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datit was generally allowed, that large and unwieldy socie-clusive to those who will trace physical effects to physical

Correspondence. manage their aftairs badly; and it might, therefore, becauses. tirly assumed, considering the disadvantages which a so- " It now remains to make a few observations on the jour.

THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM. diety of this kind, formed in India, would labour under ney through Egypt. A great deal has been said on this head; the diffeuity of assembling, and the uncertainty of the but as many difficulties are still considered, by some, to oppose

TO THE EDITOR. natin nanee here of its members) that the proposed plan, us in this part of the proposed communication, we shall per

Sin,-- In the last Courier the Rev. Mr. Orré gives his A entrusted to the management of such a body here, would haps be pardoned for adding a few remarks on the subject. hadly earried into effect and badly managed. Any idea "With respect to the road from Suez to Cairo, it is a level reasons for not adopting the " wonderful and unaccount

e profit had been disclaimed; but, in point of fact, men plain, easily traversed by carriage and horses, and all difficulty able system presented with such assurance to the public." vere ai influenced, as Mr. Johnson had said of the Pasha of on that score therefore is merely visionary. A previous ar. Presuming that he means the system on which I teach, Egypt, by selfish considerations: profit must therefore be rangement with the Pasha would always secure a guard to I take the liberty to make a few remarks on his advertiseconsidered as the only permanent motive to carry into ex- protect passengers against the attacks of wandering Arabs. ecution and conduet the proposed plan. Those who first “ The plague, therefore, is the only serious obstacle: in ment, disclaiming, with him, all unworthy motives of prestarted it might, indeed, be actuated by higher and more this we think we shall be able to show, that there is nothing judice or jealousy, and wishing truth only to prevail. Mr. disinterested views; but those who carried it on must inevi- to fear. We have coasulted various authorities on the subject, Orré assures that he teaches his pupils, and has taught tahis look to this result of their labours, or no reasonable hope and we gather from all of them, that the plegue prevails in during the last 30 years, in the same manner in which a sould be entertained, with reference to the known laws of Egypt only at one season of the year. Doctor Clarke says, long list of French authors, whom he names, were taught, buman nature, that they would be cheerfully performed, or upon the retiring of the Nile, the country is one vast swamp.

al to a secessful issue. Now he did think that a commit- The atmosphere, impregnated with putrid and offensive ex. and according to the system followed and prescribed by in this csuntry were most unlikely so to conduct the halations, then stagnates like the filthy pools over which it another list equally long; and he trusts, that the sysTabeme as to render it profitable, for reasons that had been broods, Then, too, the plague begins, nor ceases until the tem observed in the education of the former, and

ted, and whleb he thought must be almost obvious to all waters return again.' From this it would appear, that prescribed by the latter, will not be put to the blush be sddressed. He was decidedly of opinion, therefore, that the visitations of the plague are periodical; and, conthe offer of a premiar to any individual, nere or at home, tu sequently, that at one season of the year, the objection and consigned to oblivion by the above “ wonderful Bury the scheme into effect, was the most likely to effect the founded on its prevalence does not exist. The expression, one,” which he assures is not new, but was proand proposed, in the best, the speediest, and the least expel- on the retiring of the Nile,' is certainly indefinite. We posed many years ago by a great literary character in sve manner. By the offer of a premium the undertaking was know, however, that the Nile commences rising on or about France, and rejected. Wbat motive Mr. Orré could have throwa open to the whole capital and ingenuity of India and the 18th of June, and is at its height

in the middle of Septem- for making a secret of the name of this great literary chaGreat Britain; whereas, by the appointment of a committee ber. Now the rising of the Nile constantly occasions the here, the management of the business must be left to an agent disappearance of the Plague; but as it is at its

height in the racter, I cannot guess ; but supposing him to mean Mr. England, a failure in the choice of whom might cause the middle of September, it of course immediately after, com- Dumarsais, I would beg leave to inform him, that Mr. -hote seherne to end in loss and disappointment. By the mences 'retiring.' her of a premium we throw the undertaking of the plan open

D. only attempted to bring into use interlineary transla“ In December the Nile is very high; and that is the very tion; for the Rev. Mr. Orré must know, that these transto the competition of the men of genius of England; and, if best season for navigating it. It is generally understood,

they did not succeed, he was indeed at a loss where to look for that the season of the plague commences in February or lations had been used by Arius Montanus and others, neces. Another reason against the appointment of a com- March, and in that case, there are only four months in the long before Mr. Dumarsais; but interlineary translations

Daftree here was, that we wanted data to establish the amount year during which it prevails, so that the objection, founded form but a speck in the Hamiltonian system; besides, the of capital actually required. He, Mr. Mackenzie, had reason on its existence, is, we repeat, of very partial application, and translations used on this system are altogether different so believe that the expenses of building a steam-vessel of 400 cannot be considered as at all fatal to the plan of communi. from those made by Arius Morianus, Dumarsais, or his tors would amount to upwards of £14,000. It is true that cation proposed to be established. But Pococke treats this wala was the estimated price; but it was well known that es obstacle of the prevalence of the plague very lightly indeed. numerous followers. Before the Hamiltonian system, no smates were apt to be very fallacious. Mr. Mackillop, he be He says the north wind is called Meltem, being what the translation bad ever been made in which each word was Hered, could speak from experience on the point, in reference, ancients called the Etesian Winds: this begins to blow in translated by a corresponding part of speech; none in which to the steam-retsel here. A laugh.) The estimate of the ex. | May, some time before the Nile rises; it is a refreshing wind, the grammatical analysis of the phrase was taught by the pense of building that vessel, furnished, too, by a most întel- and makes the excessive heat in summer supportable; it ligent and skilful individual, was 15,000 rupees; and she had brings with it health

and the happiness of Egypt, is thought translation only; none in wbich words are (as a general rule) eventually eost, he understood, 32,000. It is evident, there to be the cause of the overflow of the Nile, and continues blow allowed to have but one meaning ; nove in 'which the core, that estimates may be most deceptive and erroneous: ing tiu November, and without this wind they could not sail idion of the language of the pupil was wholly sacrificed bat, If that furnished in this case be correct, the premium up the Nile all the time that its current is so very rapid. It to the pupil's intelligence of the idiom of the language offered would seenre us the supply of a vessel here within we raise £10,000? It was assumed that the scheme would when the weather is coldest, and is thougbe to be occasioned was ever before used in the same inanrer as they are used relet mentes from this date. The next question was, could breeds of itself

