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Poetry.

HEAVEN.

Celestial voices, soft and clear,
Salute from far my wond'ring ear,
And back to primal darkness hurl'd
Recedes from sight this nether world,
Its woes and crimes, its guilt and tears,
Its laughing hours, and mourning years;
And beams a fairer, brighter scene
Than mortal eye hath ever seen.
And all within that calm retreat
Immortal flowrets blossom sweet ;
And suns eternal brightly glow,
And living waters ceaseless flow;
And hovering round that starry placo
Are angel forms of matchless grace;
Unknown in that pure realm of day
Or sickening blight, or swift decay.
Here roars the tempest loud and dread,
There peace unveils her gentle head;
Here weep the injured and opprest,
There, there the weary are at rest!
Here cold neglect the heartstrings rend,
There Mercy bids the warfare end;
And having kiss'd the chastening rod,
The spirit seeks its pitying God.
Here sudden storms the soul surprise,
There no grim clouds of blackness rise :
Here friends are false, and love betrays,
In yon blest world whereon I gaze,};
All, all is truth!--no fiction there
May flatter hope to win despair;
No Judas with a proffer'd kiss
Mask his own traitor hideousness.
Here, dimly seen, we feebly traco
The glories of redeeming grace,
And dark to erring sense appears
The sorrows of revolving years;
Whlle, rebel to his Maker's will,
More blindly dares to question stili,
And scorns the monitor within
Which else had shown the canker-sim.
Sin rules, and reigns, and riots here,
Nond may ever enter there;
Realm of eternal blessedness
There all is purity and peace.
And, Lord! on thee my soul relies,
Hear, and accept its sacrifice;
The past atoned, the future blest,

Oh ! let me enter into rest!
Liverpool.

To watch the moonbeam's flickering play,

“ Remember'st thou—but here my trembling volce
O'er Mersey's calm and silvery flood;
While soft is heard the dashing spray

O'er proud achievements can no more rejoice;
Slow murmuring thro the echoing wood.

Eventful time may those bright days restore,

Til then, old man, our mingled tears shall pour;
Be such an hour (as sure 'tis meet)

But o'er my cot should Death's cold pinions ware,
To God and contemplation given;

And lull ny sorrows in the tranquil grave,
Humbly to bend before His seat,

While calmly close my eyes on all below,
And ask the promis'd gift of Heaven.

Thou may'st repeat once more— remember'st thou.'
Wisdom, to ope the mental eye,
To mark Jehovah's glories spread,

SONNET.
In yonder azure studded sky,
And spangled mead, on which I tread.

I've mark'd yon moon glide thro' the azure sky,
Sweet spangled mead! how richly dress'd !

When all was calm as in a summer's lake,
Here wild flowers gay unnumber'd throng:

And when the thunder spirit forth did fly,
With Snowdrop, grace of lawn confess'd,

Still thro' his cloudy mantle would she breat.
And Daisy, theme of Poets' song.

The lovely streamlet in yon woody dell,
Here hid, and gemm'd with evening dew,

Unchangingly has murmured in its bed;
Lies the wild Violet's drooping head,

And the sad tree, which o'er its waters fell,
Whose balmy leaves, of sapphire blue,

In childhood's days, still droops its sorrowing band.
Sheds perfume round its mossy bed.

I've mark'd a form of love, in whose wild gaze
Here, too, I've seen the fair stream poured

Hope's dying beam was struggling with Despair,
From rocky fissures bold and free;

Bow at his foot, who once had joy'd to praise
Say was the Naiad e'er allured,

The wreck of loveliness now trembling there:
By floods more fair 'neath shrub and tree?

But he had chang'd—and now his freezing eye
But here I pause, and pausing mark,

Stung the pale sufferer's heart and bade ber die.
The sun's lost rays on western clouds,

Fairfield, near Manchester.

T. L.
Adieu! loved vale of Toxteth Park;
Again I seek the busy crowds.

TO THE EDITOR
SIR,—Being highly delighted with your intended liken

project, of giving so full a scope to the improvemesi REMEMBEREST THOU ?

your young classical friends, I (boasting of that privile

herewith inclose you a few lines, the spontaneous esias A translation of the beautiful French Song, "Te souviene tu o of my own uncultivated muse, hoping that, if they kn

anticipated by a more beautiful, and therefore more du “Remember'st thou," 'twas thus a warrior chief

serving copy, on the same subject, you will grant the Address'd a vet'ran who implored relief,

though imperfeet, publicity through either of your ess “ Remember'st thou, when 'mid the battle's tide,

lent miscellanies. By doing which you will induce a The sword that sought my breast thou turn'dst aside ?

again to occupy a few minutes in your behalf, as well Beneath the colours of our dear-lov'd land,

oblige-Yours, very truly,

ALIQUIS We both then fought the foeman hand to hand ; My rescued life will e'er thy feats avow,

DE VERE. But soldier, say, that field remember'st thou? “ Remember'st thou those days, too swiftly down,

Pandite nunc hyemis portas admittere veris Whose brilliant course brought France such high renown?

