on the subject, at the close of which was London; stay there some weeks, and then go to France." WANTON CRUELTY TO DUMB ANIMALS.

that we had in our possession several interestingari

the subject, which we should publish; at the same The following note, and the resolution which accompe

The Beauties of Chess.

questing ORIGINAL communications on sequestered

grounds. In the succeeding number of the Island nies it, ought to have been inserted at the foot of the arti.

published April 19, followed the article which cle on the subject of wanton cruelty to animals, in page “ Ludimus effigiem bell"............ VIDA.

ascribes to Blackwoods Magasine. There was the

same Kaleidoscope, an original letter of Philatest and 354; as it was in consequence of the appearance of that

prosent number, thero is a description of Pere ba article that Mr. Martin favoured us with his correspond

SOLUTION TO GAME XL.

copied from the Literary Souvenir. We assured While.

Black.

that we are extremely tenacious in our editorial 1 Queen......E–8+ 1 King

.G_7 In giving “to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's" **

2 Bishop SIR,- Accept my best thanks for the Liverpool Mer.

H-6+ 2 King

H-6 we have ample precedents for departing from the 3 Queen F-8+ 3 King G-5

rule. We could name fifty original editorial arter cury of the 8th instant, and for the very great services you

4 Castle
F-5+ 4 Pawo

F-5

without the slightest acknowledgment, from the have rendered to the cause of humanity. I have the

tions with which we are connected; one of ther,

5 Queen. .6–7+MATE. honour to enclose you a resolution entered into by some

most recent occurrence, we shall only mention in medical men of Bath ; and I think it would be very im

nal paper appeared in a late number of the India (No. XLI.]

warm and vapour bathing. This was approprio portant if resolutions of the same import could be obtained

out acknowledgment, by the London Mechanie from those of the medical profession resident at Liverpool The white to move, and to give checkmate in five moves

from which it passed into the Examiner, and stars A petition from the inhabitants of Liverpool in favour

more publications, as originating with the jostal of humanity to inferior animals, and providing further,

Black.

first copied it from the Kaleidoscope.

We have to apologize to J. L. for not having been til by legislative enactments, for their rights, would have the

fil the pledge given last week. The faet is that is best effect. A petition from the ladies to Parliament

V 4 5 4 3 4 5 Η

temporarily mislaid between the leaves of a ca would be very proper and productive of good.--I am, Sir,

we were in course of reading. We discovered your faithful bumble servant,

their concealment at too late an hour to ensten London, April 11, 1825. RICHARD MARTIN.

duce them in our present publication. 7

Precious ANCIENT Relics.-We shall have much i To Mr. Egerton Smith, Liverpool.

giving a place next week to the humorous lettere

Glasgow; from whom, judging by the present specie Bath, February 27, 1825.

hope to hear further. We, whose names are underwritten, medical persons,

The song and Music promised in our last, prek chiefly practitioners, resident at Bath, do hereby engage

postponed until next week. When arranged in to

cupied more space than we had reserved for it, and declare that we will, as far as in us lies, prevent and

could not give it a place without disturbing the wa discourage by our example, influence, and dissuasion,

rangement of our publication those painful and cruel anatomical experiments upon

Just before our publication was put to press, we receita living animals, which, to the disgrace of science, in our

favour of Philocribris, and A Ledy, who has made

penalty of postage, for an offenee of which the opinion, are made, sometimes without necessity or utility,

not aware. and frequently without any adequate end, under the plea

We wish W. D. G. would be more explicit of promoting medical knowledge. The gratification of

ERRATA.- In the Life of Thomas Wayte, Esq. in eter roere curiosity, the illustration of favourite but essential

“Wood's Nasti," read "Wood's Fasti," and for "Dr.

read "Dr. Hudson." theories, or the repetition of any known and conclusive

A B C D E F G H experiment, we consider very insufficient motives for the

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESE infiction of torture. We do thus protest against, and

WHITE.