, it generally begins in Egypt in February, taught; above all, no translation, interlineary or other. prove advantageous to the comforts of all, and profitabie to by a stoppage of perspiration; it rages and is very mortal on the Hamiltonian system; rone ever produced, or could many. Speaking for himself he could say that he should wil during the hot winds; but they have the plague very rarely in rationally be supposed to product, their uniform and cerlingly aid in promoting the increase of these comforts. To Egypt, unless brought by infection to Alexandria, when it does not tain result. The Hamiltonian system is therefore allothe mercantile body the plan offered more weighty advan- commonly spread.' tages thas to others, inasmuch as speediness of intelligence "In the passages quoted, two very remarkable facts are re-gether new; not one of either of the long lists of authors *24 of more importance to them, than to any other class of corded : first, that the Etesian, or north wind, that begins to and grammarians mentioned by Mr. Orré knew any thing wciety. It could not therefore be doubted, that the Indian blow in May, stops the plague; and, secondly, that this dread about it, and therefore were not, certaiuly, blameable, community would subscribe to obtain these advantages. ful scourge, which is deemed by some an obstacle to any com. and “ought not to be put to the blush” for not hav. Captain Johason, it was plain, acted on the supposition that munication through Egypt, is of RARE OCCURRENCE. we were to sit down quietly with a prospect of losing two laes Pococke's authority is to be relied on, the plagne, when it ing adopted or prescribed it. But it does not follow, of ragees, to obtain an objeet that might be effected without does prevail, must be of very short duration; for it makes its that, because they did not prescribe it to others, or adopt any such risk. He had no doubt that the community would first appearance in February, and disappears in May; so that it for themselves, that we who have experienced its efficacy, wiliagiz esatribute tvo laes to promote the cornmunication it exists little more than three months in she year. But all or have had ocular demonstration of its powers on others, Restas proposed to establish; but, if they gave two in that way, authorities agree, that the rising of the NHe disperses it; and should follow their example. A century aye, a spinningbe was esatident they would much more readiiy give one, as a it cun, therefore, at the nost, prevail only during a few wheel with one spindle was the only way of making

man, in the way he had suggested. "Mr. Patoa inquired whether the goverument would not to be created by it, is removed; except when the plague ac-thread : would Mr. Orré advise us to burn our mule jesatronize the undertaking?

tually prevails in Egypt, clean bills of health may be obtained pies and return to this simple machine for fear of putting B. The diakenzie replied, that he was not there on the at Alexandria: and if this be the case, the vessel that obtained to the blush the modest spinsters of the eighteenth cenest of the government, but simply as an individual addressing one would be exempt from quarantine." his felloxetizens at a meeting of other individuals like him- From these extracts it will be seen how earnest is the tury? I speak now only of the grammarians whom Mr. el. If he were, however, to express his opinion as to the desire that exists in India, to see the plan carried into ex Orré cites, and among whom he places Condillac; it is

positiva of the government towards this undertaking, he ecurion, and, surely, it is quite as natural that a similar but a few weeks ago, I had to defend myself, in London, abould have no hesitation in expressing his convietion, that feeling should prevail in England.

against a writer who affirmed that I had formed my system they wouid liberally support it. He would suggest, as an im- Whether considered in reference to commercial interests,

crestent to Mr. Larkins's motion, that instead of offering kindred intercourse, or the general communion of man in on the principles of Condillac! But Mr. Orré cites a numthe premium to individuals, it should run thus:--that a pre his social character, the advantages of such an undertaking ber of great men who learned French by the method which nium shall be offered to the first Company, that shall establish are incalculable. It brings the inhabitants of distant re he, Mr. Orré, pursues with his pupils. Mr. Orré does comunication between India and Great Britain by means gions in frequent converse with each other; interchanges not say that it is with the same result

. These men spoke (steam perigation,

the produce of those regions at repeated intervals ; keeps French at six or seven years of age better than Mr. " The remolutions were then moved, seconded, and carried. up a more constant correspondence between absent friends;

The caly remaining extract which I shall make, is one draws closer the bonds of affection between connexions Orré has been able to make any man speak the language from the Calcutla Journal, vol. iii. No. 135, in which one long separated ; and in imagination curtails the extent of after as many years tuition. I must take the liberty of

the principal objections to the plan, as it regards the space, whilst celerity anticipates the progress of time. It denying the fact altogether. Mr. Orté does not teach on the atuage through Egypt, is scientifically inquired into, and were impossible to suppose, that an undertaking, fairly plan on which these gentlemen were taught. These gen. born to be of no material importance.

promising to effect so much, should not meet with the tlemen were taught on that “wonderful plan now preThe plaque, which is known to prevail in Egypt, would inost liberal support of the British

public; and I am the int sight to prevent a determined impediment, more confident that it will meet with such support, when sented with so much assurance to the public.” They first sy by proper precautions, the effects of it may always be I consider

that no object of real public utility is ever neg. learned the words of the language; that is to say, the easy, hoided by Europeans, and its visitations guarded against lected by British enterprise.

common, familiar words of it; the words, in short, of the the following remarks upon this point must appear con- May, 1824.