Tempora, quum grato flore virescit humus Remember st thou on Egypt's wond'rous piles

En pastor pecudes lætos ad flumina ducit, We grav'd the record of our fame and toils;

Ubera nunc hædum pendula lacte fovent And with a conqueror's waving hand unfurld

Huc venit agrestis comitanti vomere campos, Our standard o'er the cradle of the world,

Visere, quos quondam sæva gelavit hyems Though winds, and waves, and deserts join'd the foe?

Aspiciens frondem nascentem ex arbore gaudet Say, soldier, say, those deeds remember'st thou ?

Et rigat herbosos fertilis imber agros. “ Remember'st thou Italia's martial host,

Nunc videt, ut pullos damno gallina tuetur, Before our ranks her brightest laurels lost?

Ut vocat inveniens quodque juvabit eos Remember'st thou Iberia's chieftain's proud

Hic sator observans sequitur vestigia tauri, The prostrate knee before our columns bow'd ?

Atque manu plenâ semina spargit humo Remember'st thou Germania's glorious plain,

Sol sequitur solem noctem nox ordine grato, Where four short suns embrac'd our bright campaign,

Et fortuna suum fausta coronat opus And swift-wing'd vict'ry wreath'd each hero's brow,

Nunc labente die labor absit, et alma voluptas Say, soldier, say, those days remember'st thou?

Hic manet, et curis corda domusque Vacani

Nunc cratera mero cingunt, et pocula spumant " Remember'st thou, when 'mid the frozen North,

Muneribus Bacchi, dum venit alma sopor. Our victor bands were proudly marshalld forth;

Quum splendore micat solito lux crastina redden When pillar'd snows benumb'd each wearied frame,

Sudores homini, quos toleravit herl But could not quench our bosom's martial flame?

Luce torum primâ genialem linquit agrestis, Our frequent sighs then mix'd with wide alarms,

Et laudat servis progenieque Deum But when th' inspiring trumpet call'd—'to arms!

Tunc opus assequitur gaudens in jugera culta, Each tearful eye resum'd its wonted glow;

Hic viyit felix, atque beatus abit. Say, soldier, say, those toils remember'st thou ? “ Remember'st thou that day's inglorious doom,

• The antepenultima of “agrestis“ being comma

supra. When living France sank nerveless to the tomb; When fair Lutetia, friendless and undone,

EPIGRAM. Beheld her courts by haughty foes o'errun?

On a Cantab who was pluck'd for Orders. Deep in thy heart engrave that day accurst,

Ned cut off his queue, and was powder'd with care, And when, at length, stern war our chains shall burst,

Yet sadly mistaken was Ned, Ne'er let thy chieftain ask, with angry brow,

For tho' he had taken such pains with his hair, Soldierl thy country's wrongs remember'st thou ?'

The Bishop found fault with his head,

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ALIQUTA

The sun had sunk in western clouds,

And twilight spread its mantle still,
When lonely, far from busy crowds

I pass'd the hamlet, school, and mill;
To stray unseen in Dingle Vale,

And rest in rose and woodbine bower,
While fragrant sweets float on the gale

From many a Uttle pencil'd Aower.

ON CÆSAR-A FAVOURITE DOG.

"The cat will mew, the dog will have his day."

OR

Ambition's tooth dispersed through Cæsar's veins,
Avirus keen, which frd his laurel'd brains,
Made lust of power through his fancy fly,
Tin Brutus rais'd the vengeful arm on high
So fell our Roman—but his canine friend
Bray'd a much more ignominious end;
Death's minion came, produced the fatal stringi,
While doleful yells, his last sad requiem ring:
la rain he cough'd and kick'd, and kick'd and cougb'd,
When hoisted from the earth he swung aloft;
A halter dire denied the breath of life,
And struggling nature yielded up the strife.
What laboured verse can such a loss deplore!
Weep, all ye spaniels Cæsar is no more!
Curs droop your ears, and slouch the curling tall,
And with a gref un feign'd, his loss bewail 1
Por he by divers virtues proved to be
An honour to his noble pedigree.
Now cold and stiff he lies, his cares and woes
Are wrapt for ever in a sound repose.
No more his footsteps, light in social glee,
Shall scour the path, or bound across the lea.
And when the metal tongue of midnight sounds,
When ghosts and goblins make nocturnal rounds,
When dlamal serenades of cats are heard,
Or dying scream of some 111-fated bird,
When to the moon-beams distant watch-dogs howl;
Or 'bout the hen-coop, pigeon stealers prowl;
No more shall he their dire approach declare,
By barks resounding through the misty air.
And when night-walking rogues are on the wing,
When sticks resound, and guardian rattles spring.
When tom-cats scar'd, along the pavement ny,
And curs Join chorus with the hue and cry:
or when a home-bound Bacchanalian band
In mingled sympbony their throats expand,
With force display the emulative roar;
Ortwang some nasal strain unsqueak'd before
Roused by the echoes of the horrid sound,
No more shall Cæsar from his slumbers bound-
A rattling peal of hollow threats upsend,
From rude attacks, his confines to defend.
Oft when the morn in splendid beauty rose,
And light upsprung, her curtains to unclose,
Would be in waiting stand, my steps to greet,
And frisk with Joy unfeign'd about my feet;
Or with expressive gestures run before,
To wait the harsh unbarring of the door;
Pleased would he run to meet the morning sale,
With nose erect, its fragrance to inhale,
And by a thousand antic tricks declare,
His love of liberty and morning alr.
When hydrophobia's fear o'erspread the town,
And men rush'd forth to hang, slay, stab, or drown;
When the portentous bag on shoulder slung,
With stifted snarls, or dying growlings rung,
When each rapacious tan-yard pit was spread
With faithful dogs, the dying and the dead;
When war exterminative was declared,
When age, nor sex, nor quality was spared ;
Then might we view the squealing lap-dog dragg'd,
By hands unhallow'd, and with turnspits bagg'd.
In vain old malds their pamper'd pets deplore,
And frothing vengeance, sportsmen stamp'd and swore.
Then damsels were despatch'd on eager feet,
To search each nook and corner of the street,
To call the runaway, or else by bribe
Release the fallen favourite of his tribe;
But oft nor bribes, nor searches would avall,
And each return'd, to tell the mournful tale.
While thus the work of devastation spread,
Welle forth stalked borrid war and havock dread,

