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Che Traveller,

in conversation ; and so powerful is my recollection, even which she is held, the affectionate terms in which she is at this distant period, of the pleasure this afforded me, continually spoken of, by those who live near and around

that I could use no terms which would be too extravagant her habitation, surpasses any thing I remember to have LADY HESTER STANhope.

in its praise. The early association with men eminent for met with, in the course of a tolerably extensive peregrina

their talents as well as their power; the habit of intense tion through various countries of the globe. Coupled, We extract, from the present Number of the Oriental observation on all passing events; the abundant opportu. indeed, with the humble gratitude, confined information, Torsdd, the following account, by the Editor, of the resi- nities afforded by years of travel, to apply these habits to and general enthusiasm of feeling, which characterize the nice, place, and manner of living of this celebrated lady: the utmost advantage; all these, added to a remarkable inhabitants of the country, it amounts almost to adoration ; " Not having visited the summer residence in the moun. union of frankness and dignity, gave a peculiar charm to so that the real good which this lady does, and the un. ins, I am unable to speak of it with any degree of the conversation of this highly accomplished and amiable doubted respect paid to her by all classes, have been purkky. I have understood, however, that it was on an woman'; such, indeed, as to render it a matter of deep re magnified by every successive narrator through whom the salad part of Lebanon, about midway between the gret that it should be so lost, by seclusion from the world, recital has passed, till it has at last assumed the shape of ut mit and the more woody belt of the middle region, to many whom it would instruct as well as delight: but the miraculous, and

surpassed even the extravagance of mbining a proximity to the snowy parts of the hollows it is, perhaps, to this love of solitude that much of the the Arabian tales. I remember some few instances of this, scluded from the sun, and enjoying, at the same time, dignity of her feelings may be attributed; for it would be which I heard on my way over from Damascus to Seyda, fah air, abundant water, and agreeable shade. The almost impossible to preserve, uncontaminated, a true which I was then too ill to enter in my notes, but which inter residence, near the sea, was originally a Greek greatness of mind, amidst the continual round of frivoli- may, perhaps, be mentioned here. posent, dedicated to Saint Liias, from whence its name. ties which dissipate the thoughts of half the fashionable • It was said that when the King's daughter (for by this being no longer required for its original purpose, it was world in England. We seldom retired before midnight; name, Bint-el-Melek, and Bint-el-Sultan, Lady Hester is

at a fixed yearly rent, for a residence, and occupied by and these intellectual evenings never closed without fur- generally spoken of here) paid her first visit to Damascus, 4) Hester Stanhope accordingly. In speaking even of nishing me matter of congratulation at the information all the people of the town rushed to the gates to welcome is, as it is entirely from recollection, not having made and pleasure afforded me, and regret at the impossibility her approach-the men to pay homage to one whom they single date during my stay there, I cannot attempt of their being more frequently enjoyed.

considered inspired, or insane, and therefore under the ninute detail, but will endeavour to give a general idea “In person, Lady Hester Stanhope is rather above the especial protection of God (this being the universal opinion 13 accurately as I am able. The convent stands on the usual standard of female height, with regular and deli- as to the holy keeping of those who are deranged) and the Yous of a hil, looking towards the sea, the whole of the cately formed features, a soft blue eye, fair and pale com: women to look on her with an evil eye, and avert from ray from it to the town of Seyda being on a descent, for plexion, an expression of habitual pensiveness aad tranquil their husbands the fascination which they believed would

distance of about five or six miles. It consists of a resignation, which was rarely disturbed, except when her otherwise be exercised on them by the unveiled beauties amber of separate rooms in a quadrangular building, countenance now and then lighted up with the indignant of the fair infidel. The narrator (herself a Druse temale at surrounds an inner court, made into a flower-garden, feelings that always followed the recital of some deed of in the mountains of Lebanon, who recounted the tale to to which the doors of all these rooins open. The rooms cruelty or oppression. Her early political associations had my muleteer as I lay ill on my carpet before the hearth) e neither spacious nor elegant; but most of them being not overcome those fine sensations which almost instinc-proceeded to say, that when she entered, all voices exmished, after the English manner, with carpets, tables, tively impel the heart to resist the inroads of tyranny;