J. E. JOHNSON. Gospel of St. John, which are the words necessary to ex



press our first wants, the first that should be taught to every thing that comes within the reach of the common amiable man was at one period well known in fashiona

The late William Combe, Esq.—This excellent man systematically, because they are the first taught him livers of the earth ; so we are left to

life; at another (and that too in his declining years) ! in every age and country before he becomes the subject

“ Feed upon the motes i'the sun,

no mean name in the world of literature as the authoi or the victim of any system. They learned these words

And gorge the living air."

the humorous and picturesque Tours of Dr. Synlar, i precisely as I teach them, by frequent oral repetition : Nay, shake not thus thy venerable beard : we thank thee, many other amusing, instructive, and moral works

. they learned to use them in speaking, and, perhaps, in masters: we shall soon become a healthful race, and all was a considerable contributor to Mr. Ackermann's cat writing, with practical correctness; and it was not until feeding to thy most philosophic diet. "Sure we do thank all of the most moral and religious tendency) he

by thy wise laws, reducing common, gross, promiscuous brated periodical Repository, in which, among other esse they had read a number of French books that they at thee as becomes a grateful people, ever ready and alive lished a series of letters from Amelia, a young lady tempted to account for the laws of language, or pry into t'acknowledge benefits conferr'a, however great or trivial.

fortune, come to London to be introduced into *** Lin the principles of grammar or philology. Mr. Orré

Fie on't, fie, that man should cabbage eat, when the to her mother in the country. These abound with begins first to teach these rules; he begins the house at unhospitable, and dine on shrubs ; give to the potent sto. and vices of " fashionable life,” with which it is cle

lean browsers of our moorlands chew the withered twig, most just but most unacrimonious satire on the fol the top; he attempts to give the last polish to the decora- mach of the bull the vegetative plant, nor vex and fret from these letters, the author was well acquainted tions of the building before he has laid a stone of the the human bowels thus with food dyspectic: go eat the They are written in the most easy, flowing. and eleg foundation, and the result is in proportion to the wis- reindeer and the timorous hare: thou mayest be hang'a style, and faithfully depict the heart of an amiable dom of the design. I by no means intend the slightest for gathering in thy diet, yet go eat and die: better, far sensible young lady, forming the justest estimate disrespect to Mr. Orré, whose temperate and gentle and gasp thy hour” on gallows, than slowly, sadly, her gratitude to her beloved mother and to heaven manly language I could wish imitated by all who speak dying day by day, eat pork and pickled herrings : cheese, having forned her mind free from vanity and prejudi on literary subjects, and whose person and establishment milk, and butter touch not: touch not soup; and bread and capable of avoiding all the

snares that pleasure spre I am entirely unacquainted with. I speak of the progress new baked, and dumpling, and boiled flour are perfect for the young and unwary. In collecting these inter of students on the common plan generally; and I assert, poison.

ing letters into one small volume of very moderate pri that the tuition of one year, on the plan of the schools, drink after : and you, ye fair, ye suicidal nymphs, who of this nation ; and no parents that value the prosper

Drink not at meals thy gastric juice to cool, much less Mr. Ackermann has done an eternal service to the yo does not usually equal, in precision or extent of knowledge, drown existence in a food of tea, give over ; see, see your of their children here, or their well-being hereafter, what is acquired in one month, with moderate but pleasing allow, skinny, paralytic limbs are shrivel'd into broom- be long, we are persuaded, without the juvenile libra labour, on the Hamiltonian system. I have the honour suicks, past enduring, and all by cursed tea.

being furnished with this compendium of all the mo to be, Sir, your obedient servant,

DOCTOR TIMOTHY TWIST. and religious duties, inforced in the most soothing a July 9. JAMES HAMILTON.

winning way imaginable. But it is not alone to child

that this little volume may be of benefit. Those of The Sopha.

ture age, and of both sexes, may derive instruction THE MEDICAL ADVISER.

delight from the inculcations of the moralist, and from Answers to the Conundrums, Puzzles, &c. in our last. just and accurate pictures of human life.—See adv. TO THE EDITOR. 4. Because he trepans.

Pleasing Automaton Exhibition. We believe it SIR, I send you the inclosed random shred for your

5. Because he is learning

Messrs. Maffey's intention to have left this towns Kaleidoscope. Pare, add, superadd or subtract, insert or

6. Because he keeps his pupils in darkness.

weeks ago; but the liberal encouragement their exhibit 7. Malice, alice, lice, ice.

has received, added to numerous invitations to prola exclude, it signifies nought to Doctor Timothy Twist,

their stay, induces them to sojourn amongst us some lit

TO THE EDITOR. who is your “Constant Reader," and very humble ser. vant, and who will not hesitate to pardon you for any lent, and I believe very little known :

SIR,—The following puzzle is, in my opinion, excel- minature theatre is most respectable; and the ingenuit

time longer. The company which nightly resorts to slight thrown upon his literary endeavours.

the general performances, the beautiful scenery (parti, Change for a guinea may be given in twenty-one pieces, larly the animated marine views) the opera, tight-ropea

neither more nor less, of the coin of the realm, without hornpipe dancers, &c. are assuredly worthy of this d “Come list to me,

tinction.-Sce adv. And I will tell thee wonders—thou shalt be wise

the use of crowns, half-crowns, shillings, or sixpences, or And strong-tenacious of existence,

any silver money whatever. Perhaps some of your in.
genious correspondents will solve this very clever enigma

To Correspondents. The Medical Adviser is certainly a very philosophic Yours, &c.


