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Celestial voices, soft and clear,
Oh ! let me enter into rest!
To watch the moonbeam's flickering play,
“ Remember'st thou—but here my trembling volce
O'er proud achievements can no more rejoice;
Eventful time may those bright days restore,
Til then, old man, our mingled tears shall pour;
But o'er my cot should Death's cold pinions ware,
And lull ny sorrows in the tranquil grave,
While calmly close my eyes on all below,
Thou may'st repeat once more— remember'st thou.'
I've mark'd yon moon glide thro' the azure sky,
When all was calm as in a summer's lake,
And when the thunder spirit forth did fly,
Still thro' his cloudy mantle would she breat.
The lovely streamlet in yon woody dell,
Unchangingly has murmured in its bed;
And the sad tree, which o'er its waters fell,
In childhood's days, still droops its sorrowing band.
I've mark'd a form of love, in whose wild gaze
Hope's dying beam was struggling with Despair,
Bow at his foot, who once had joy'd to praise
The wreck of loveliness now trembling there:
But he had chang'd—and now his freezing eye
Stung the pale sufferer's heart and bade ber die.
Fairfield, near Manchester.
TO THE EDITOR
project, of giving so full a scope to the improvemesi REMEMBEREST THOU ?
your young classical friends, I (boasting of that privile
herewith inclose you a few lines, the spontaneous esias A translation of the beautiful French Song, "Te souviene tu o of my own uncultivated muse, hoping that, if they kn
anticipated by a more beautiful, and therefore more du “Remember'st thou," 'twas thus a warrior chief
serving copy, on the same subject, you will grant the Address'd a vet'ran who implored relief,
though imperfeet, publicity through either of your ess “ Remember'st thou, when 'mid the battle's tide,
lent miscellanies. By doing which you will induce a The sword that sought my breast thou turn'dst aside ?
again to occupy a few minutes in your behalf, as well Beneath the colours of our dear-lov'd land,
oblige-Yours, very truly,
ALIQUIS We both then fought the foeman hand to hand ; My rescued life will e'er thy feats avow,
DE VERE. But soldier, say, that field remember'st thou? “ Remember'st thou those days, too swiftly down,
Pandite nunc hyemis portas admittere veris Whose brilliant course brought France such high renown?
Tempora, quum grato flore virescit humus Remember st thou on Egypt's wond'rous piles
En pastor pecudes lætos ad flumina ducit, We grav'd the record of our fame and toils;
Ubera nunc hædum pendula lacte fovent And with a conqueror's waving hand unfurld
Huc venit agrestis comitanti vomere campos, Our standard o'er the cradle of the world,
Visere, quos quondam sæva gelavit hyems Though winds, and waves, and deserts join'd the foe?
Aspiciens frondem nascentem ex arbore gaudet Say, soldier, say, those deeds remember'st thou ?
Et rigat herbosos fertilis imber agros. “ Remember'st thou Italia's martial host,
Nunc videt, ut pullos damno gallina tuetur, Before our ranks her brightest laurels lost?
Ut vocat inveniens quodque juvabit eos Remember'st thou Iberia's chieftain's proud
Hic sator observans sequitur vestigia tauri, The prostrate knee before our columns bow'd ?
Atque manu plenâ semina spargit humo Remember'st thou Germania's glorious plain,
Sol sequitur solem noctem nox ordine grato, Where four short suns embrac'd our bright campaign,
Et fortuna suum fausta coronat opus And swift-wing'd vict'ry wreath'd each hero's brow,
Nunc labente die labor absit, et alma voluptas Say, soldier, say, those days remember'st thou?
Hic manet, et curis corda domusque Vacani
Nunc cratera mero cingunt, et pocula spumant " Remember'st thou, when 'mid the frozen North,
Muneribus Bacchi, dum venit alma sopor. Our victor bands were proudly marshalld forth;
Quum splendore micat solito lux crastina redden When pillar'd snows benumb'd each wearied frame,
Sudores homini, quos toleravit herl But could not quench our bosom's martial flame?
Luce torum primâ genialem linquit agrestis, Our frequent sighs then mix'd with wide alarms,
Et laudat servis progenieque Deum But when th' inspiring trumpet call'd—'to arms!
Tunc opus assequitur gaudens in jugera culta, Each tearful eye resum'd its wonted glow;
Hic viyit felix, atque beatus abit. Say, soldier, say, those toils remember'st thou ? “ Remember'st thou that day's inglorious doom,
• The antepenultima of “agrestis“ being comma
supra. When living France sank nerveless to the tomb; When fair Lutetia, friendless and undone,
EPIGRAM. Beheld her courts by haughty foes o'errun?
On a Cantab who was pluck'd for Orders. Deep in thy heart engrave that day accurst,
Ned cut off his queue, and was powder'd with care, And when, at length, stern war our chains shall burst,
Yet sadly mistaken was Ned, Ne'er let thy chieftain ask, with angry brow,
For tho' he had taken such pains with his hair, Soldierl thy country's wrongs remember'st thou ?'
The Bishop found fault with his head,
The sun had sunk in western clouds,
And twilight spread its mantle still,
I pass'd the hamlet, school, and mill;
And rest in rose and woodbine bower,
From many a Uttle pencil'd Aower.