but claimed, •The city of Damascus, the great gate of pilLaits, &c., offered an agreeable contrast to the rooms which are never more powerful than when emanating from grimage, and the key to the tomb of the Prophet, is taken Ideeally seen in the East; the whole furniture of which a female breast. The names of those who rank among from us: her glory is fallen, her might cast down, and páscs of a low range of cushions and pillows surrounding the benefactors of mankind, were such as enjoyed her her people for ever subdued. An infidel has entered her je skirting, and as it were fringing the junction between highest veneration and esteem ; and she never mentioned gates on horseback, and rebellion has been subdued by

wall and the floor. Nothing in the house appeared those of tyrants and oppressors but with undisguised her beauty,'' The people of Constantinople have a proInecessary or expensive, but all that could conduce to abhorrence.

verb that their city will fall, when a yellow infidel, meanmfort, and that was procurable in the country, was seen

* It has been made a subject of wonder, that an English ing a Russian, enters at a particular gate of the city; so deau and unostentatious simplicity. The proper num- lady of distinction should not only choose so remote and that especial pains are taken to prevent such an occurence.

of out-offices, kitchen, stables, &c. were attached to retired a spot for her residence, but that she should adopt At Jerusalem a singular tradition exists as to the recovery ne edifice, and there were spare rooms and beds enough the costume of the country, and that too of the male sex ; of that place by the Jews; and at Jelda the conviction is

accommodate any small party of travellers that might it being already universally known that Lady Hester so strong, that a Christian, discovered in attempting to pass pre occasion to remain here, for a short period, in the Stanhope wears the dress of a Turkish effendi, or private through a certain gate of that place, leading to Mecca, burse of their journey,

gentleman. The wonder will cease, however, when the would undoubtedly be slain on the spot. The feeling here * The domestic establishment of her Ladyship consisted, reasons which influenced the choice are explained. Had described by the Druse female, was perhaps founded on A this period, of an English physician, Dr. Meryon, who she retained the dress of an English lady, she could never some similar notion; and the fact undoubtedly was, thai, sred in a separate house, at a distance of less than a mile; have ventured into the open air, even for the purpose of when Lady Hester had once entered Damascus, every in English attendant, Miss Williams; and an English exercise, without attracting a crowd of the peasantry and thing seemed to have been granted to her, as a privileged jousekeeper, Mrs. Fry; a Levantine secretary, of French others, to witness such a curiosity as any one so apparelled being, though it would be death for any other Christian lescent, from Aleppo; and a small number of male and could not fail to be considered in that country, and this perhaps even to ask it. She visited, among other places, the male servants of the country, for the ordinary purposes would be a perpetual impediment to all her movements great mosque, not only with the permission, but even under Fabour. The fondness for beautiful horses, which this abroad. Had she adopted the dress of a Turkish lady, the protection of an escort from the Government; and de passionately entertained, was judiciously, but not she could never have ventured out,, except enveloped in ber intercourse with all the families of distinction of the tentatiously enjoyed, by the possession of a small stud of the ample garments worn by these, which render it difficult city gave her such opportunities of observation as were tabs, of the purest and most celebrated racers; and on to walk freely, and quite impossible to take any active certainly never enjoyed by any English female before, ese she occasionally took such exercise only as her health exercise, besides being veiled in such a manner as to im not even by Lady Mary Wortley Montague, and such quired.

pede free breathing in this warm climate, and to interrupt as are perhaps not likely to be ever enjoyed again. But The mode of life passed by Lady Hester Stanbope at the pleasure of seeing clearly the surrounding objects of to return to the narration of the talc. The Druse feis couvent had nothing peculiar in' it, except, perhaps, interest in the way. The dress of an English gentleman male continued to say, : When the King's daughter

it was more rational than the mode observed by the would be liable to still stronger objections, though of visited the Pacha in his divan, and was shown the seat vre fashionable of her own sex in particular at home another nature, so that the Turkish male costume appeared of honour on his riglit hand, every one except the Pacha e rose generally about eight; walked in the flower gar- the only one that could be adopted with delicacy and ad- stood up to receive her; and there went before her a mes.