The communication of the correspondent to which is attie and a very circumstantial useful publication; instead of There are several modes of effecting this problem, five a Greek signature, shall have a place in our next." We sh advising you what to eat, it enumerates a long list of what of which we have ascertained, and shall communicate in our feel obliged if the writer will take the trouble elther top you are not to eat; and in this long list includes almost next.

us in possession of his address, or to send to our office a day after Wednesday next, for a proof of his letter, whil

We wish him to revise, as the manuscript in certain exs Gymnasia.

tial parts is extremely difficult to decipher. A note in t same hand-writing will find us at the office any day betwe

the hours of 12 and 2. Our arangements have compelled us to postpone for one wi

the appearance of Ginevra, which is prepared in the type THE LATE MR. WATTS—The admirable speech of Mr. Jeffr

at the late meeting in honour of this great man, is in pre

ration. Communications in reserve for the next or the followi

week:--Continuation of L'Hermite en Italie Continuat of the Chapel on the Adriatic-The Rev. Mr. Irving's lippic against Lord Byron-An old Correspondent's Let on Puffing-X. Y. Z.--A Riddle, by Dr. E.'s Letter

Pronunciation-Philo—Duryngo-A Dialogue between $18,-You may have seen a trick occasionally intro- | ascertained by making the trial, first with the anvil in ginti and Nonaginti, which we assure the writer was a

“ laid by too carefully." duced at the Circus, which never fails to produce thunders the hand, in which position a blow may be sustained of applause, and exclamations of astonishment, although froni a hammer, which, if made without the

intervention Right of Road. Wis able letter on this subject is also !

pared. We trust that the writer will not object to its nothing can be much easier to accomplish. I allude to of the elastic metal anvil, would bruise and hurt the per.

pearance in the Mercury, for which it is particularly adapt the feat of supporting an iron anvil on the body, whilst son holding it. After this digressive preface, I shall de. as the question which it tends to elucidate has been larg one, and sometimes two persons, strike upon it with bam- scribe the gymnastic feat No. III. in performing which,

treated of in that publication. mers, the person who sustains the anvil lying stretched the anvil is discarded as superfluous and vulgar. The PRESERVATION FROM SHIPWRECK.-We have in store, for out stiff, with his head (not shoulders) resting upon one figure represents a man with the back part of his head

mediate publication, some excellent plans of rafts, to be u

in emergences at sea, illustrated by engravings. These chair, and his heels upon another, and no support what- resting on one stout chair and his heels upon another:

intended as a continuation of the series of papers on ever for the rest of his body. Any man of moderate a third chair, which ought to be of a lighter make, (a cane same important subject, which appeared in the third strength may perform this feat, by giving fair play to the one if it is to be had), is placed under him, as represented in lume of the Kaleidoscope, pages 105, 341, 349, 373, 382, 3 powerful muscles of the neck, elevating his chest al ittle, the annexed sketch. He must then stiffen his body and 399, 405, 424. and keeping the shoulders well down, when he will find limbs as much as possible, throwing up the chest and keep Quts is mistaken. The individual to whom he alludes bas himself able to sustain a person of light weight sitting ing down the shoulders, and disingage the middle chair

more control over any of our publications than the 4

King of the Sandwich Islands possessed. across his body. As for the anvil and hammer, singular which he must carry round over his body until he deposits Limericus is requested to furnish the solutions to his querie as the experiment may appear, the blows are quite harm- it again under hiin on the opposite or left side. less, and indeed scarcely perceptible to the person upon

Yours, &c.

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by w hose breast or body the anvil rests: this will be readily Liverpool.

SMITH and Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.


And all that."



Literary and Scientific Mirror.

* UTILE DUI (1."

Tali famlliar Miscellany, from which religiousand political matters are excluded, contains a varietyof original and selected Articles; comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manners, Anasement, Elegant Extraets, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual Yanme, çith an Index and Title-page.--Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashianable Advertisements. Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents

No. 213.- you. V.

TUESDAY, JULY 27, 1824.

Price 3**.


Men and Manners. against the Tuscans, without proceeding to retaliation, ception, the principal festival in Spain, solemn ceremonies,

and these furies were forced into admiration of the extra- to be performed in the sixteen churches, were mysteriously ordinary moderation of their enemies, which would not announced at Pisa, and I have been assured that such

allow even to their persecuted partisans the pleasure of were concerted, and took place all over Tuscany, particuTHE FRENCH AT PISA.

revenge. Naldini was nominated one of the judges of larly at Sienna. Nine days of devotion had preceded the non L'USINITI EN ITALIX, THE LATEST WORK OF MR. JOUY.

the criminal court of justice at Pisa. He and his col. celebration of this festival. The day of the Conception (Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope.]

leagues gave a striking proof of the power of avarice was appointed for the massacre of the French; but the

and ambition, by accepting judiciary and administrative first success of our arms, in the unjust war in Spain, so The French had established a university at Pisa, where functions under the French. Fearless of future prosecu- much disconcerted the chiefs of these destructive plots, the youth acquired important knowledge in the different tions, they co-operated with their former victims in the that they were never put into execution. M. Ruschi, the professions, among others in that of the French law. It re-establishment of the Napoleonists ; still, however, fos- Mayor of Pisa, warned the Archbishop, a prelate of great was scostom among the young men, upon being received tering their intention finally to destroy them, when time virtue and piety, not to permit his clergy to celebrate with to the degree of licentiate, or doctor, to present a pair of and opportunity should allow them to combine their unusual pomp the festival of the Conception; and thus white gloves to their professors, as well as to all those who efforts.

the French were saved. At the beginning of the invasion vere interested in the care of their education. There I learned many particulars of the vengeance exercised of Spain, while the success of the French appeared doubt. "Tere the among the professors many partisans of the against the partisans of the French, immediately after the ful, the Tuscans hoped, by a general insurrection in Italy, French A young surgeon, of the name of Vacca, who repulse sustained by the latter in 1799. At Sienna, the to be freed from their yoke. Numbers of peasants from joyed a great reputation in Tuscany, had the title of peasants of Arezzo, animated by the rich and powerful the neighbourhood of Sienna had already taken up arms, fire surgeon to Elisa Bonaparte, who then governed the Tuscans, attacked the partisans of the French ; but, either and the inhabitants of Arezzo were again among the dainty-first division. He had been persecuted in 1799 as from fanaticism or hatred of usury, their rage was most first to place themselves at the head of an insurgent army.