ON CÆSAR-A FAVOURITE DOG.
"The cat will mew, the dog will have his day."
Ambition's tooth dispersed through Cæsar's veins,
Cæsar life still enjoys, nor hutch and chain
Literature, Criticism, &c.
Good heavens! I really haven't patience
To see how soon on such occasions
Some folks forget all moderation,
And write themselves into a passion.
Oh! quam terribiles exarsit pronus in iras !!
TO THE EDITOR.
SIR, --It is, I believe, the purport of some" wise saw," Now slaughter bids her thirsty minions cease,
that “two to one are enough to kill a man;" and I exTo bless once more the canine world with peace
pected that we should last week have seen a “modern When on a luckless day a rabble throng
instance" of its truth, in the controversy that has so long Hooting a poor half-famished cur along:
trespassed upon the columns of the Kaleidoscope, and His blood with madness fires, his legs he plies,
exercised the patience of its readers. My calculations And snaps each living object as he Nies;
have, however, proved erroneous ; the stout-hearted But ere “the King of Terrors" crossd his path,
Anti-Sutor has again advanced resolutely “into the And check'd the kindled foamings of his wrath,
bowels of the battle,” hacking and hewing at the arguHis fang, envenom'd, entered Cæsar's hide
ments of his three opponents, like a very Achilles, The fatal bullet reach'd him, and he died.
strengthed, I presume, by the reflection, that
“ Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just." Then death ignoble stay'd his bright career,
I conceive that your unflinching correspondent is rather And left a memory to friendship dear.
testy and choleric; accordingly, I shall so far “observe his humour," as to apologize for the liberty I am about to take, in comparing him to that fabulous "many-headed"
monster of antiquity, the Sernaan Hydra. It certainly did DER FREISCHUTZ.
appear to me, that the convincing reasoning of Y. 2. had A NEW SONG TO THE TUNE OP—“OH, MISS BAILLIB! UNFOM lopped away the heads of his discourse; and I concluded, TUNATR MISS BAILLIE!
* that when the brains were out, the man would die ;". (Prom a London paper of a few weeks back.] but, behold! he has again “risen in his place,” more
vigorous than ever; and displaying a most marvellons On Friday, at Drury-lane, they gave the Winter's Tale. multiplication of hostile visages, he asserts that The house was full of coughs and orders, though, in general, Sapio and the Freischutz are the only things that
"E'en tho' vanquished, he can argue still." fill the house. Foreign names are the only things ihat go In a former communication, I had occasion to acknow. smoothly down at present; if they have all the consonantsin ledge my gratitude to my redoubcable opponent for his the alphabet in them, so much the better. We have so little kind civilicy; and I am now happy to congratulate him to say about theatricals this week, that we shall take the liberty of filling up the space with a song, which we have on his excessive modesty. He “ knows too well” that just received from a correspondent, on the Freischutz:
self-praise is always ur becoming, and he has hastened to A chevalier of Hanover, with crotchet, breve, and quaver,
disclaim, with the utmost gravity, any the slightest intenis quite the rage, and Shield and Arne are now quite out of tion of setting up for a “second Daniel." Verily, in this favour:
instance, we can attach no credit to the sincerity of his
It is the witness still of excellency,
To set a strange face on its own perfection.
But your impartial readers will not be guilty of the same Commend me to Von Weber
injustice; they will bestow the meed of praise on that Mozart himself is quite forgot, and even for Rossini,
eminent perfection; they will behold, with due admira. John Bull (who paid him once so well) now does not care a tion, the modest ingenuity that detected, and pointed out,
possessor to declare, “ that he had proved that his antago. The dull, eternal Freischutz;
gist had neglected the study of his own language;" and Weber's first, and most accurst, The everlasting Freischutz!
they will vote him well entitled to that elevated station, At the Lyceum first we had this thing of fire and fury,
from which his modesty alone has induced him to shrink. At Covent Garden next, and now, we have it at Old Drurs;
4. S. has told us, that he cannot comprehend the meanWith hell-fire blasting, bullets casting, fiends and females ing of the allusion to the fox; but has, at the same time,
erying, Chorus singing, owlets swinging, and the Frieschutz frying! is not in a similar predicament; and, to do him justice, a
taken occasion to produce a most convincing proof that he Oh, the Freischutz, The dull, eternal Freischutz;
most magnificent brush he has displayed. When I first Weber's first, and most accurst,
saw " the very fantastical banquet” of learned fragments His everlasting Freichutz!
that he has introduced in his last epistle, I was, of a truth, But let us not forget to praise that milk white owl so rare, sore afraid, and was tempted to exclaim, with Jack Cade, Whom Shakspeare's witches thought of when they said," that " Away with him! away with him! he speaks Latin."
fowl was fair :"
Till then I flattered myself that I had withstood the vehe-
material injury ; but when, resolved to foil me at my own The dull, eternal Freischutz, Weber's first--but not his worst
weapons, he came forward "collected in his might,” and The dull, eternal Freischutz.
opened against my “devoted head” such a tremendous At Covent-garden they intend to get another opera
fire of quotations, “ of all sizes and calibres," I quailed or Weber's up, to which I don't intend to give a copper-a;
before the "pelting of the pitiless storm,” and my heart In wonders, and in blunders, and in thunders, 'tis so scanty-sunk within me in exceeding great fear. I acknowledge Oh, how unlike the Freischutz is the stupid Euryanthe! the enormous presumption of the allusion, and, in deep
contrition, I hasten to express my full belief, that he no Gaping, scraping, squalling, bawling.
more resembles the unlucky fox, than any "three-tailed Drawling, Euryanthe!