, or real, unel ten ; breakfasted on tea and coffee, in vantage combined. Those who have ever seen the gar- senger, bearing presents of the most costly description from English manner, so much so, indeed, that there was no nients of a Turkish gentleman, must be aware that they all the distant countries of the Ind and Sind,+ with per. tinction between her breakfast table and one in England, conceal the whole figure and person of the wearer much fumes of the most delightful odour. But, when these had cept that finer and fresher fruits were often produced more effectually than even the English female dress, and been laid at the Pacha's feet, the fair infidel herself drew Are than it is usual to see in London. An extensive cor- that nothing can be more consistent with the most femi- from beneath her robes a massive goblet of pure gold, pondence, which her Ladyship appeared to maintain nine delicacy than the ample and flowing robes of this sparkling with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, and tiled La persons of distinction in all parts of Europe, and even costume. These are, literally, the only robes in which to overflowing with the richest pearls, which were, howIndia, generally occupied her pen, or that of her secre- any person of respectability could go out in Syria, without ever, rivalled in beauty by the snowy whiteness of her sky, who wrote from dictation, for several hours in the attracting a crowd, and suffering perpetual interruption; hand.' The truth was, as I had afterwards reason to iddle of the day. This correspondence was, however, so that the choice was wise and prudent, and in every other believe, that, in accordance with the universal practice It confined to mere interchange of sentiments with disrespect quite unexceptionable.

of the country, which renders it imperative, on all who at friends, agrecable as such an occupation undoubtedly "If to be sincerely and generally beloved by those visit men in power, to evince their respect by accompanybut had often some object of great utility, in the coun. among whom we reside, to possess power and influence ing it with some present, Lady Hester Stanhope had pieitself, to promote; and frequently led, as I had myself with those who govern, and to have abundant opportuni: sented the Pache with some small article of European sasion to know in more instances than one, to the most ties of exercising these for the benefit of the weak and manufacture, probably some piece of jewellery ; and this ppy results. The maintenance of this correspondence, helpless, be sources of delight (and that they are so, the simple fact, before it had got half across the mountains of med on in four or five different languages, including the universal sentiment of mankind seems to bear testinony), Lebanon to 'he sea coast, had been wrought up to a tale ading as well as writing of several letters in each day, it may be safely concluded that Lady Hester Stanhope is that mig! iwve better suited the most splendid roinances 28 quite enough to occupy the largest portion of the one of the happiest of human beings. The veneration in in the day..,,'Caliphs. riter's time; but with all this, a want 'of leisure was "In the admirable picture of Mr. Pickersgill, seen at

hould understand, that Damascus is conper pleaded in excuse for attending to any applications Somerset blouse during the last year's exhibition, unicr the sidered o rates of pilgrimage, because the great cara

relief that were perpetually made, from whatever quar- title of "The oriental Love Letter," the dress of the Turkish vin of pil, embles here, and sets out from this place they might have come. A walk, or a ride on horse. Turkish gentlemen also; the variation between the male allowed to enter Damascus on horseback, if he be known;

11 consequence of this, no Frank or Christian is ck, was generally indulged in before dinner, which was and female dress when within doors being very slight; but and no person can ever walk with safety in its

streets ir ways served soon after sun-set, and was a liappy medium differing in toto when they go out; as the gentleman goes dressed as an European. It is the most bigotted and intole. teen frugality and abundance, such as a Prince might forth uncovered, and in the same manner as he sits at home; rant of all the Mahomedan cities, Mecca alone excepted ; and ertake, and yet such as the most temperate could not but the lady: over

her in-door dress, is obliged to fold large no European female was ever, perhaps, known to visit it won plain of. The evening was almost invariably passed' her person from sight." outer garments, veils, &c. so as almost to conceal entirely before."

+ " India within, andIndia beyond the Ganges."

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advising the adoption of the hints contained in the forme

In order that any impropriety of conduct might be preveder THE LATE MR, MATURIN.

at the ensuing Charity Ball. In neither of these leter ASHTON ASSEMBLIES.

can we trace whether the parties complained of were a “0, what a world this is !"

dies or gentlemen; but the writer of the last letter, by “Stand off ye vulgar, nor profane

« 'Tis a place

means of a pun, glances at a particular family, and a

must now ask for further particulars. We must informe With bold unhallowed hands this festal scene."

Where virtue is immolated with the dead,

the writer, that two most respectable gentlemen positively And the fell scarecrow, Folly, hung upon

deny the truth of the affair in question, and it is therefore " Pueris virginibusq: canto."--Hor. Lib. 3, Ode 1.

Our urns."-Shakspçars.