partisan of the French when they evacuated Italy, and particularly directed against the Jews. Sixteen of the The malcontent appeared at the gates of Sienna, which bad sed by way of Genoa into France with his brother supposed adherents of the French, among whom were two were shut by the French garrison ; but whether it was and other proscribed compatriots. The ancient Tuscan Jewish women, were burned upon an immense pile raised that the chiefs of Arezzo and Tuscany were disconcerted government was then re-established, and commissions in- in the principal square of the town. The Bishop of by the establishment of a brother of Bonaparte upon the stituted, empowered to prosecute the partisans of the Sienna sanctioned by his benediction the excesses of this throne of Spain, or that it was thought necessary to employ, French. These temporary and special magistrates were incensed mob. Excited and directed by a crowd of in the Peninsula, the forces that would have co-operated chosen from among those who had not been employed ruined debtors, they seized, from the Jews, bills and bonds with them, their hostile efforts had no important results. wider tie imperial regime. Carlo Naldini, one of the belonging to the inhabitants of Sienna and burned them. General Menou, governor of Tuscany, after the installation principal inquisitors of Pisa, although an inferior officer, Good causes should be served only by good actions, of the Prince of Borghese at Turin, passed a decree, which as the confidence he obtained was proportioned to his and the people ought to defend their independence only rendered all the country of Arezzo and Tuscany, par. abilities and to the services be performed, entered into a by courage and magnanimity. I shall relate a trait of ticularly the high and middle orders of the clergy, reprosecution against all the inhabitants of Pisa who had religion and humanity which does infinite honour to M. sponsible for the consequences of the insurrection; and in given cause for suspicion by accepting places under the Santi, who resided at Pitigliano. He was the first Bishop order to enforce it, an army was directed against Sienna. French, with how great moderation soever they had ex- J of Sovana and the brother of M. Santi, professor and in- The peasantry were routed ; a hundred and fifty were ercised the authority intrusted to them. Without inquir-spector of the university of Pisa. The barbarous inha- made prisoners, conducted to Florence, and delivered by ing how far participation in the government established bitants of Arezzo had sworn to burn all the Jews, and had the Governor to a military commission. Sonie of the chiefs by an invading power may be justified by the attempt to invaded Pitigliano, with the ferocious intention of deliver. were shot; the others received an amnesty, and the order counteract the effects of oppression and tyranny, these ing to the fames all the Jewish families. M. Santi, established by the French was once more restored. i inquisitors considered it a crine to have had any share in having invested himself in his pontifical robes, stationed This apparent calm was disturbed by an event which

the preceedings of the French, maintaining that it would himself with a crucifix in his hand at the entrance of took place shortly afterwards. In the beginning of the have been better wo abandon Pisa and Tuscany to anarchy, Ghetto, the quarter inhabited by the Jews, and when the year 1809, Austria declared war against Napoleon, and than not to deprive their judges causes, and their furious mod approached, began fearlessly to harangue upon the probable success of this war, the Italians built administrators of the produce of the contributions. The them, exhorting them to calmness and the exercise of new hopes of seeing their oppressors removed from their krotber of Doctor Vacca, who was then, I think, a Colonel Christian charity. The enraged people insisted upon pro- country. The Tuscans, although peaceably inclined, had in the service of France, suffered sentence of death. The ceeding, and pressing closely round the pious bishop, already evinced towards the French military and civil othens vere condemned to the pillory, to exile in the threw him down; but he, rising, and dauntlessly opposing officers marks of moroseness and suspicion. Unfavourable pestilential marshes of Tuscany, or to temporary or per. to them the symbol of our religion, exclaimed: “Before reports of the success of the French arms, and accounts of petual confinement in the re-established convents. Doc. you proceed to murder the families of the Hebrews, whom the signal victories of Austria were industriousày circulated to Vacca was then at a distance from Tuscany, and his our Lord himself recommends to the mercy of his Heavenly at Pisa. Placards were pasted up of sinister import to frescribed countrymen all suffered their punishment. Father, you must pass over my body, and trample under Bonaparte, his family and ministers, who were individually They had inspired the inhabitants of the town with so your feet the Divine Cross." The fanatics, awed into sub- named in them. The Attorney-general of the court of deep hatred, that the ladies of Pisa were seen to sur- mission by the display of so much piety and heroism, criminal justice, who had several times passed sentence of reund the stakes to which many of them were tied, and were restrained from prosecuting their bloody purpose, death, a punishment introduced by the French laws into with inflamed cheeks and flashing eyes to vent their rage and the lives of the Jews were saved.

a country which had, till then, like Placentia, followed by throwing upon them apples, rotten oranges and lemons, The abode of the French in Italy was frequently dis- the maxims of Beccaria, was to be burned alive, although and even stones. These Tuscan women, whose habitual turbed by threats and demonstrations of hostility from the he was a Genoese. The imperial attorney, whom I knew, Leportment is singularly gentle and engaging, carried, inhabitants, and even by insurrections, which were only having inflicted only the punishments of fines and im. upon this occasion, their fury and cruelty to a degree that finally suppressed by the victories won by the French. prisonment, was guilty of no other crime than that of being mode them forget the respect due to the defenceless situa- The most alarming reports were frequently spread abroad, a Frenchman, and the people were contented with throwing tách of a condemned criminal.

and the French officers, both civil and military, found it him into the Arnino; thus uniting insult with barbarity, The French did not long delay their return, but they necessary to be continually upon their guard.

as Arnino is the diminutive of Arno, a river which bathes he watent to pat a stop to the prosecutions carried op On the 8th of December, 1808, the day of the Con. Tuscany, and passes by Pisa. Lists of proscription were

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handed about, containing the names of such Tuscans as troops, although deficient in numbers, were endeavouring | ment, there remained still some wants to be provided fi had been employed under the French government. When to suppress the malcontents, the Tuscan Government which far exceeded the limited means of Louisa's mothe the Austrians had penetrated as far as Padua, their parti. despatched orders to the military chiefs, the commandants Madame Wickenfeld, who was never at a loss for en sans set no bounds to their joy, and openly proclaimed of towns, and the chiefs of the courts and tribunals: they pedients, thought it very foolish to be troubled by sue their schemes of vengeance. It was impossible for the were even extended to the imperial attorneys. The judges, a trifle, under existing circumstances ; she was convinc public ministry, with a handful of armed men, to arrest lawyers, attorneys, and bailiffs, were required to convert that no banker in town would scruple to advance the a the malcontents ; much less was it in their power to punish their robes into military uniforms, and, having drawn up cessary sum, and a few thousand dollars more or less coul them. Their final subjection was destined to be the result their clamorous and disputative assemblages into silent and be no object to the Baron. The fond old lady was wea of the victories of the French armies.