E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpal

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familiar Miscellany, from whichreligiousand politicalmatters are excluded, containsa varietyof originalandselected Articles; comprehending Literature, Criticism Men and Manners, ausement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Seiences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c.&c. forming a handsome Annual lume, with an Index and Title-page.--Itscirculationrenders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.-Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

Price 30

LETTERS

BY M. ALEX. B.

LETTER XII.

Men and Manners. From the handle being broken at the top, it is very the said precious relic was a drinking cup of the giants,

probable that it was used hung some distance above the wafted here at the Deluge, and not a part of a Caledonian's ANTIQUITIES.

fire, and whatever suspended it has, in process of time, clay kettle. I have remarked, that, when the old gentle

worn the handle; lucky if in its downfall it did not de man is showing his curiosities to the ladies, which he is ARKS ON AN ANCIENT VESSEL, IN A LETTER FROM ELIAS i stroy some poor Caledonian's dinner. I am the more con- very fond of doing, there is a general titter set up, parAUB, ESQ. 1.A.S. TO SAMUEL SNUB, ESQ. READ BY MR. SNUB firmed in this, as from its nature it could not stand sudden ticularly among the young ones, when he commences to EFORE THE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, WITH SOME HINTS BY heat and cold, and of course would be obliged to be raised expatiate upon the Caledonian pot; and I even heard, the HE LATTER

some distance above the fire:-happy we are that in our other day, the dairy-maid tell the cook, that it was nothing JY VERY DEAR FRIEND-I have just got into my days we are not obliged to trust our dinners to such frail more than a bit of Meg Simpson's (the ploughman's wife's)

broken ; but this cannot be true, as a learned man, ession a fragment of an ancient utensil, which I think cooking dishes. nt curiosity, and which I hope will throw consider. But you may, perhaps, think I am begging the ques. like my uncle, could never mistake Meg Simpson's broken light upon the domestic habits of the ancient inhabi- tion in stating it to be a cooking vessel; but I was led to for a Caledonian cooking pot.-Yours, &c.

Glasgow, December 15, 1824.

R. R. of Caledonia. It was picked up on the thirteenth suppose this from its evident early manufacture, and from $t month, on the north-east corner of that oblong its form and size; for, at the time it was made, I think e field, commonly called the Cow Park, immediately they would contine their exertions to attempts for better.

Natural History. I my offices. The utensil, when whole, appears to ing their means of cooking; that being tired of having been round, like an egg-shell cut through the mid- their mutton continually roasted, they would long for havlattened on the end for a base. In colour it is dark ing it boiled, the belly being among all uncivilized nations a y formed of the coarsest clay, burned hard, not of principal concern: indeed, I am sorry to say, too much ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. ne execution, marks of fingers being discernible on attention is paid to it by civilized people. From its size places, and it is coated with a vitrious substance both it could not be used with any advantage for storing proviand out; but whether it has received this coating sions. What then could it be for? why, to cook them is La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne ign, of only from being frequently exposed to fire the only rational answer in my humble opinion. couvre que des ruines.--Paris: printed, 1824. ting, is a point as to which I have not yet made up but as he sometimes gets tipsy, I did not think it prudent Translatedexpressly for the Kaletloscopefrom a recent French work.

I would have sent it in by John Dråppy, the carrier, mee, the broken edges being amazingly sharp, con to trust such a valuable remnant of antiquity with him,

the time it must have lain in the ground till but shall bring it to town the first day I come; in the
op by the plough.

meantime I hope this will be in time for the first meeting
of the society.

OF OSSEOUS CLEFTS AND CAVERNS.
I remain, my very dear friend,

Most of the bones of fossil ruminants are found inEver ygurs,

crustated in the midst of the concretions which fill the Modewart Hall, April 1, 1824.

ELIAS GRUB.

clefts of certain rocks, upon the coasts of the Mediterranean.