Cæsar life still enjoys, nor hutch and chain

Literature, Criticism, &c.
The dictates of his free-born will restrain;
Now on the lawn, entrench'd by trees and ralls,

LEARNED QUOTATIONS.
His wearied limbs with slumber he regales;
Now more submissive to his stomach grown,

Good heavens! I really haven't patience

To see how soon on such occasions
He turns to masticate a half-picked bone;

Some folks forget all moderation,
For forage, If he sallies forth to glean,

And write themselves into a passion.
By some sly lynk-eyed butcher he is seen-

Oh! quam terribiles exarsit pronus in iras !!
But ere the foeman makes his victim sure,
He gains his fortress there he stands secure.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR, --It is, I believe, the purport of some" wise saw," Now slaughter bids her thirsty minions cease,

that “two to one are enough to kill a man;" and I exTo bless once more the canine world with peace

pected that we should last week have seen a “modern When on a luckless day a rabble throng

instance" of its truth, in the controversy that has so long Hooting a poor half-famished cur along:

trespassed upon the columns of the Kaleidoscope, and His blood with madness fires, his legs he plies,

exercised the patience of its readers. My calculations And snaps each living object as he Nies;

have, however, proved erroneous ; the stout-hearted But ere “the King of Terrors" crossd his path,

Anti-Sutor has again advanced resolutely “into the And check'd the kindled foamings of his wrath,

bowels of the battle,” hacking and hewing at the arguHis fang, envenom'd, entered Cæsar's hide

ments of his three opponents, like a very Achilles, The fatal bullet reach'd him, and he died.

strengthed, I presume, by the reflection, that
His victim straight arraign'd, a trial stood -
Was doom'd to suffer for his "country's good;"

Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just." Then death ignoble stay'd his bright career,

I conceive that your unflinching correspondent is rather And left a memory to friendship dear.

testy and choleric; accordingly, I shall so far “observe his humour," as to apologize for the liberty I am about to take, in comparing him to that fabulous "many-headed"

monster of antiquity, the Sernaan Hydra. It certainly did DER FREISCHUTZ.

appear to me, that the convincing reasoning of Y. 2. had A NEW SONG TO THE TUNE OP—“OH, MISS BAILLIB! UNFOM lopped away the heads of his discourse; and I concluded, TUNATR MISS BAILLIE!

* that when the brains were out, the man would die ;". (Prom a London paper of a few weeks back.] but, behold! he has again “risen in his place,” more

vigorous than ever; and displaying a most marvellons On Friday, at Drury-lane, they gave the Winter's Tale. multiplication of hostile visages, he asserts that The house was full of coughs and orders, though, in general, Sapio and the Freischutz are the only things that

"E'en tho' vanquished, he can argue still." fill the house. Foreign names are the only things ihat go In a former communication, I had occasion to acknow. smoothly down at present; if they have all the consonantsin ledge my gratitude to my redoubcable opponent for his the alphabet in them, so much the better. We have so little kind civilicy; and I am now happy to congratulate him to say about theatricals this week, that we shall take the liberty of filling up the space with a song, which we have on his excessive modesty. He “ knows too well” that just received from a correspondent, on the Freischutz:

self-praise is always ur becoming, and he has hastened to A chevalier of Hanover, with crotchet, breve, and quaver,

disclaim, with the utmost gravity, any the slightest intenis quite the rage, and Shield and Arne are now quite out of tion of setting up for a “second Daniel." Verily, in this favour:

instance, we can attach no credit to the sincerity of his
In vain you talk of native art, 'tis al an useless labour,
For nothing now goes down but Carl Maria Herr Von Weber. asseveration ; we also “know too well” that
Oh, Von Weber,