orderly regiments, to lead into the field such Tuscans as enough to follow this advice, and she contracted so man At Udina, the partisans of Austria burnt the master of were supposed to be partisans of the French, against those debts, that her ruin was certain, in the case of any ir

freemason's lodge, and at Leghorn, tarred shirts were decidedly in the interests of their country. Instructions pediment to the intended match. Even Louisa hers prepared for the French and their adherents.

were sent to the chambers of lawyers; and, although the did not always protest earnestly enough against the acc Our enemies in Tuscany and elsewbere were thunder judges were not named in the letter of the commandant, mulation of jewels and trinkets, which were daily laid struck, when they heard of the success of the French it was understood that they were meant to be included her toilet, for she was a woman; and, although it is so upon the Rhine, and of the retreat of the Austrians from among the rest. It is said that some lawyers, and even that love will outweigh every other passion, female vani Italy. There was then an end to placards and tarred one judge, fainted away, panic-struck by so novel a com- has been but seldom entirely subdued by it for any leng sbirts, and to bathing magistrates in the Arnino. munication. In the answer, however, transmitted by the of time.

Father Pina, a carmelite, and an eloquent preacher of chamber, strong assurances were given that all the mem. The time in which Robert's answer ought to have com Pisa, received orders from the Governess Elisa to leave bers who composed it were ready to conform to the inten. was now gone by, and some hints were thrown out abo bis country, and to retire to Corsica. It was in vain that tions of the Government, for the advantage of their country it. Louisa made no reply; but she received more serio he used all the interest he could procure to have this order and the support of public tranquillity. Several lawyers admonitions, and was obliged to ask for another, and aga revoked, and that he even laid complaints before the ju- jeeringly observed that they ought first to be exercised and for another week. At last the long-wished and sighe dicial authorities, and stated his suspicions that it was in- taught to wield arms. Others maintained that they would for letter arrived; but it was addressed to Madame Wid tended to murder him during the passage. All he could be content to form the rear guard, and take care of the enfeld alone, and contained the following words :-"De obtain was an assurance that his talents would cause his equipages of the judges, who should precede them. Friend, I regret the time and the paper which it has ca Kfe to be respected, and that his exile would probably be All arrangements were satisfactorily made, but neither you, to remind me of a person whom I wish to bave ney of short duration. Nor was he deceived in this last ex. insurrection por invasion ensued; and the panic terrors of seen ; I feel as I ought, the honour which Miss De Di pectation. At the end of a month he was permitted to a few lawyers subsided without the slightest accident. ling has reserved for me, but I find myself quite unwort return to his country.

The victory of Wagram dispersed all remaining gloom: of it. Let ber marry, in God's name, either Baron Pra A young priest, who had made an anagram upon the the insurgents, beaten and discouraged, were once more enthal, or any other of her numerous admirers ; I sh, name of Napoleon, implying threats of violence, was suppressed ; and the gentlemen of the law tranquilly re- content myself with witnessing her happiness at a respe sent into confinement at Leghorn. Several other priests, stored to their arm chairs.

ful distance.” Poor Louisa ! she trembled during who had taken exception against the title of altissimo, It cannot be supposed that the French were influenced opening of the letter; but she laughed frantically wbi given by the governess to her brother Napoleon, in in their conduct, upon this occasion, by any preference of its contents were read; she tore the paper from the hands na proclamation, observing that that title belonged only to the Austrians to the French. They merely acted upon the the reader, and refused to trust to the evidence of her of God, received severe reprimands. The Mayor of Monte- maxim contained in these two verses of the good La Fon- eyes, when she recognised the hand-writing :-the nig carlo, a district of Pisa, who was a partisan of Bona- taine :

which she passed would baffle description. How childi parte, received in the open day from a hired assassin, who

Notre ennemi, c'est notre maitre,

you are ! said Madame Wickenfeld, and how little se i immediately disappeared, a stroke of a dagger on his head,

Je vous le dis en bon Français

know of men; it is the first time that you are thus disap which did not, however, prove fatal. The Grand Duchess,


A. W.

pointed, but to me it has happened more than once, ar fa title then assumed by Elisa, caused to be advertised all

there are none of my acquaintances who have not m over Tuscany, a reward of eighty sequins, for any one

with something of the same kind. Louisa neither cou who should procure his arrest. On the first of May,

nor would defend the faithless man; but there was stil * 1809, bis mistress betrayed him, and discovered the place

secret wish in her soul that she might be able to do it ; & se his retreat. I know not whether or not she received the

Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope

found it impossible to hate him, and her wounded pri promised reward. That was probably distributed among

(Continued from our last.)

itself would not have advanced the interest of the Barı the gendarmes. He was tried by the criminal and special

Louisa felt great repugnance against this arrangement, if her mother had not pointed to the heap of unpaid bil court sitting at Pisa, and although his judges, among which gave her all the appearance of one formally be which must be settled before they could leave the to whom was M. Naldini, were themselves Tuscans, retrothed; but when she considered, that her mother had This consideration prevailed over all others, and produ

eived sentence of death. The Mayor of Montecarlo shown herself willing to resign her hopes, if they could her reluctant consent to the marriage. Word was sent noticited his pardon, but his petition was rejected, and not be realized consistently with her own happiness, and the Baron, and he arrived himself by way of answer, the prisoner was executed. This event put all the that the old lady must be naturally anxious to enjoy the less than a week after he dragged his prey to the al population of Pisa into commotion. As the atttorney- sweets of prosperity which were held out to her, she thought his eyes sparkling with joy, whiive those of the bride su general could noe procure a carriage to convey the herself in duty bound to make the sacrifice of her own in tears: the old lady felt very happy, and the offed criminal to the scaffold, he was compelled to walk scruples to the welfare of her aged parent; and she found widow put no restraint upon the joy. thither; an obligation cruelly imposed upon criminals considerable relief in the consideration of the motives that Louisa was now a rich lady; she could lengthen her condemned to death in many towns of France, and induced her decision. The proposal was therefore ac. by half an inch with brilliants, relieve the snowy wł pancrioned there by custom. After his execution, the cepted; and Madame Wickenfeld vouchsafed to continue ness of her bosom with yellow lace; she could, as o brethren of la Misericordia, who had been all day to her friends the pleasure of her company. The Baron as she pleased, call for a brilliant equipage