These clefts, which have derived the name of osseous clefts On reading the preceding letter, Mr. Snub begged to from the bones contained in them, are among the most say, that he did not agree with his friend in supposing remarkable phenomena in geology. No satisfactory ex

that the vessel received its vitrified coating from being planation can, in fact, be proposed of their production in been found, both by reasoning from general used in cooking, as if this had been the case, it would the places where they are found, nor of the resemblance and from facts, that man in bis rude state is in only have been vitrified on the outside. But still he which they bear to each other, with respect as well to the on of very few utensils to add to his comfort ; a thought Mr. Grub right in the hypothesis as to its age, nature of the rocks in which they are excavated, as to the or hollowed log to hold his provisions, and a log for we know the ancient Caledonians were acquainted with matter contained in them ; neither can any reason be in his wretched hut, are all he has; indeed, in the process of vitrifying; witness the remains of their vi- given why they are limited to the coasts of the Mediterrude state, it is extremely probable that he has trified forts. This being his opinion, he was led to think jut, log, nor bag, and when he wishes to rest himself that the vessel was intended for a higher purpose than The nature of the bones, deposited in these clefts, adds likely would sit down on his hams on the ground: cooking, for he thought the Caledonians would hardly much to the interest which they excite, since it proves opinion being founded rather on reasoning than have taken so much trouble about any cooking dish. He that their formation took place at a much more ancient is rather without the strict bounds of antiquarian took it to be a fragment of some vessel used in Druidical period than has, till now, been supposed. They do not, Among the first steps, however, that man attains worship. Whatever it was he thought it well deserving in fact, belong to ruminants of the countries where they ation, is, no doubt, the making of crockery; and deep consideration.

are found, but to races of animals contemporary with the ge, copying nature, forms his utensils round, or in The society ordered the letter to be printed, with Mr. fossil elephant and rhinoceros. It may, therefore, be al form : indeed, square things are more difficult Snub's remarks.

concluded, that the only reason why the bones of these · and nature, from which he copies, very rarely

quadrupeds are not also found in the same clefts is, that ings square. From these circumstances I am in. Sir, I have copied the preceding from a report of an their large dimensions have prevented them from falling think that this is of Caledonian manufacture, and antiquarian society, which my worthy uncle, Mr. Grub, into them. - remote period. That it is not Roman I think is has just received. He has had the precious relic, referred The principal osseous clefts are those of Gibraltar, Anas I believe that nation made use, in general, of to above, stuck upon the table of his study, covered with tibes, Nice, &c. The examination of them has tended sking dishes; at any rate, it is not likely they a bell glass, among Etruscan vases, pigs and pots, iron- much to bring to perfection the study of antediluvian ing any other to so distant a station. Although pans, knife.blades, and broken skull-caps, dirks and ar- zoology, since it has been the means of making known lecided as to the cavse of the vitrious coating, yet mour, used, good lack! in the wars of Noah's grandfather; fourteen or fifteen species of animals, of moderate size, think it arises from accident, as the coating of and, indeed, it looks nearly as well as a piece of crockery which had never been found elsewhere. shows a rather further advanced state of civiliza- which he has, and which he verily believes is part of All circumstances concur to prove, that the rocks, in · I am inclined to allow to the makers of this relic Japhet's porringer. Indeed, it is amazing to me, that, which these osseous clefts are formed, were dry at the gone by.

when seeing the two together, it did not strike him that time of their formation : the bones and fragments of stone,

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ranean.

contained in the clefts, have, says M. Cuvier, fallen suc- menon. The bones of the auroch are, in many places, opinions, if it had not since been ascertained that they had cessively into them, and have since been held together by found buried with those of the elephant. This is the case been precipitated, at no very distant period, into clets, the cement that was gradually accumulated there. The in the Val d'Arno.

where they remained during some centuries, covered with stones generally proceed from the rock to which the cleft

But, although many discoveries tend to prove incontes. Stony and earthy matter, and that they were at legli belongs.