It is the witness still of excellency,
The magical Von Weber,

To set a strange face on its own perfection.
For tragic squalls, and magic balls

But your impartial readers will not be guilty of the same Commend me to Von Weber

injustice; they will bestow the meed of praise on that Mozart himself is quite forgot, and even for Rossini,

eminent perfection; they will behold, with due admira. John Bull (who paid him once so well) now does not care a tion, the modest ingenuity that detected, and pointed out,

pin, he
Forswears Don Juan and the Barber, now he's got a high touch imaginary misconceptions; they will evince due astonish-
Like Meinherr Weber's sulphury and devil-roasting Freischutz. ment at the comfortable assurance that encouraged its
Oh, the Freischutz,

possessor to declare, “ that he had proved that his antago. The dull, eternal Freischutz;

gist had neglected the study of his own language;" and Weber's first, and most accurst, The everlasting Freischutz!

they will vote him well entitled to that elevated station, At the Lyceum first we had this thing of fire and fury,

from which his modesty alone has induced him to shrink. At Covent Garden next, and now, we have it at Old Drurs;

4. S. has told us, that he cannot comprehend the meanWith hell-fire blasting, bullets casting, fiends and females ing of the allusion to the fox; but has, at the same time,

erying, Chorus singing, owlets swinging, and the Frieschutz frying! is not in a similar predicament; and, to do him justice, a

taken occasion to produce a most convincing proof that he Oh, the Freischutz, The dull, eternal Freischutz;

most magnificent brush he has displayed. When I first Weber's first, and most accurst,

saw " the very fantastical banquet” of learned fragments His everlasting Freichutz!

that he has introduced in his last epistle, I was, of a truth, But let us not forget to praise that milk white owl so rare, sore afraid, and was tempted to exclaim, with Jack Cade, Whom Shakspeare's witches thought of when they said," that " Away with him! away with him! he speaks Latin."

fowl was fair :"
And let us not forget to be to Mr. O. Smith civil,

Till then I flattered myself that I had withstood the vehe-
Who looks so charmingly red hot, one dares not damn the devil ment assaults of his eloquence, without sustaining ady
Oh, the Freischutz,

material injury ; but when, resolved to foil me at my own The dull, eternal Freischutz, Weber's first--but not his worst

weapons, he came forward "collected in his might,” and The dull, eternal Freischutz.

opened against my “devoted head” such a tremendous At Covent-garden they intend to get another opera

fire of quotations, “ of all sizes and calibres," I quailed or Weber's up, to which I don't intend to give a copper-a;

before the "pelting of the pitiless storm,” and my heart In wonders, and in blunders, and in thunders, 'tis so scanty-sunk within me in exceeding great fear. I acknowledge Oh, how unlike the Freischutz is the stupid Euryanthe! the enormous presumption of the allusion, and, in deep

Oh, Euryanthe,
Endless Euryanthe!

contrition, I hasten to express my full belief, that he no Gaping, scraping, squalling, bawling.

more resembles the unlucky fox, than any "three-tailed Drawling, Euryanthe!

Bashaw" in the Turkish dominions.

B

Fig. I.

Let

B

There is one part of A. S.'s (sit nullum in omine pon. But it would be pedantic and futile for me to sally forth at two miles an hour, would impel it at ten or twenty mile dus !) epistle that I cannot at present comprehend, with into a field of inquiry so often and so ably explored; and an hour, if an extra force were employed at first to overcome

the inertia of the car, and generate the required velocity: the utmost exertion of my ingenuity, and that is the para- I hope that this hasty note may creep into a snug corner Your correspondent, A B C, explains the nature of the fora graph wherein he adverts to a certain prospectus. Now, of the Kaleidoscope, and hide its diminished head, without to be employed, by reference to a weight passing over a pule, with the saiù prospectus, and every thing thereunto apper- either provoking warfare or fanning the bright flames of and descending with an accelerated motion, and further egg taining, I am totally unacquainted ; and, in contradiction controversy.

tends that the constant action of the steam-engine is a powe

of the same kind. to his “must," I beg leave to state, that I have not read it, and, consequently, am not able to gratify him by

In my last communication, I observed an error, which which I think I shall be able to prove that the starting

I shall adopt the Illustration of a weight and pulley, bt delivering my opinion on the subject. I have merely to

must have arisen from the compositor having mistaken conclusions, attempted to be drawn, are altogether erronezak remark, that the arrogance of the little author of the pros- my n for u, and o for i, as my writing is often very in. In the first place, I will admit that “the frietion is the

same for all velocities;" that is, it is the same in equal retrt. pectus alluded to is surely not inferior to the superlative distinct. assurance of the man, who, in a miserable tirade, stigma- I forgot to mention that a friend of mine has tried The friction on a surface of three feet is the same, whether

the carriage move at the rate of four or fourteen miles per tizes, as Gothic and barbarous, a practice that is supported various experiments with spiders, the result of which I hour; but it does not follow that the quantum of frietjen pred by the example of the brightest and most illustrious or. shall submit to your consideration at a convenient season. therefore, of resistance) is the same in fourteen milesus infrar. naments of the literature of the present day.