, adorna busted in raising subscriptions for him, caused his body despatched an express to get every thing ready; and, on rooms and anti-rooms with flowers in the midst of win to be laid in a chapel, where it was visited by crowds of the day of departure, he took a polite leave at the car. in short, she could enjoy all the advantages which art spectaton.

riage-door, promising to follow on the first summons of apt to excite the envy of those who cannot attain th Soon afterwards, in the month of June of the same Madame De Dalling. The travellers found refreshments without conferring happiness on those who possess to yous, a new insurrection broke out near Bologna, in the and fresh horses at every stage, and no money was taken and Louisa was soon made to feel that she belonged to Appenines, which separate northern Italy from Tuscany. at any; whilst the people on the road seemed to rival each latter. Her husband showed himself, immediately Troops of the line, partly French, and partly foreign, in other in politeness. This manner of proceeding was ad- marriage, as jealous as a tiger, or rather as a man the service of France, were sent against the insurgents, mitted to be extremely gallant, and when also on the

arri- knows that he is nearly thirty years older than his bi and defeated them. The latter returned with new rein- val in Prague, all their wants appeared to have been anti- some wife. The noble confidence which had been show forcements, and attacked Pistoia, a pretty town of Tus- cipated and provided for, the effect could not but be him, by not keeping the affair with Robert a secret, be wany, at eight or ten leagues from Florence. The Go- favourable to the intended bridegroom. The letters of now an inexhaustible source of misery to the fair sufi verness, who was passing the summer months at Pog- introduction, which he had provided, opened to the ladies He mocked and upbraided her daily, sometimes with b gio, a country-house Dear her capital, Aed to Florence, imniediate access into the first circles, and they met with jokes, and at other moments with unfriendly earnesti to take refuge in the palace of Pitti, a building of the most distinguished reception : there was but one point if ever she seemed to indulge in the slightest reverie great strengths Her husband, the Sovereign of Lucca, which caused some uneasiness, namely--the great expense remarked with a satirical sneer, that her first love wa was merely a general under her command in Tuscany. requisite for the support of so much splendour; for, although object of her musings. If ever a strange officer happ They concerted together military measures. Whilst their most things in the mansion were furnished as by enchant- to pass, be maintained, obstinately, ibat she followed



fit longing glances; and if the uniform happened to be repulsive; indeed, the other servants maintained that she venient curve; P., P , are two pieces of silver wire set, he seemed to be enraged to madness. In this melan. had lately sat to a painter as the witch of Endor. “What twisted to the former at the extremities P P. The other chals situation, Louisa derived her only comfort from the is your business with me?" asked the Baroness again. “I ends of the silver wires are bent downwards at os; and wisfaction of her mother, from whom she carefully con. shall have the honour of serving your Ladyship,” replied descend into the metallic cell F E, which contains pure mealed her distress, and who seemed to have only eyes and the hag. " In the place to which I am going I shall need no quicksilver, with which the points communicate. A dous for the advantageous part of the connexion. Madame chambermaid." No answer was given to this remark; and scending point c, soldered to the platinum wire, forms the Wickenfeld appeared to take no notice of either good or they proceeded in silence on their journey until the horses pivot on which the moveable part of the machine turns ril beyond her own concerns. She continued to rail at the were changed: after this had been done three times

, they in the point of the magnet for the purpose of containing kekleness of men, and to avenge her

own ses by invectives Baroness inquired whether the convent was yet far off? a small globule of mercury, and likewise for the rotating against every individual of the other that came within her " The convent!” exclaimed her companion : " it would be pivot to work in. sphere of action. Towards the approach of the Carnival, great pity, indeed, to bring so tine a lady into a convent; no, The point c being amalgamated, when it is placed in the Baron conducted his ladies to Vienna ; chiefly for the no! master knows better; great passions do not last for ever; this globule of mercury, forms a communication with the ake of grauifying his vanity, by exhibiting his handsome there are moments of tenderness which are sure to have their magnet; and the other part of the magnet which passes

through the cell communicates with the mercury in that vife to the inhabitants of the metropolis. They visited turn, but which would be of no avail against the walls of cell; and the points of the silver wires being immersed all the public places, and ffequented every fashionable convent"..." My God! whither then am I to be dragged?" in this mercury, the metallic circuit

is thus rendered com asembly and amusement. Once at a masked ball, Louisa · Dragged ! O no, we drive in a fine carriage, on a good plete; first, through the platinum wire from P to e; bad retired behind some ladies, when a Domino came to road, and in perfect safety; your ladyship needs only to thence through the pivot to the top of the magnet, and speak to one of them, and in doing so took off his mask: have a little confidence in your humble servant, and all along that part of the magnet from the top to the quickthe Baroness had, accidentally, cast a glance upon the may yet be well.” The old pimp gave then, not impers from the point s to the extremity of P, where it joins ebe franget, and recognized Robert; she screamed out, and ceptibly to understand, that she had no great objection to platinum. fell into a spoon. When she recovered, she found herself | cheat her employer, provided it was made worth her The other part of the wire machine being on the same in her on room, with her mother sitting near her in trouble : she conceived herself to have been rather slighted principle as that described, the platinum arms of this apkari, her friend watching at the window, and her husband of late, and the honourable employment of Duenna or paratus, when heated by a spirii lamp or otherwise at the Falking to and fro in a rage ; cursing, swearing, gnashing goal-keeper did not altogether reconcile her to the Baron. extremities PP, are in every respect assimilated to the bis teeth, and clenching his fists. He murmured some- The baseness of the woman produced, however, no other Auid is transmitted in the same direction through both thing about his being dishonoured, and his having become effect upon Louisa but that of increasing her abhorrence; arms of the apparatus ; and hence the rotating tendency is the sport of every fop, the laughing-stock of every fool. she bid her to hold her tongue, and resigned herself to her constant round a central magnet; and not impulsive, as