Incumbent on him to give us his real address, in order that TO THE EDITOR.


some explanation may be afforded. There evidenliy as SIR, I am happy to find that the Ashtonians do some.

pears to be some mistake either as to the name or the family.

SIR, I could scarce repress my indignation, upon pe- At all events, the affair has been unequivocally denied da times approach the temple of Apollo, and seek in the rusing the article on the lamented Maturin, which you behalf of those supposed to be aimed at, and it is, of course, bowers of the Muses for that consolation which is not to inserted in your last Tuesday's publication.

our duty to do the party every justice. It may be asked be found in the Ashton Committee-room;' for we had

Tell me of the celebrated man, whose conduct, public

why the letter was inserted unless we were satistiedot been given to understandt here that the Ashtonians or private, some malicious driveller might not turn to ridi

its truth. Our only answer is, that we had beard sine

thing of the affair in so many places during the last time were behind us in the schools of logic and literature ; but cule, and contort into the most absurd foolery.

months, that we never doubted the fact. It often happens, to answer your correspondent's query, as to the knotty While the peculiarities of poor Maturin are held up to however, that what is most generally rumouredithe Dest point on the tapis of the circles of wit at Ashton, as well public estimation as being contemptible or vicious, those

difficult to trace to its source; but as it is non denied, ins I am able (for I am sorry it is not in abler hands) 1 of a celebrated contemporary, lately deceased, are gar

we are quite sure it is better for the parties that the fact should recommend those at Ashton, who delight in the nished and enshrined as the divine attributes of genius

should be stated in print and publicly contradicted, than

that it should be circulated, unquestioned, in the em suaviter in modo,” and the “fortiter in re," to adopt and of greatness.

versation of the town. the rules of the polished Romans, rather than those of the

Mr. Maturin was a man of great talent; and, potwith. We have this moment heard, that the party compiained barbarous feudists, in their selection and rejection of sub-standing the “damning” paragraph of "faint praise"

of were strangers in Liverpool. We hope that this is the scribers to those magnificent amusements, and not to for- bestowed upon his novels, published prior to his Bertram,

case, and that the harmony of " the good old town" 1

be as conspicuous as ever. It is our correspondent's dit get the motto adopted by the venerable Wykeham, the it is well known that those very novels had gone through however, to come forward. We are extremely sorry, lin founder of New College, Oxford, viz. “ Manners make " editions,” and were popular.

have given puin to any innocent party. the man," and placed over the public gates of that neat The invidious spirit which dictated the remark of “the THE ALMANACK. A Constant Reader Inquires bow it happened establishment ; for, though “ extraction,” sounds high effects of success on a mind like Maturin's,” is but barely that Holden's Almanack for January last contained a dealise in the colleges of heraldry, yet it has little to do with veiled not to exhibit its impertinence and envy. The re- of three eclipses, viz, Jan. 1st, sun; Jan. 16th, mood; Jet. fitting a man for the orgies of Momus, and the mazes of marks on his person and dress are served up in the same

27th, sun. The last mentioned is evidently an erro. * the quadrille: as to wealth, if a man pays bis subscrip- spirit, and meet with equal contempt and credit.

is not possible for two eclipses to happen in ten days.

referring to other almanacks, we find that the error met tion up, I think that is all which wealth has to do with

You will, I hope, pardon the interest I feel for a man have been merely typographical. It should hare sted the matter. Hoping that this will have the effect of of genius, whose memory, yet green, might early be June 26th, reconciling any unhappy differences which may exist tainted by the gangrene of envious hearts to the injury of CHESS PLATER-A correspondent who dates, post paid, fra among the Ashtonians and the Ashtonienses, I whether they its future glory.

Stewartstown, and who fancies he has detected an error be or be not “men adapted for auditors in the schools of

Perhaps some of your numerous correspondents, better In our chess tablet of the 23d ult. is himself mistaken, moral philosophy" (for so I translate Ashtonian's Latin) qualified by their abilities and by local information than we shall show in our next. wd 80 preserve the “spem gregis," – I remain, Sir, yours, i am, may oblige your readers with an impartial narrative CHRISTMAS CAROL AND MUSIC. In that interesting and seful &c.

OBSERVATOR. of the life of the Rev. Mr. Maturin.-Meantime, I am, work called Time's Telescope, for 1825, there is a Christmas Chorley, December 4, 1824. respectfully, yours, &c.