tably that the antediluvian world was, in many respects, accidentally dug up by workmen, to the great astonist The osseous clefts have preserved for us numerous re- very different from that now inhabited by us, there are, ment of people who did not consider the nature of tt mains of ruminants; the caverns containing bones afford on the contrary, others, by means of which it is known, places where they were found. us the means of improving our knowledge of the carnivo. that carnivorous animals formerly existed in nearly the A theologian, of the name of Scheuchzer, author of rous animals contemporary with them. You have most the same proportion that they now exist, and that their system; upon the theory of the earth, was led into error, probably, Madam, heard of these famous caverns; the way of living was very similar. It may also be remarked, a different manner. He had found some bones, realy i most celebrated are those found in the country of Blanck- that the carnivorous animals found in caverns, which were a fossil state, buried in very ancient soil, and publistel enbourg, and in the Electorate of Hanover, which have contemporary with the elephant and rhinoceroses of our an account of the discovery, under the title Hema dileri been described by Leibnitz. It would be very erroneous countries, differed much less from the present races of car- testis. These remains proved to be the skeleton of a large to suppose that these ancient dens of wild beasts are mere nivorous animals, than the herbivorous animals of the lizard, of the genus proteus, which, like most of the res. cavities, excavated in rocks to the depth of a few feet. same period differ from those known to us. The fossil tiles of the ancient world, was much superioris site to the Represent to yourself a succession of numerous grottos, great bear, great tiger or lion, and hyæna, although very animals of the corresponding species now liring, ornamented with stalactites of all forms, exceedingly va similar to the animals analogous to them now living, do The discovery of the petrified men of Guadalence riable in height and breadth, and communicating with indeed, nevertheless, belong to extinct species ; but it is seemed, during a long time, favourable to the musien et one another by apertures so narrow that a man can hardly impossible satisfactorily to distinguish the other carnivorous the antediluvian antiquity of the human specia. Tie creep through them.

animals found in caverns, from the corresponding species French government having heard accounts of this phens, These grottos often extend to very considerable dis- of the present day.

menon, ordered researches to be made for the banes in tances. A modern naturalist (M. de Valpi) who explored But, Madam, though these ancient caverns are ex- question; but, in the mean time, the colony fell into the a series of them, advanced within them three whole leagues, ceedingly interesting on account of the remains contained possession of the English, and they reaped the advantage almost constantly in the same direction. His further pro- in them, there is another circumstance which renders thein of the discovery. Nevertheless, our Museum coran gress was prevented by a lake, which he had no means of still more curious; I mean the absence of the bones of many very curious parts of these remains, from ti crossing. At the end of two leagues he found bones, certain animals, whose species may thence be reasonably positive conclusions may be drawo. which he supposed to have belonged to the palcotherium ; supposed not to have been in existence at that time. The bones of Guadaloupe evidently belong to the but M. Cuvier has recognised them to be the remains of a It is a very important consideration, that human species; but they are not fossil bones. It is trze that is large species of bear, known under the name of bear of the bones are not in the number of those found in the caverns. are surrounded by the stony substance in which they caverns, whose bones are more common in these subterra- Now, as the hyænas of that period, like those of the pre. fixed; but this substance is not incorporated with the nean places than those of any other species.

sent time, dug up from the earth the dead bodies of all They evidently belong to men, who, at a period, pers Bones of tigers, wolves, foxes, and weasels, are also sorts of animals indiscriminately, in order to carry them not very remote, were shipwrecked upon the cases, found in caverns. The remains of the hyæna species are away to their dens, it cannot be supposed that they would remained buried there. The layer, in which they particularly nunerous there. The hyænas of the ancient have spared the bodies of men, had the human race then found, consists of a collection of shells reduced to world had the same propensity as those of the present day been in existence.

and connected together by a strong cement. Tot for digging up dead bodies, in order to carry the bones to The same remark may be made, with respect to the undergone no alteration, except that occasioned by their dens, where they ground them with their teeth, numerous families of monkeys. Not a single bone has length of time that has elapsed since the period de which were of a form peculiarly adapted by nature for the been found in the caverns, by which it may be inferred deposition. There is nothing in their appearana te mastication of the hardest substances. These creatures that they existed at the period of which we are speaking. bling fossilisation, which is, in fact, a new modifate contributed, no doubt, more than any other carnivorous The bones of bats have never been found in a fossil any substance effected by the creative powers of the animals, to fill the places of their refuge with the bones state, nor, in general, any trace of the genus quadruma ter in which it is enclosed. Now I repeat that matur of herbivorous animals and large quadrupeds of every nus, which contains the primates of Linnæus.

it now exists in the mineral kiagdom, seems to be species. They did not even spare their own species ; for You are aware, Madam, that the existence or non-ex- longer endued with a sufficient degree of activity of it has been remarked, that their bones are not less broken istence of the human race, at the period in question, is our duce this effect. than those of the other animals buried with them. most interesting subject of inqairy.