Ye it us not so. When the event took place, the fate ; bewailing, only, the abrupt separation from her in other rotations with an external magnet. srowd of the curious became, indeed, so thick, that the mother, and feeling more anxiety on her account than The moveable part of this machine (which is the placi.

num and silver wires only) will rotate with a facility pro Barun found it difficult to get through it: but nobody about her own fate. thought that there was any thing extraordinary in the cir.

[To be continued. 1

portioned to the delicacy of the suspension, the difference

of temperature of the parts P and c of each arm, the cumstance; and it was merely attributed to the great heat

power of the magnet, and the dexterity of the experiand dast; for there were none but ladies on the spot.

Scientific Records.

menter. And I must here warn the reader, that this last Robert had immediately withdrawn, but not unperceived

requisite is not the least to ensure success in the experi. by Madame Wickenfeld: it was she who had given to the Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve- ment; for had I not been satisfied that the apparatus was Baron the news of his being in town; and if she bad added

ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin constructed upon principle, I probably might not have nothing to this intelligence, she also forbore to contradict

gular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi- severed sufficiently to attain my object. However, a slight
, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical experiment, and renders it more permanent and beautiful.

modification of the apparatus considerably facilitates the the surmise that the lovers must have spoken to each other. Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; The furious husband wanted now to know what had Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;- A circle of lamps are placed on a stage of the same fin been said on the occasion; and required to be satisfied on

to be continued in a series through the Volume.) gure, in such a manner that may coincide with the perithis paint in a harsh and authoritative tone: the accused

phery of the circle described by the points P P of the wire DESCRIPTION OF A ROTATIVE THERMO. faiz one replied, faintly, and mildly, that he had no cause

part of the machine, so that the latter may constantly be MAGNETICAL EXPERIMENT.

kept at nearly the same temperature in every part of their for suspicion; and he left the room in a phrenzy, uttering

revolution, and the shoulder of those arms, or that of imprecations and rows of revenge Louisa neither wept

the platinum wire to which the pivot c is soldered, is kept bor complained: she calmly requested to be left alone, (From the Philosophical Magazine and Journal.]

at as low a temperature as possible, by means of ether or and wrote a note to her husband, in which she entreated

other cooling liquid. him to send her to a convent. He laughed like a fiend Having promised in a former paper to communicate to If, instead of lamps, a circular flame of ignited bydro then the waiting.woman brought him the billet, and bid your readers the method I have adopted for rotating a gen be substituted, and regulated by a stop-cock, this part ber to tell ber mistress that she should soon enjoy the most the following description of the apparatus I have con- of perfection.

thermo-combination by the influence of a central magnet, of the apparatus may perhaps be considered as its acme templee solitude.

structed and employ for exhibiting the experiment, with The Baroness felt comforted on the receipt of this an- an explanatlon of its management, will, i h mbly hope, from the pivot c to the metallic cell P E, in the same

Another improvement is by having a conducting wire irer, ud waited quietly for a visit from her mother, in be sufficiently plain to be understood.

manner as the conducting wire of the copper part of M. order to communicate to her the resolation which she had

Ampere's rotating cylinders ; through the upper part of Jaken; bat noon and evening approached without any

this conducting wire passes a screw with a milled head,

made into the form of a cup. The pivot c runs in this sterruption of her privacy, and when she, at last, pre

cup, at the bottom of which is a small globule of mercury, jared to wait hersell upon her parent, the chambermaid


for the better insuring the contact. The cup is then filled eid her, with cofeigned affliction, that they were both

up with ether, and niay be supplied during the experiprisaders, and could not leave the room. Louisa folded

ment in proportion to the evaporation. her hands and sank upon her sofa. Towards midnight

The lower end of this screw rests in the hole in the top he beard the key of the anti-room turn, and saw her hus

of the magnet; and by turning the milled head to the band come in. He affected the coolness of a judge, and

P right or left, the points os of the silver wires may be

P sized ber arm without saying more than " Come, Ma

heightened or lowered at pleasure, and consequently their

contact with the mercury in the cell F E may be regulated dam;* ibe followed him in silence, and he conducted ber


to the greatest nicety; the attainment of which was the down the back stairs to a side-opening of the yard, where

only embarrassment I had to encounter with the original pos. chaise was in waiting ; the Baron opened the door,

apparatus. However, by means of this improvement, my fied her in, and wished her a happy journey; whilst the

anticipations were soon agreeably realized by witnessing

the first thermo-rotation ever produced by the influence of river look bis seat and set off. The night was dark, and

a central magnet long as the chaise drove upon the pavement, the Baroness

I must here beg leave to observe, that the only attempt eliered herself alone in it, but when the road became

I ever heard of (and the only one perhaps on record) was Boothier, she thought that she heard somebody breathe;

with the apparatus of Professor Cumming, and a similar ke started, and asked " is any body with me?" "Yes,"

attempt by Professor Barlow with a combination upon the bawered a horse female voice, which she recognised for

same principles. at of old Brgitta, a woman of very equivocal character,

The latter gentleman, however, has candidly confessed that she had found among her female domestics, and

the failure of the experiment, and sufficiently accounted W ponakav bad always appeared to her particularly shown wise bent into she form a remicircle or other con- its construction.

N8, in the ngare, is the magnet; PCP a piece of pla- for the inefficacy of the apparatus upon the principle of




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