It is rather singular that Virgil (Geor. iii. 409) should on the contrary, it will be found that the quantum ef ra In concluding my last, I was induced, by a gentle spirit make mention of wild asses ; " but certain it is, that he sistance, from friction, is in proportion to the dista: ofer?

come; in equal times, therefore, the quantity of leat, of charity, to submit a wholesome piece of advice to the does mention them, and in one place only, which might

at the rate of twelve miles per hour, will be there to v notice of your correspondent; and, in return for this offi- give us reason to suppose that they once existed in Italy, great as at the rate of four mlles per hour; tberedare, the cious conduct, I was rewarded by sundry " hits,” which, unless we conjecture that he gives the appellation to a power employed must be increased in the same propcartzen though certainly not palpuble, were administered with distinct class of animals.

O. R. We will illustrate this by reference to the weight and pules, great good will, and indicated a violent effervescence of

Sæpe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros." wrath in the giver. To this treatment I submit, and con

Let B be the body to fess that I have richly merited it, for I cast my pearls, &c.

be moved; W the weight and I ought neither to marvel, nor murmur, because my

Scientific Records.

connected with the bo

dy to be moved, by a ill.advised kindness has subjected me to an uncourteous (Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve line passing over a pul. demonstration of gratitude.--Yours, &c.

ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin- ley, x. The distance January 5, 1825.

QUOTATOR.

gular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. from B to x the same
losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical as from w to G.

Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; the weight w be 1, and its velocity, v, 3. The worlog
TRANSLATIONS, &c.

Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;- power, therefore, is W », being the weight multiplied

to be continued in a series through the Volume.) into its velocity, or 3x1=3. Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere liter."-Ecl. iv.

Now, in order to make the body move over double RAIL-ROADS AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX.

the space in the same time, we shall find that it is (Continued

from our former papers.) TO THE EDITOR.

necessary to double the power, the quantum of resist SIR,-Perhaps, as an old correspondent, you may not In the Mercury, dated December 17, we were the the same in each case. The subjoined Agure will show

ance being doubled, although the ratio of friction is deny me the pleasure of casting in my mite, and lifting first to question the reasoning of a very able writer in the the manner in which this double velocity is accou * up my head amid the seges clypeata which enters the Scotsman, who laid it down as a law, that, “ abstracting plished withdouble power. lists, and seems to crowd with " bristling spears” the the resistance of the air, if a car were set in motion on a

Fig. 2. arena of ancient learning and modern erudition. Your level rail-way, with a constant force greater in any decorrespondent, Y. Z. very justly observes, that transla-gree than is required to overcome its friction, the car - tion, or attempted translation, must materially deteriorate would proceed with a motion continually accelerated, the sense of an ancient poet, or classical historian, as well like a falling body, acted upon by the force of gravitation; as destroy that pith and laconicism which characterized and, however small the original velocity might be, it the original expression ; but, in almost numberless in- would, in time, increase beyond any assignable limit.” stances, it also banishes that sound or harmony of words The whole of the article in support of this strange suited to the subject, which critics have so ably com- position has been copied into several of the London and mented and enlarged upon. Thus, in Virgil's first provincial papers without any comment; and we believe diameter of the pulley in the former experiment, and

B 1s attached by a llne to a pulley, y, of double the eclogue, what reader can overlook the resemblance of this the reasoning bad passed undisputed until we ventured by this means is drawn over twice the space. I line to the sound of a pipe:

to question its correctness.* As we must abide by the attached by a line to the same pulley as before, which Formosam resonare doces Amarillida sylvas.

consequences of our temerity, should we be in error, we pulley is fastened to the pulley y, and turns upon the and in the third Georgic, where two sturdy bulls are may be allowed to claim the merit of having brought the at a mechanical disadvantage of one-half as compared

same centre. Now it is evident that the weight 7 acts joining battle, to contend for the field, their efforts, as they subject to the test of investigation, if our views of the with the resisting body, B; therefore, if the ratio of struggle and bellow, are almost presented to the ear, as point at issue should ultimately prove correct.

friction of B continue the same, yet the quantity being well as the eye, by the following lines:

In the Mercury of the 24th of December, we published doubled, the power to overcome it must be doubled Versaque in obnixos urgentur cornua vasto a letter of a correspondent, who, like ourselves, conceived weight, which will now be 1x1=2. Its velocity 2

To obtain this increased power, we will double the Cum gemitu ; reboant sylvæque et magnus Olympus.the paradox under consideration to be untenable. That be the same, and, consequently, the space passed

GEOR. III. 222. letter was succeeded by another from a gentleman, who, through will be the same, viz, from 2 to G. The port, And in that very beautiful description of wintry Scythia, under the signature of A B C, contended for the existence therefore, will still be " v; that is, 2x3=6, latin and Rhodope, which Thompson has so closely imitated, of the apparent paradox. The letter which we now pre.