Carol, with new music, which we shall copy into the set P.S. I believe that the heraldic motto at Stayley Bridge


Kaleidoscope, for the gratification of our friends in the

country and Ireland, who love Christmas recollections 2nd 18 τα αργυριω υτοτασσεται παντα ; but in that I

festivities. admire their taste, good sense, and prudence. “Si sit

LANDLORD AND TENANT. prudentia," &c. Juvenal says, and this Ashtonian knows.

The following are in course of publication, F.HB-F.. on Translations, and on Drinking healths

.. Ron Nate TO THE EDITOR. Query :-Is it to be found in the card-room?

ral History-Juvenis-A Subscriber from Coventry-Ias S18,-When I before addressed you, upon this subject, to-J. F. C.-Cuisa Arintha-Lines to the memory of it † By the strumpet Fame: " Fama malum quo non." &c. : I certainly had overlooked the recent and very important dame Riego Observator--Archimedes, jun, and Cantaka you know the rest. # The aforesaid jade brings us various news.

statute of the 59th of the late King, chap. 50. In fact, EDUCATION.—A correspondent whose signature we bere er it was not until last week that I discovered, in the number

press for a reason which will hereafter be obvious, is 'n of Barn. and Cress. Reports, just published, page 847, a formed, that we shall next week address to him 8 notes THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

case (Rex against the Parish of Ampthill, in the county the subject of bis Essay, No. 1.

of Bedford) had been argued and decided upon this statute EULER.—The biographical sketch of this celebrated maths TO THE EDITOR. 312--I read with much satisfaction the pleasing extract in Easter Term. This decision it was my intention to matician shall have a place as soon as possible. you lately gave in the Kaleidoscope from the North Ame have communicated to you, by way of rider or supple. CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS.The letters of our Lancaster covers rican Review, a work which is quite equal to take its rank ment to my former letter, had not your correspondent E. with the Edinburgh or Quarterly Reviews; and I am surprised anticipated me on the occasion.

pondent, No. 1, on this important subject shall be in me

I am, nevertheless, diately attended to: and we shall be glad to receive No L it has not found its way into all our public libraries and reading-rooms, particularly in a place like Liverpool, which obliged to him for pointiug out the error, and beg to as

LAMENT OF THE PEasanT'S DAUGHTRA. We have been for presents so many facilities for obtaining this valuable work. sure him, that had he been personally acquainted with

ed with a copy of most interesting stan zas under the il belleve a few numbers have found their way, very Irre- me, I should not now have had occasion to inform him, We shall have much pleasure in giving them a place in the gularly, into the Lyceum.), That I am not singular in my that I experience a far different and opposite feeling to next Kaleidoscope. In the meantime, however, we wist? appreciation of its merits, I will give you a quotation from that of offence towards those who are kind enough to cor

be Informed whether they are original or copied. If mercy

transcribed, we shall feel obliged if the transcriber will -“This work (the North American Review) so creditable to rect any mistake I may have committed.

name the source from which such a gem was selected, u i the learning, talents, and spirit of its conductors, Is acquir I am in hopes my error will be sufficently atoned for,

ought by courtesey and fair dealing to be specified. ing, I am happy to find, an extensive circulation in England. by introducing to the notice of your readers another cor. Sone of its papers, no doubt, possess only a local interest, respondent, in the legal department of your publication,

RAIL-ROADS_We purpose next week appropriating the ** but it embraces in its plan every topic connected with the who, I trust, will not suffer the same number at once to

cellent article on this subject, recommended by An Admas* welfare of the human race, and is distinguished, as far as I have

for Improvement. ween, by a spirit of moderation, candour, and liberality. i testify his entry and his exit. trust thc time is not far distant when it will be found in our Liverpool, Dec. 6, 1824.