Bashaw" in the Turkish dominions.
There is one part of A. S.'s (sit nullum in omine pon. But it would be pedantic and futile for me to sally forth at two miles an hour, would impel it at ten or twenty mile dus !) epistle that I cannot at present comprehend, with into a field of inquiry so often and so ably explored; and an hour, if an extra force were employed at first to overcome
the inertia of the car, and generate the required velocity: the utmost exertion of my ingenuity, and that is the para- I hope that this hasty note may creep into a snug corner Your correspondent, A B C, explains the nature of the fora graph wherein he adverts to a certain prospectus. Now, of the Kaleidoscope, and hide its diminished head, without to be employed, by reference to a weight passing over a pule, with the saiù prospectus, and every thing thereunto apper- either provoking warfare or fanning the bright flames of and descending with an accelerated motion, and further egg taining, I am totally unacquainted ; and, in contradiction controversy.
tends that the constant action of the steam-engine is a powe
of the same kind. to his “must," I beg leave to state, that I have not read it, and, consequently, am not able to gratify him by
In my last communication, I observed an error, which which I think I shall be able to prove that the starting
I shall adopt the Illustration of a weight and pulley, bt delivering my opinion on the subject. I have merely to
must have arisen from the compositor having mistaken conclusions, attempted to be drawn, are altogether erronezak remark, that the arrogance of the little author of the pros- my n for u, and o for i, as my writing is often very in. In the first place, I will admit that “the frietion is the
same for all velocities;" that is, it is the same in equal retrt. pectus alluded to is surely not inferior to the superlative distinct. assurance of the man, who, in a miserable tirade, stigma- I forgot to mention that a friend of mine has tried The friction on a surface of three feet is the same, whether
the carriage move at the rate of four or fourteen miles per tizes, as Gothic and barbarous, a practice that is supported various experiments with spiders, the result of which I hour; but it does not follow that the quantum of frietjen pred by the example of the brightest and most illustrious or. shall submit to your consideration at a convenient season. therefore, of resistance) is the same in fourteen milesus infrar. naments of the literature of the present day.
It is rather singular that Virgil (Geor. iii. 409) should on the contrary, it will be found that the quantum ef ra In concluding my last, I was induced, by a gentle spirit make mention of wild asses ; " but certain it is, that he sistance, from friction, is in proportion to the dista: ofer?
come; in equal times, therefore, the quantity of leat, of charity, to submit a wholesome piece of advice to the does mention them, and in one place only, which might
at the rate of twelve miles per hour, will be there to v notice of your correspondent; and, in return for this offi- give us reason to suppose that they once existed in Italy, great as at the rate of four mlles per hour; tberedare, the cious conduct, I was rewarded by sundry " hits,” which, unless we conjecture that he gives the appellation to a power employed must be increased in the same propcartzen though certainly not palpuble, were administered with distinct class of animals.
O. R. We will illustrate this by reference to the weight and pules, great good will, and indicated a violent effervescence of
• “ Sæpe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros." wrath in the giver. To this treatment I submit, and con
Let B be the body to fess that I have richly merited it, for I cast my pearls, &c.
be moved; W the weight and I ought neither to marvel, nor murmur, because my
connected with the bo
dy to be moved, by a ill.advised kindness has subjected me to an uncourteous (Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve line passing over a pul. demonstration of gratitude.--Yours, &c.
ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin- ley, x. The distance January 5, 1825.
gular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. from B to x the same
Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; the weight w be 1, and its velocity, v, 3. The worlog
Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;- power, therefore, is W », being the weight multiplied
to be continued in a series through the Volume.) into its velocity, or 3x1=3. “Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere liter."-Ecl. iv.
Now, in order to make the body move over double RAIL-ROADS AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX.
the space in the same time, we shall find that it is (Continued
from our former papers.) TO THE EDITOR.