double the power which was required in the fornis when he describes the hunting of deer in the snow, that sent to our readers is intended as an answer to that of

experiment. his lines might be taken for a literal translation of it. A B C in the Mercury of Jan. 7. Thus we may hope notions of your correspondent, A B C. He support

But I am willing to take my illustration seerrings Virgil thus represents these animals contending with the that the point will be soon set completely at rest, one way the line attached to the weight w, and that attached to opposing mountains : or the other.

body B, pass over one and the same pulley. It follows! Confertoque agmine cervi

in order to double the velocity of B, you must doakan T'orpent molâ novâ, et summis vix cornibus extant : TO THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY.

city of W, which he proposes to effect by some extra Hos non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis, GENTLEMEN,— I think it will not be dificult to demonstrate result, however, is exactly the same. W will still be bi

impulse, to be maintained by the force of gravitation Puniceave agitant pavidos formidine pennæ ;

the fallacy of the reasoning on which this supposed paradox
is founded. The Scotsman
states that “the friction of rolling 126=6, the same as in the last experiment.

v (its velocity) will be 6; therefore, the real power, ** Sed frustra oppositnm trudentes pectore montem."

and sliding bodies is the same for all velocities ;" and that
“it follows from this law, that, abstracting the resistance

Now it is abundantly evident that the operation of a And throughout the tale of Orpheus and Euridice the of the air, if a car

were set in motion on a level rail-way engine is similar to that of the power in figure 2, nimel beauties of Latin poetry are highly conspicuous; where with a constant force, greater in any degree than is required weight, or pressure, moving through equal spaces in €

times. If it be required, therefore, to impart an inert the unfortunate lover is just on the threshhold of light, to overcome its friction, the car would proceed with a moand breaks the league of Orcus by looking back, a crash tion continually accelerated, like a falling body, acted upon velocity to the body or carriage, it must be effected was heard through the realms of Avernus: the words amount of constant force, which impels a car on a rail-way, of the engine, therefore, must be augmented in proporci by the force of gravitation;" and that "the very same plication or an increased diameter of the wheels, the

maintained at a mechanical disadvantage, viz. by a used have a certain hollowness of sound which accords

The whole of the original article from the Scotsman on very closely with the occasion :

the increase of velocity to be obtained. This conclusion this subject may be found in the Kaleidoscope of the 28th of destroy the paradox, but, I apprehend, will correspotid “ Terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis." December

GEOR. III.

the faet.-Yours, &c.

IL

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

THURSDAY,

No. IV.

ingly, by forming this vacuum under the piston by means | Danish, Norman (French), and Celtic. Each of these

of the condensation of steam, that Newcomen succeeded people introduced their language, literature, and cusin his improved steam-engine; and this continues, indeed, toms; and thus we derive from them the names given to

to be still the great principle of the engines of the present the days of the week, and to the months of the year. TO THE ADITOR.

day, namely, the creation of a vacuum under or above the 978,--As the least part of weight came at first from a piston. Mr. Brown, then, proposes to create this speedy

SUNDAY, heat corn, so the least part of iong measure was at first a vacuum by means of the combustion, for example, of coal The first day of the week, so called from its being set sleycorn, three of which with us in England were to make or oil gas, a gas-burner being lighted within the cylinder, apart by our Saxon ancestors for worshipping the idol of a inch; but as I stated in my first letter that the Avoirdu. and allowed to consume the internal air, part of which it the Sun. Sunnan-dæg, Saxon ; Sontay, Danish ; Sonday, is oance was derived from the Roman Uncia, so I now con. condenses into water. Now, admitting that this plan is Teutonic; Sonnday, German ; Sondagh, Dutch; Dies sd that the division of the foot into twelve inches (or unciæ) practicable, and that the machinery which Mr. Brown has Dominica vel Dominicus, Latin ; Dimanche, French. as not fortuitous, but certainly had its origin from the divi- described could be made to work with effect, let us see an of the As or Libra into twelve parts. The Roman Pes, or what would be the expense of this power. Coal.gas sells

MONDAY, ist, was divided into four palmi, or hand-breadths, twelve in Edinburgh at 123., oil-gas at 40s.: take the coal. gas, The second day of the week, was, in like manner, forplices, or thumb-breadths, and sixteen digiti, or finger. then, and suppose that every cubic foot of this gas is ca- merly devoted to the worship of the Moon.-Monandæg, eadths; each digitus was supposed equal to four barleycorns pable of creating an equal space of vacuum-a circum- Saxon ; Montay, German ; Maendagh, Belgic; Lundi, ardei grand consequently their foot was to ours as four to stance which is by no means proved even to half the ex. ree, or sixteen of our inches; but having, as I may call it

, tent; but let this advantage be set against the raising of French; Dies lunæ, vel feria secunda, Latin. opalar division into twelve parts, or unciæ, which had re- its water of condensation, and other impediments which ence to the As, I am of opinion we have retained the same the steam-engine may have to encounter; and suppose The third day of the week, was dedicated by the Saxons