LEARNED QUOTATIONS-We regret that previously to the re book-societies and reading-rooms as commonly as the Edin

ception of Quotator's letter on this subject, our arrange

ments for the week were completed; so as to render it like buigh and the Quarterly Reviews." I hope to learn that the committees of our different public

To Correspondents.

solutely necessary to defer the appearance of this comand

nication untü next week. As it is a rejoinder we should literary institutions will afford their fellow-townsmen an

have preferred its immediate appearance. opportunity of judging of the correctness of these remarks, THE LATE BALL-In the Mercury of the 1st October a letter by taking steps to introduce to their acquaintance a work appeared, complaining of the assumed aristocratical airs of TAB LAT& Mr. MATURIA_We thank M. For the biograpbian which, at the same time that it does honour to its country, borde persons at the then recent ball, given for the bene- sketch of this gentleman, to which we shall attend zert affords the most authentic record of passing events in North fit of the Infirmary, and arguing very properly that such week, if possible. and South America, annually becoming more interesting to conduct was calculated to hurt the feelings of those towa, both in a political and commercial point of view.

wards whom It was directed, and to injure future similar Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by December 6, 1994 AN ENGLISHYAN. meetings. In the last Mercury another letter appeared, B. SMITH & Co. 75,

Lord-Street, Liverpool.


biterary and Scientific Aiirror.


Tals familiar Miscellany, from which religious and politicalmatters are excluded, contains a varietyof originaland selected Articles: comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Mannei a

Amusement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual Volume, with an Index and Title-page.--Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.—Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

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Natural History.

ately under.it, immense caverns, wbich became the recep-convert it into the substances thrown out in volcanic

tacles of the mass of waters above them, as soon as the eruptions. Metallic veins are the carious parts, the LETTERS ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. thin layer of earth, by which they were separated from abcesses of the mineral kingdom, and metals are the

them, was broken by their weight. The level of the seas productions of decay and disease; this is the reason why

being thus lowered by the efflux of their waters into these most of them have so offensive a smell.* La legère soche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne

caverns, which we may suppose as large as we please, the It must, however, be acknowledged, that all geologists CONET pie das ruines. Paris: printed, 1824.

tracts of land, which we now inhabit, were left dry. All have not carried so far the boldness of their conceptions

these continents have, as you see, been beds of the sea, as those, whose systems have furnished us with the above[Trandsde erpressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French as well in the opinion of Buffon, as in that of most au- mentioned examples of extravagant hypothesis ; yet, how


thors, who have, before him, invented theories of the various and contradictory are the opinions even of those

earth. But his system does not imply, like that of Mail who have proceeded with the greatest caution, and who, I have quoted to you this passage, that I may be ex. let, that the sea still continues progressively to decrease, in the prosecution of their inquiries, have confined themcused for having so får enlarged upon opinions merely hy- and that the whole surface of our planet will, at some selves to the means afforded by a knowledge of natural pothetical, in consideration of the importance attached to future period, be left dry.

philosophy and common chemistry. them by the illustrious author of the last theory of the The systematic ideas of Buffon are, as I have already One maintains, that all matter has been successively earth which has met with any success in France. told you, the last which have met with a favourable re- precipitated, and deposited nearly in the same order in

I shall conclude by laying before you his ideas on the ception in France. As for those promulgated by living which we now behold it, and that the waters of the ocean, successive formation of the seas and continents.

authors, without venturing to give you my own opinion of which were once extended over the whole surface of the The elevated temperature of the terrestrial globe, whilst them, I shall content myself with transcribing for you the globe, have gradually diminished.t it was in a fluid state, and even long after it became solid, brief exposition of them made by a naturalist (M. Cuvier) Another is of opinion, that the masses which compose did not permit the water contained in the atmosphere to who seems to have acquired, by the success of his en mountains, are incessantly and gradually carried away in fill to its surface, but in the course of ages the poles be- lightened and laborious researches, an indisputable claim the currents of rivers, and deposited in layers at the bot. gan to grow cold, and continual rains, occasioned by the to pre-eminence in every branch of science.

tom of the sea, that the heat occasioned to them by the decreased temperature of those regions, formed around “ Men of more liberal opinions have, in our days, also enormous pressure to which they are thus subjected, will them immense seas.