necessary to double the power, the quantum of resist SIR,-Perhaps, as an old correspondent, you may not In the Mercury, dated December 17, we were the the same in each case. The subjoined Agure will show
ance being doubled, although the ratio of friction is deny me the pleasure of casting in my mite, and lifting first to question the reasoning of a very able writer in the the manner in which this double velocity is accou * up my head amid the seges clypeata which enters the Scotsman, who laid it down as a law, that, “ abstracting plished withdouble power. lists, and seems to crowd with " bristling spears” the the resistance of the air, if a car were set in motion on a
Fig. 2. arena of ancient learning and modern erudition. Your level rail-way, with a constant force greater in any decorrespondent, Y. Z. very justly observes, that transla-gree than is required to overcome its friction, the car - tion, or attempted translation, must materially deteriorate would proceed with a motion continually accelerated, the sense of an ancient poet, or classical historian, as well like a falling body, acted upon by the force of gravitation; as destroy that pith and laconicism which characterized and, however small the original velocity might be, it the original expression ; but, in almost numberless in- would, in time, increase beyond any assignable limit.” stances, it also banishes that sound or harmony of words The whole of the article in support of this strange suited to the subject, which critics have so ably com- position has been copied into several of the London and mented and enlarged upon. Thus, in Virgil's first provincial papers without any comment; and we believe diameter of the pulley in the former experiment, and
B 1s attached by a llne to a pulley, y, of double the eclogue, what reader can overlook the resemblance of this the reasoning bad passed undisputed until we ventured by this means is drawn over twice the space. I line to the sound of a pipe:
to question its correctness.* As we must abide by the attached by a line to the same pulley as before, which “ Formosam resonare doces Amarillida sylvas.”
consequences of our temerity, should we be in error, we pulley is fastened to the pulley y, and turns upon the and in the third Georgic, where two sturdy bulls are may be allowed to claim the merit of having brought the at a mechanical disadvantage of one-half as compared
same centre. Now it is evident that the weight 7 acts joining battle, to contend for the field, their efforts, as they subject to the test of investigation, if our views of the with the resisting body, B; therefore, if the ratio of struggle and bellow, are almost presented to the ear, as point at issue should ultimately prove correct.
friction of B continue the same, yet the quantity being well as the eye, by the following lines:
In the Mercury of the 24th of December, we published doubled, the power to overcome it must be doubled “ Versaque in obnixos urgentur cornua vasto a letter of a correspondent, who, like ourselves, conceived weight, which will now be 1x1=2. Its velocity 2
To obtain this increased power, we will double the Cum gemitu ; reboant sylvæque et magnus Olympus.” the paradox under consideration to be untenable. That be the same, and, consequently, the space passed
GEOR. III. 222. letter was succeeded by another from a gentleman, who, through will be the same, viz, from 2 to G. The port, And in that very beautiful description of wintry Scythia, under the signature of A B C, contended for the existence therefore, will still be " v; that is, 2x3=6, latin and Rhodope, which Thompson has so closely imitated, of the apparent paradox. The letter which we now pre.
double the power which was required in the fornis when he describes the hunting of deer in the snow, that sent to our readers is intended as an answer to that of
experiment. his lines might be taken for a literal translation of it. A B C in the Mercury of Jan. 7. Thus we may hope notions of your correspondent, A B C. He support
But I am willing to take my illustration seerrings Virgil thus represents these animals contending with the that the point will be soon set completely at rest, one way the line attached to the weight w, and that attached to opposing mountains : or the other.
body B, pass over one and the same pulley. It follows! “ Confertoque agmine cervi
in order to double the velocity of B, you must doakan T'orpent molâ novâ, et summis vix cornibus extant : TO THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY.
city of W, which he proposes to effect by some extra Hos non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis, GENTLEMEN,— I think it will not be dificult to demonstrate result, however, is exactly the same. W will still be bi
impulse, to be maintained by the force of gravitation Puniceave agitant pavidos formidine pennæ ;
the fallacy of the reasoning on which this supposed paradox
v (its velocity) will be 6; therefore, the real power, ** Sed frustra oppositnm trudentes pectore montem."
and sliding bodies is the same for all velocities ;" and that
Now it is abundantly evident that the operation of a And throughout the tale of Orpheus and Euridice the of the air, if a car
were set in motion on a level rail-way engine is similar to that of the power in figure 2, nimel beauties of Latin poetry are highly conspicuous; where with a constant force, greater in any degree than is required weight, or pressure, moving through equal spaces in €
times. If it be required, therefore, to impart an inert the unfortunate lover is just on the threshhold of light, to overcome its friction, the car would proceed with a moand breaks the league of Orcus by looking back, a crash tion continually accelerated, like a falling body, acted upon velocity to the body or carriage, it must be effected was heard through the realms of Avernus: the words amount of constant force, which impels a car on a rail-way, of the engine, therefore, must be augmented in proporci by the force of gravitation;" and that "the very same plication or an increased diameter of the wheels, the
maintained at a mechanical disadvantage, viz. by a used have a certain hollowness of sound which accords
The whole of the original article from the Scotsman on very closely with the occasion :
the increase of velocity to be obtained. This conclusion this subject may be found in the Kaleidoscope of the 28th of destroy the paradox, but, I apprehend, will correspotid “ Terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis." December
the faet.-Yours, &c.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
ingly, by forming this vacuum under the piston by means | Danish, Norman (French), and Celtic. Each of these
of the condensation of steam, that Newcomen succeeded people introduced their language, literature, and cusin his improved steam-engine; and this continues, indeed, toms; and thus we derive from them the names given to
to be still the great principle of the engines of the present the days of the week, and to the months of the year. TO THE ADITOR.