TUESDAY, the division of our foot to the present day; and as the As that a steam-engine consumes 20 feet of steam per minute 23 applied to any thing divided into twelve parts, as an inhe. for every horse power, which will be found near the truth; to the worship of Tuisco, the most ancient and peculiar tance, an aere, liquid measure, or interest of money, it may then, by the same rule, a gas-engine would consume the idol of the Teutonics, supposed by some to be the same as of perhaps be thought too bold, to hazard a conjecture that same quantity, which is equal to 12,000 feet per day, and Mars (the god of war) of the Romans.-- Tuesdæg, Saxon ; ve word assize is also derived from the same term, and not would cost, therefore, £7 4s. per horse power, for gas Mardi, French; Dienstay, German ; Dies Martis, vel feria om Assis, the participle of the French verb Asseoir, signify alone. Such a sum, however, would maintain at least 30 tertia, Latin. 13 a sitting of the Judges to hear and determine causes,—but horses, and this consideration alone is sufficient to prove D Assise, signifying mensura, or the apportioning to every that the engine has no chance of success, let its mechanism

WEDNESDAY, 103 throughout their circuits equal justice in equal scales, and operations be ever so perfect; unless, indeed, it can The fourth day of the week, was heretofore set apart for rom this word likewise comes the assize ofbread, the assize creating 30 cubic feet of vacuity, instead of only half a Wodnesdæg, Saxon ; Wonsda, Danish ; Weensdagh, Bel

be shown, that every cubic foot of gas is capable of the worship of the idol Woden (the Mars of the Germans.) weights and measures, “Celui qui regle les Poids et les Me foot, the usual estimate of chymists. Where the gas has gic; Mitwoch, German ; Mercredi, or Mécredi, French;

* See Miege's Dictionary. Hence, perhaps, and with great eredee to better authority, the appointment of twelve Judges to be made on purpose for the engine, its application apA twelve jurymen may have had the same origin; for pears still more dubious, as gas-making forms a business Dies Mercurii, vel feria quarta, Latin. ing the Romans an inheritance was commonly divided abundantly nice and complex of itself, and quite incomOtwelve parts, called Unciæ: the whole was called As. patible with that simplicity, which every mechanical power The fifth day of the week, on which the idol Thor was ies, theres er esse, Heir to the whole; ueres ex semisse

, ex should possess

.--Constable's Edinburgh Philosophical worshipped. —Thoresdæg, Saxon; Donnerstay, Teutonic sl, dodrante, Heirs to the half-third, three-fourths, &c.

.

and German; Thorlday, Danish ; Jeudi, French; Dies mificant as the subject may appear to the incurious, it is,

Jovis, vel feria quinta, Latin. erer, evident, that our division of the common foot is not uitous, but derived from the Roman Pes, whilst masters

Astronomy.

PRIDAY, his isiand, at least 1800 years ago; and that to their divi.

The sixth day of the week, anciently devoted to Friga, the 1 of the As or Libra into Uoeiæ, we owe both our avoirdu

Venus of the Saxons, so called from frigan (Gothic) to donee and inch, both of which being now established by ON THE NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK, &c.

love.- Frigedæg, Saxon; Freytay, Teutonic and Gerhment on scientific principles, may be considered as perated and doubly "Imperial.”

man; Vendredi, French; Dies Veneris, vel feria sexta,

Latin. ekstone says, “Our ancient historians inform us, that a

SIR,-I was asked by a young friend the other evening, yard of longitudinal measure was ascertained by King

SATURDAY, 17 L who commanded that the Ulna, or ancient ell, who was at home for the Christmas vacation, to give an leb answers to our modern yard, should be made of the explanation of the names that are assigned to the days of Seventh day of the week, was appropriated by the ancient et length of his own arm; and one standard of measure the week, and the months of the

year. The youthful mind Saxons to the worship of Seater, the Saturn of the Roemetle being sained, all others are easily derived from is extremely inquisitive, and it is highly proper to satisfy mans.—Seaterdæg, Saxon ; Samedi, French

; Sonnabend, Ice; superficial measures are derived by squaring those of the inquiries of youth, when information is sought on

or Samstay, German; Dies Saturni, vel feria septima, th, and measures of capacity by cubing them ;-- that un

Latin; Sabado, Spanish and Portuguese; Sabato, Italian. King Richard I. in his Parliament holden at Westminster, subjects as are suitable to their capacity. 1197, it was ordained, that the custody of the Assize or Presuming that an explanation of these names may

SABBATH,

be in persons in every city and borough. These original holiday season, and that it may not be uninteresting to. derd of weights and measures, should be committed to acceptable to many of your juvenile readers, during this The seventh day of the week, was observed as a day of

rest, in commemoration of God's resting after the sixth are by a variety of subsequent statutes to be kept in the some who have attained the years of maturity without day of the creation. It is still kept by the Jews on Sa. lequet, and all weights and measures to be made conform-investigating the subject, I shall make no further preface turday: the meaning of the Hebrew word for Sabbath is thereto; but, as Sir Edward Coke observes, though this or apology than the following :

As Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the first day so often by authority of Parliament been enacted, yet it Dever be effected, so forcible is custom with the multi

The Romans, under Julius Cæsar (who was assassinated of the week, Christians have since set apart that day (Sun. The yard being now determined by the present act of at Rome, before Christ 43 years) invaded Britain, and day) instead of Saturday, for religious worship; and it is,

therefore, by many, called “ The Lord's Day."-Sabba. ament on mathematical principles, and a strict uniformity converted this island into a Roman colony, imposing an sights and measures throughout the kingdom established, annual tribute on the inhabitants. This subjugation con thum, Latin ; Sabbat, French ; Sabbath, German. anticipated that great and increased advantage to the tinued for several centuries, until the Romans were com

JANUARY, e must be the consequence of its adoption.--Yours, &c. umber 7, 1824.

pelled to withdraw their forces from Britain for their own The first month in the year, so called from Janus, the protection. The Britons being much harrassed by the most ancient of the kings of Italy who was deified after

Picts and Scots, invited over the Saxons to assist them in his death.-Januarius (quaia Jano sacratus) Latin ; Janu. BROWN'S GAS VACUUM WACHINE.

repelling those rude invaders ; but the Britons soon found arius, Januar, or Jenner, German; Janvier, French. Iris machine having excited considerable attention that these allies became enemies, possessed themselves of

FEBRUARY, here and in England, we consider it right to state their country, and in the year 828 united the heptarchy The second month of the year, so called from Februis pinion in regard to it. We shall feel happy, both on (or government of seven Saxon kings, under whom Eng. (Latin) i. c. the expiatory sacrifices offered up by the been mistaken in the view we are now to lay before gland was divided) into one kingdom under Egbert, who Romans for the purifying of the people in this month. eaters. In this period of boun:lless speculation too first assumed the title of King of England. The Danes – Februaris (dict. quod tum in extremo mense anni popucaution cannot be used. The object of this engine, afterwards invaded England, and although they were suc- lus februaretur, i. e. lustraretur et purgaretur) Latin name implies, is to obtain power by means of the cessfully opposed by Alfred, and Edward the Elder, the Februarius, Februar, or Hornung, German; Ferrier, im created by the combustion of inflammable gas. Danish princes, Canute, Harold, and Hardicanute, suc- French. vell known in mechanics, that a vacuum, in whatever

MARCH, t is produced, forms the source of great mechanical cessively, enjoyed the English throne. In 1041 the Saxons : It was by means of a vacuum, produced by the again got possession of power, and Edward the Confessor | The third month of the year, dedicated by the Romans to asation of steam, that Captain Savery contrived to and Harold the Second ruled as kings, until William the Mars.-Martius, Latin; Mars, French; Martuis or Marz, water in his steam-engine. It was also remarked by Norman (styled the Conqueror) defeated Harold at Hast-German. The Romans used to compute the year begin. elebrated mechanic, Dr. Hook, in regard to some which had been proposed for working by means of a

ings, and William was crowned King of England in 1066. ning with March as the first month. 1, " If (said he) a speedy vacuum could be made This sketch of British history is sufficient to account for r your piston, your work is done." It was accords' the English language being a compound of Latin, Saxon, The fourth month of the year, deriving its name froin

TO THE EDITOR.

rest.

ANONYMOUS.

APRIL,

RELIGIOUS SCHOOL-BOOKS.

Aprilis, (Latin) q. Apertilis, ab aperiendo,mopening; be- and influence of the sun, about which it moves annually

Advertisements. eause in this month vegetation opens and buds; April, in an orbit almost circular. Hence, by its inclination, the French and German. earth gives us that change of seasons so necessary to the

CHRONOLOGY AND HISTORY. MAY, animal and vegetable world. The moon, “ like Juno's This day was published, price £1 168. elegantly engraved, it

printed on double Imperial Drawing-paper, coloured, tu The fifth month of the year, called by Romulus, Maius, swans, coupled and inseperable," attends it, and is like- nished, and mounted on Rollers, from Majores (Latin) out of respect to the senators or wise spherical: her magnitude is about 1-64th of that of THE

STREAM iof HISTORY (brought down to tu elders of the city of Rome ; Mai, French ; May, German. the earth, which she moves round, as a centre, performing the progress of the Arts, Sciences, and Literature in the JUNE,

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. à junioribus, i. e. the younger sort of penple; Juin, moon! without which, in the absence of the sun, the ... This elegant and useful Appendage to the Libraya French ; Junius, Juny, or Brachmonath, German. earth for several hours in the twenty-four would be en

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An ANALYSIS of the HISTORY of ENGLAND; from the

Conquest to the present time. By W. H. BUCKLAND. E AUGUST,

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NOVEMBER,

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. In these planets we contemplate the sublime spec- SACRED BIOGRAPHY; of the lives of Ezine

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Notes.

2s. ed.

sons.

1.

BRINKLEY'S ELEM.

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