The fact, that fossil human bones have never been fel There has even been found a fractured skull of a hyæna, Now, according to the observations quoted by many is the most convincing proof that nature is, in her per bearing evident marks that the fracture had been healed; authors, no fact has been better ascertained than the fos- state, incapable of effecting fossilisation. Mar is bad it was, therefore, probably, the result of one of the silisation of human remains, although they have not been perish, in every possible variety of circumstances : te combats which so frequently take place amongst these found in the caverns. It has even been recently an- dies of miners remain buried in mines; navigator animals.

nounced, that human skulls, and other bones, have been precipitated to the bottom of the sea ; fishermen peri Very few remains of carnivorous animals are found in found mixed with the remains of clephants. It is af- rivers; human remains are confided to the earth, ize the large light layers, containing so many remains of the firmed, that the form of these bones, particularly of the latitude, from the poles to the equator—and they are herbivorous animals contemporary with them. Remains skulls, denotes the existence of an ancient race of men, where found in a fossil state. Fossilisation, there of the species of the hyæna bave been found in considerable very different from that now inhabiting the globe. does not depend upon any degree of temperater, quantities at Cronstadt, near Aichstedt. Some bones of But before we decide on this subject, we must wait for climate, the nature of the soil, &c. bears have also been discovered in other places ; but the the publication of the documents, in which it is treated, Bat, perhaps it may be suggested, that hume number of them is very small, compared with the prodi- and for the judgment of the men, who ought, in these have not been found in a fossil state, because they gious quantities contained in the caverns. matters, to be the guides of public opinion.

capable than the bones of other animals of racer The greatest part of the bones contained in the caverns I may also observe, that we have not yet received suf. causes of destruction, which tend to decompose des the most anciently known, and the most frequented, have ficiently authentic information respecting the pretended fore the surrounding bodies have had time *** beer removed from them. These singular places were, human skulls found in caverns, which must have belonged them. This supposition is not admissible ; size kif during a long time, objects of curiosity to the neighbour lo men who had no incisive teeth.

perceived, that human bones, left upon the field or ing people; and, as medicinal virtues were attributed to I shall merely inform you, in this letter, what are the experience a more speedy decay than the benes of the bones deposited in them, they were carried away in grounds of all the opinions that have been advanced with subjected to the same causes of destruction. order to be sold to apothecaries, who preserved them, under regard to the fossilisation of human remains.

Human remains have been found in the faciles of the name of licorne fossile.

First, it is now acknowledged, that mistakes have fre- ancient church of Sainte Genevieve, which must have The existence of these caverns is a very curious pheno. quently been occasioned, by the difficulty of distinguish- buried there during the earliest period of the macard menon in every respect : the remains deposited in them ing the nature of the soil, in which the human bones that and which, probably, belonged to the princes of the prove to ug that animals, of species, genera, and classes, have been found were deposited.

race: they had, nevertheless, preserved their form, entirely different from each other, lived together, during No positive inference can be drawn from the inspection Animals, not exceeding the mouse in size, and de wie ancient order of things

, although the species analogous of those found in places retaining traces of works formed greater antiquity than the fossil elephants, have been to them cannot, at the

present period, support the same by the hands of men, since, at however great depths they in a fossil state; there is, therefore, no reason why climate. Thus, animals, now found only in the torria may be, they are buried in alluvial scil, deposited since bones of men should not also be discovered, if they zone, formerly lived in the same countries with species the existence of the last order of things.

been subjected to the causes of fossilisation is furoza Bow known to exist only in the coldest regions.

The human bones found incrustated in the interior of circumstances. The history of fossils presents us with the same pheno rocks, might more easily have given risc to erroneous There are, nevertheless, sufficient proofs, that is

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