day, namely, the creation of a vacuum under or above the 978,--As the least part of weight came at first from a piston. Mr. Brown, then, proposes to create this speedy
SUNDAY, heat corn, so the least part of iong measure was at first a vacuum by means of the combustion, for example, of coal The first day of the week, so called from its being set sleycorn, three of which with us in England were to make or oil gas, a gas-burner being lighted within the cylinder, apart by our Saxon ancestors for worshipping the idol of a inch; but as I stated in my first letter that the Avoirdu. and allowed to consume the internal air, part of which it the Sun. Sunnan-dæg, Saxon ; Sontay, Danish ; Sonday, is oance was derived from the Roman Uncia, so I now con. condenses into water. Now, admitting that this plan is Teutonic; Sonnday, German ; Sondagh, Dutch; Dies sd that the division of the foot into twelve inches (or unciæ) practicable, and that the machinery which Mr. Brown has Dominica vel Dominicus, Latin ; Dimanche, French. as not fortuitous, but certainly had its origin from the divi- described could be made to work with effect, let us see an of the As or Libra into twelve parts. The Roman Pes, or what would be the expense of this power. Coal.gas sells
MONDAY, ist, was divided into four palmi, or hand-breadths, twelve in Edinburgh at 123., oil-gas at 40s.: take the coal. gas, The second day of the week, was, in like manner, forplices, or thumb-breadths, and sixteen digiti, or finger. then, and suppose that every cubic foot of this gas is ca- merly devoted to the worship of the Moon.-Monandæg, eadths; each digitus was supposed equal to four barleycorns pable of creating an equal space of vacuum-a circum- Saxon ; Montay, German ; Maendagh, Belgic; Lundi, ardei grand consequently their foot was to ours as four to stance which is by no means proved even to half the ex. ree, or sixteen of our inches; but having, as I may call it
, tent; but let this advantage be set against the raising of French; Dies lunæ, vel feria secunda, Latin. opalar division into twelve parts, or unciæ, which had re- its water of condensation, and other impediments which ence to the As, I am of opinion we have retained the same the steam-engine may have to encounter; and suppose The third day of the week, was dedicated by the Saxons
TUESDAY, the division of our foot to the present day; and as the As that a steam-engine consumes 20 feet of steam per minute 23 applied to any thing divided into twelve parts, as an inhe. for every horse power, which will be found near the truth; to the worship of Tuisco, the most ancient and peculiar tance, an aere, liquid measure, or interest of money, it may then, by the same rule, a gas-engine would consume the idol of the Teutonics, supposed by some to be the same as of perhaps be thought too bold, to hazard a conjecture that same quantity, which is equal to 12,000 feet per day, and Mars (the god of war) of the Romans.-- Tuesdæg, Saxon ; ve word assize is also derived from the same term, and not would cost, therefore, £7 4s. per horse power, for gas Mardi, French; Dienstay, German ; Dies Martis, vel feria om Assis, the participle of the French verb Asseoir, signify alone. Such a sum, however, would maintain at least 30 tertia, Latin. 13 a sitting of the Judges to hear and determine causes,—but horses, and this consideration alone is sufficient to prove D Assise, signifying mensura, or the apportioning to every that the engine has no chance of success, let its mechanism
WEDNESDAY, 103 throughout their circuits equal justice in equal scales, and operations be ever so perfect; unless, indeed, it can The fourth day of the week, was heretofore set apart for rom this word likewise comes the assize ofbread, the assize creating 30 cubic feet of vacuity, instead of only half a Wodnesdæg, Saxon ; Wonsda, Danish ; Weensdagh, Bel
be shown, that every cubic foot of gas is capable of the worship of the idol Woden (the Mars of the Germans.) weights and measures, “Celui qui regle les Poids et les Me foot, the usual estimate of chymists. Where the gas has gic; Mitwoch, German ; Mercredi, or Mécredi, French;
* See Miege's Dictionary. Hence, perhaps, and with great eredee to better authority, the appointment of twelve Judges to be made on purpose for the engine, its application apA twelve jurymen may have had the same origin; for pears still more dubious, as gas-making forms a business Dies Mercurii, vel feria quarta, Latin. ing the Romans an inheritance was commonly divided abundantly nice and complex of itself, and quite incomOtwelve parts, called Unciæ: the whole was called As. patible with that simplicity, which every mechanical power The fifth day of the week, on which the idol Thor was ies, theres er esse, Heir to the whole; ueres ex semisse
, ex should possess
.--Constable's Edinburgh Philosophical worshipped. —Thoresdæg, Saxon; Donnerstay, Teutonic sl, dodrante, Heirs to the half-third, three-fourths, &c.
and German; Thorlday, Danish ; Jeudi, French; Dies mificant as the subject may appear to the incurious, it is,
Jovis, vel feria quinta, Latin. erer, evident, that our division of the common foot is not uitous, but derived from the Roman Pes, whilst masters
PRIDAY, his isiand, at least 1800 years ago; and that to their divi.
The sixth day of the week, anciently devoted to Friga, the 1 of the As or Libra into Uoeiæ, we owe both our avoirdu
Venus of the Saxons, so called from frigan (Gothic) to donee and inch, both of which being now established by ON THE NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK, &c.
love.- Frigedæg, Saxon; Freytay, Teutonic and Gerhment on scientific principles, may be considered as perated and doubly "Imperial.”
man; Vendredi, French; Dies Veneris, vel feria sexta,
Latin. ekstone says, “Our ancient historians inform us, that a
SIR,-I was asked by a young friend the other evening, yard of longitudinal measure was ascertained by King
SATURDAY, 17 L who commanded that the Ulna, or ancient ell, who was at home for the Christmas vacation, to give an leb answers to our modern yard, should be made of the explanation of the names that are assigned to the days of Seventh day of the week, was appropriated by the ancient et length of his own arm; and one standard of measure the week, and the months of the
year. The youthful mind Saxons to the worship of Seater, the Saturn of the Roemetle being sained, all others are easily derived from is extremely inquisitive, and it is highly proper to satisfy mans.—Seaterdæg, Saxon ; Samedi, French
; Sonnabend, Ice; superficial measures are derived by squaring those of the inquiries of youth, when information is sought on
or Samstay, German; Dies Saturni, vel feria septima, th, and measures of capacity by cubing them ;-- that un
Latin; Sabado, Spanish and Portuguese; Sabato, Italian. King Richard I. in his Parliament holden at Westminster, subjects as are suitable to their capacity. 1197, it was ordained, that the custody of the Assize or Presuming that an explanation of these names may
be in persons in every city and borough. These original holiday season, and that it may not be uninteresting to. derd of weights and measures, should be committed to acceptable to many of your juvenile readers, during this The seventh day of the week, was observed as a day of
rest, in commemoration of God's resting after the sixth are by a variety of subsequent statutes to be kept in the some who have attained the years of maturity without day of the creation. It is still kept by the Jews on Sa. lequet, and all weights and measures to be made conform-investigating the subject, I shall make no further preface turday: the meaning of the Hebrew word for Sabbath is thereto; but, as Sir Edward Coke observes, though this or apology than the following :
As Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the first day so often by authority of Parliament been enacted, yet it Dever be effected, so forcible is custom with the multi
The Romans, under Julius Cæsar (who was assassinated of the week, Christians have since set apart that day (Sun. The yard being now determined by the present act of at Rome, before Christ 43 years) invaded Britain, and day) instead of Saturday, for religious worship; and it is,
therefore, by many, called “ The Lord's Day."-Sabba. ament on mathematical principles, and a strict uniformity converted this island into a Roman colony, imposing an sights and measures throughout the kingdom established, annual tribute on the inhabitants. This subjugation con thum, Latin ; Sabbat, French ; Sabbath, German. anticipated that great and increased advantage to the tinued for several centuries, until the Romans were com
JANUARY, e must be the consequence of its adoption.--Yours, &c. umber 7, 1824.
pelled to withdraw their forces from Britain for their own The first month in the year, so called from Janus, the protection. The Britons being much harrassed by the most ancient of the kings of Italy who was deified after
Picts and Scots, invited over the Saxons to assist them in his death.-Januarius (quaia Jano sacratus) Latin ; Janu. BROWN'S GAS VACUUM WACHINE.
repelling those rude invaders ; but the Britons soon found arius, Januar, or Jenner, German; Janvier, French. Iris machine having excited considerable attention that these allies became enemies, possessed themselves of
FEBRUARY, here and in England, we consider it right to state their country, and in the year 828 united the heptarchy The second month of the year, so called from Februis pinion in regard to it. We shall feel happy, both on (or government of seven Saxon kings, under whom Eng. (Latin) i. c. the expiatory sacrifices offered up by the been mistaken in the view we are now to lay before gland was divided) into one kingdom under Egbert, who Romans for the purifying of the people in this month. eaters. In this period of boun:lless speculation too first assumed the title of King of England. The Danes – Februaris (dict. quod tum in extremo mense anni popucaution cannot be used. The object of this engine, afterwards invaded England, and although they were suc- lus februaretur, i. e. lustraretur et purgaretur) Latin name implies, is to obtain power by means of the cessfully opposed by Alfred, and Edward the Elder, the Februarius, Februar, or Hornung, German; Ferrier, im created by the combustion of inflammable gas. Danish princes, Canute, Harold, and Hardicanute, suc- French. vell known in mechanics, that a vacuum, in whatever
MARCH, t is produced, forms the source of great mechanical cessively, enjoyed the English throne. In 1041 the Saxons : It was by means of a vacuum, produced by the again got possession of power, and Edward the Confessor | The third month of the year, dedicated by the Romans to asation of steam, that Captain Savery contrived to and Harold the Second ruled as kings, until William the Mars.-Martius, Latin; Mars, French; Martuis or Marz, water in his steam-engine. It was also remarked by Norman (styled the Conqueror) defeated Harold at Hast-German. The Romans used to compute the year begin. elebrated mechanic, Dr. Hook, in regard to some which had been proposed for working by means of a
ings, and William was crowned King of England in 1066. ning with March as the first month. 1, " If (said he) a speedy vacuum could be made This sketch of British history is sufficient to account for r your piston, your work is done." It was accords' the English language being a compound of Latin, Saxon, The fourth month of the year, deriving its name froin
TO THE EDITOR.
Aprilis, (Latin) q. Apertilis, ab aperiendo,mopening; be- and influence of the sun, about which it moves annually
Advertisements. eause in this month vegetation opens and buds; April, in an orbit almost circular. Hence, by its inclination, the French and German. earth gives us that change of seasons so necessary to the
CHRONOLOGY AND HISTORY. MAY, animal and vegetable world. The moon, “ like Juno's This day was published, price £1 168. elegantly engraved, it
printed on double Imperial Drawing-paper, coloured, tu The fifth month of the year, called by Romulus, Maius, swans, coupled and inseperable," attends it, and is like- nished, and mounted on Rollers, from Majores (Latin) out of respect to the senators or wise spherical: her magnitude is about 1-64th of that of THE
STREAM iof HISTORY (brought down to tu elders of the city of Rome ; Mai, French ; May, German. the earth, which she moves round, as a centre, performing the progress of the Arts, Sciences, and Literature in the JUNE,
her revolution in a month; in which time she likewise Nation in the World, from the earliest Ages to the prese The sixth month of the year, derived from Junius (Latin) moves round her own axis. of what intinite use is the time. Originally invented by Professor StraSS
. à junioribus, i. e. the younger sort of penple; Juin, moon! without which, in the absence of the sun, the ... This elegant and useful Appendage to the Libraya French ; Junius, Juny, or Brachmonath, German. earth for several hours in the twenty-four would be en
hibits a clear and comprehensive View of the principal Eyes
of General History, and to those who have not oppertal JULY,
veloped in darkness, the motion of the waters of the ocean ties or time for research, it may be truly said to be intalus The seventh month of the year, called by the Romans would cease, and the inhabitants of the earth be deprived present time, arranged in the order of Centuries are Julius, in honour of Julius Cæsar, whereas, before, it of numerous advantages. These may be causes for which a complete view of all the most in portant Everest and was called Quintilis, the fifth nonth of the Roman year. this secondary planet was formed, but it is not for man to printed in 12mo, price 3s.
forming a Key to the "Stream of History, very closely Juillet, French; Julius, July, or Heumonath, German. fathom the councils of divinity. Philosophers have dis
An ANALYSIS of the HISTORY of ENGLAND; from the
Conquest to the present time. By W. H. BUCKLAND. E AUGUST,
covered that this planet differs from the earth, in the graved on Copper, and printed on a Sheet of Dawing papa, The eighth month of the year, called Augustus by the striking irregularities of her surface and destitution of her 38, 6d. or coloured us.
HISTORY MADE EASY; or, a Genealogical Chart A in honour of Augustus Cæsar ; ic ing been atmosphere. The other planets sometimes appear to move; King's and Queens of England, since the Conquest, Bt previously called Sextilis, the sixth month.Août, French; at times appear near stationary: their names are-Mer. REYNARD.: 25 Ditto, with a Poetical Chronology deal August, German.
cury, Venus, Mars, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Jupiter, logy, 4$.--Coloured, Is. extra. SEPTEMBER, Saturn, and the Georgium Sidus ; of these, fire have been study of English History, and particularly the Germany
This ingenious Chart is well calculated to feelitae ti The ninth month of the year. The Romans beginning noticed by the ancients. The others are of modern date, our Sovereigns, in an extraordinary degree, and be the year with March, called this month September, (se- and not visible to the naked eye. The celebrated Dr. highly commended by all who have used it.
KEY to HISTORY MADE EASY. ls. venth month) from septem, seven.-Septembre, French; Herschel discovered the Georgium Sidus; M. Piazzi, a An EPITOME of ENGLISH HISTORY; or, Brito September, or Herbstmonath, German. Sicilian astronomer, Ceres; Pallas and Vesta were dis. nology. By the Rev. G. WHITTAKER. "A New Editu. s
Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Ave-Maria-lane, Loghat OCTOBER,
covered by Dr. Olbers, and Juno by M. Harding. Here and sold by all Booksellers. The tenth month of the year.. October (Latin) from octo, it may be observed, that Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and eight; Octobre, French ; October, or Weinwonath (wine Saturn, are spherical bodies ; each revolving on an axis: This day are published, new and corrected Edities of month) German.
this has been proved, † by the motions of the spots on the
Men, whose Actions are recorded in the Holy Ser The eleventh month of the year.-November (Latin) from tacle of ten great bodies revolving with the earth round Dy G. ROBERTS. 18mo, 3s.
; novem, nine; Novembre, French; Noveinber, or Win. the sun, and keeping a relative position between their rect the Minds of Youth to Religion and Morality, and termonath, German.
periods and distances. Juno, Vesta, Ceres, and Pallas, An EPITOME of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION. DECEMBER, are less than the earth. Mars and Mercury are also less. Rev. W. ALLEN, M.A. 18m0, 38.
A Compendious HISTORY of the BIBLE; contains The ewelfth month of the year.- December (Latin) from Venus nearly equal. Jupiter and the Georgium Sidus principal Events recorded in that Sacred Book. Im decem, ten, beginning with March; Decembre, French; are both larger ; the former carries four attendants with the Rev.J. PLATTS.°16mo, 4s. 6a. December, or Christmonath, German.
him round the sun, and the latter (sixty-four times larger An HISTORICAL EPITOME of the OLD and NEW January, 1825.
TAMENTS, and Part of the APOCRYPHA: in whied PHILO.LOGOS. than our earth) is attended by six satellites. Saturn, also Events are arranged according to Chronological order larger, has seven moons, besides a doubie ring, of a stu. Member of the Church of England, Author of "F
Prayers upon the Creation." Second Edition. Iime, pendous size. Mars and Saturn have nearly the same
SEQUEL to the GRAMMAR of SACRED HISTORY, THOUGHTS ON ASTRONOMY. variety of seasons as the earth. Judging then from ana- a Paraphrase on the Epistles and Gospels, with Explana
To which is prefixed, a simple Illustrationer logy, may we not imagine, that in these vast bodies, ap- Liturgy; and a Paraphrase on the Church Catechise. [Continued from a former number.) parently so magnificent, the same variety of beings exist MARY ANN RUNDALL, Author of the “Gramma
cred History," &c. 4s. 6d. which we here behold? There is no argument against the He would observe stars irregularly scattered over the
The POOR GIRL'S HELP to a Knowledge of the
to doncave surface of the heavens, and differing in lustre, and planets being inhabited, “ unless it be said that some are the Lord's Supper. By Miss APPLETON, Autbor of
much nearer the sun than the earth is, and, therefore, Education.” apparently in magnitude. He would see many emerge, must be uninhabitable, from heat ; and those more distant,
ELEMENTS OF MORALITY; for the use of Young as it were, from below the plane of the horizon, and others from cold.” Now, we have reason to suppose that the the German of the Rev. C. $. Salzmant. With Euro
To which is prefixed, an Address to Parents. never reach the horizon, but continually move round a
12mo, 58. fixed point in the heavens. But these motions are, in that the sun only changes its temperature at its surface.- and sold by all Booksellers. sun is not the cause of the temperature of the earth, and
Printed for Geo. B. Whittaker, Are-Maria-lane, Lo general, only apparent, and take place from a combination Admitting this, their temperature may be such as not to of a variety of different notions. In these, Astronomy be inconsistent with the creation of animals and vegetables
CHEAP POPULAR BOOKS FOR WINTER BENIN unfolds itself, by enabling us to ascertain that planets are vast bodies revolving round the sun, some at greater and of the Creator be equally visible in these, as in the stu.
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3. The UNIVERSAL RECEIFT-BOOK, or a perf
Much more may be said on this subject; for the of Five Thousand approved Receipts in all the in the true from the apparent motions, however easy it may
mestic Life. By C. MACKENZIE, 10s. 6d. bound appear when done, displays to us so great ingenuity, that
4. The HUNDRED WONDERS of the WORLD TO Liverpool, Oct. 13, 1824.
according to the latest and best Authorities, with it ought not to be a matter of surprise, that the ancients
(To be continued.)
gravings. By C. C. CLARKE, price 10s. 6d. bound.
5. The NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL WONDERS were so long in acquiring a knowledge of the true system
UNITED KINGDOM. By the Rev. J. GOLDSMITH, and true dimensions of the universe. We ought rather to
60 Engravings, 3 vols. 155. half-bound.
• Dr. Olbers, who discovered Pallas, in 1802, nearly in the wonder at their inventions, ihan find fault with their errors.
6. The WONDERS of the HEAVENS DISPLAYED, same place where he bad observed Ceres a few months before, ine Engravings. By C.C CLARKE, 103. 64. bound. The moderns, by their superior optical, mathematical, and was induced to conjecture that they were fragments of a 7. SHAW'S NATÚRE DISPLAYED, in the Heart mechanical knowledge, have been able to make discoveries larger planet, which had, by some unknown cause, been upon the Earth,
with 300 Engravings, 6 rols. £315,00
of which, in a wonderful degree, tend to elucidate this science. broken in pieces. It follows, from the law of gravity, by Plates, with descriptions, price £2 3. I shall omit the divisions of the circle, and the circles of fragment o build again, after every revolution round the sun, lan, in 1920, to Freycinet, in 1820, with 80 Engravings
9. All the VOYAGES ROUND THE WORLD, from the sphere in the following observations, and, in the first pass through the place in which the planet was when the 10. The UNIVERSAL TRAVELLER, being the subs place, proceed to a consideration of the solar system. catastrophe happened; and, besides, the orbit of each frag: of the best modern Travels in the Four Quarters
It is generally agreed, by astronomers, that the sun is ment would intersect in the continuation of the line joining World, with 100 Eugravings By S. PRIOR, 100ML an opaque, spherical body, surrounded by a luminous fluid, two particular regions of the
heavens through which all these By the Rev. J. NIGHTINGALE, 105. 6d. poond, Thence it was easy to ascertain the
all Nations fully described, with 100 curious Engrar and above a million times larger than the earth, which we fragments would pass. inhabit, which is also spherical, and, to our finite concep. Juno in one of these regions, and Dr. Olbers himself also dis- ary of all Arts and Sciences, çevised and enlared2 tions, of vast magnitude; it moves on an axis 23° 56', and covered Vesta.
MITCHELL, with numerous Engravings, price is be exposes every region of the globe to a succession of the heat
+ See Professor Vince's Practical and Complete Astronomy.
Priuted for G. B. Whittaker, Ave-Maria-ane, Londoni to be had of all Booksellers.