chosen to employ their talents upon this important subject. one day cause them violently to explode. In the same manner were collected on the summits of Some writers have re-modelled and considerably amplified A third supposes the liquid to have been originally di. all the most elevated mountains, lakes or large pools, which the ideas of Maillet. They affirm that all substances were vided into a multitude of lakes placed in the form of an tave since flowed down to the low lands. As the earth originally in a fluid state ; that this flúid first engendered amphitheatre, one above another, which, having deposited gradually cooled, the polar seas extended themselves over animals of the most simple organization, such as monads, the beds of shells observed in different parts of the earth, its surface, whilst the lakes of the mountains formed ba- and other infusorial and microscopical species. These have successively overflowed their banks; and that their sins, and small inland seas, in those parts of the globe different races of animals having, in the course of time, waters have been finally embodied in the ocean.s which the great seas of the two poles had not yet reached. gradually acquired certain distinctive and peculiar proper. A fourth imagines that the matter at the bottom of the The rain continued to fall with still increasing abundance, ties, became more complicated and diversified in their na- sea has, in the course of time, been carried away by tides until the atmosphere was entirely purified, and finally, the ture, till they at length presented the infinite variety we now of 7 or 800 fathoms in depth, and that it has gradually seas, first formed round the poles, extended themselves to behold in them. They, by degrees, converted the water formed mountains and hills among the valleys, and on the the countries near the equator, and covered the whole sur- of the sea into calcareous earth ; vegetable productions, of primitive plains of the continent

. || face of the globe to the height of 2,000 fathoms above the whose origin and progressive transformation we are left A fifth builds his system upon the supposition that the level of our present seas.

in total ignorance, converted water into clay, and these different fragments of which the earth is composed have The whole earth was then under the dominion of the two earths, after they were deprived of the characteristic successively fallen from the sky in the form of meteoric Sea, except perhaps the summits of the primitive moun- qualities impressed on them by life, were finally resolved stones, and that they have received their elementary printains, which were only temporarily inundated, as the into flint; this is the reason why the most ancient moun- ciples from the unknown substances, of whose remains Fiters collected upon these heights, during the first period tains contain more silicious earth than any others. Con. they have been composed. I of their fall, flowed from them to occupy the low lands, sequently all the solid parts of the earth owe their origin A sixth places, in the central hollow of the globe, a nuas soon as the latter had become sufficiently cool to receive to life; and without life the globe would still be in an cleus of loadstone, which is periodically transported, by them, without converting them into vapour. The sum- entirely liquid state.*

the attraction of comets, from one pole to the other, and, mits of these mountains were the first places where or- Other writers have preferred adopting the ideas of removing, by this change of its position, the centre of ganized nature was manifested, and it was there developed Kepler. Like this great astronomer, they attribute vital gravity, and, consequently, the mass of the ocean, alterwith great vigour. They were covered with large trees faculties to the globe itself; they maintain that a fluid nately inundates the two hemispheres. and plants, of every kind, which were soon afterwards circulates within it, and that an assimilation takes place precipitated into the waters, and carried away by thein. there as well as in animated bodies. All its parts are # M. Patrin has supported this system with much in.

At the same period, all the seas were filled with inha- alive, even the most elementary molecules are endued with genuity in several articles of the New Dictionary of Natural bitants, whose remains, together with those of the vegeta- an instinct and a will, and attract and repel each other by History, ble productions of the mouniains, were buried at the bot- mutual antipathies and sympathies. Every sort of mineral + M. Delamétherie admits crystallization to be the primary tom of the seas, which have since become our continents. has the power of imparting to other bodies the properties cause, in his geology.

You will, perhaps, ask me, Madam, how these conti peculiar to its own nature, as we convert our food into # Hutton and Playfair. See Illustrations of the Huttonian Dents have ever been freed from their superincumbent loud flesh and blood. Mountains are the organs of respiration Theory of the Earth, &c. Dec. 1802. of water. The difficulties involved in this question are, of the globe, and schists are its organs of secretion : by § Lamanon, in different parts of the Journal of Natural according to Buffon, easily solved. The earth, in be- means of these it decomposes the water of the sca, so as to Philosophy.

I Dolomeu. Ibid. coming cool, had undergone a change, to which all bodies are subject, when they pass from a very high tempe- 1801, and page 169 of the second volume of Telliumed."M! Development of the present State of the World. Giesen, 1802.

* See the Natural Philosophy of Prodies, page 106, Leipsic, M. M. de Marschall; see Inquiries respecting the Origin and rature w one less considerable. Not only was its surface de Lamarek is tne author who has, in latter times, developed

this system with most consistency and perspicuity in his varied by heights and hollows, but there existed immedi- | Hydrogeology, and in his Geological Philosophy.

See Periodical Renewal of the Terrestrial Continents. Hamburgh, 1779.

** M. Bertrand.


NO. I.

I shall here terminate, Madam, the task I have imposed our holy religion, and more honourable to the human I first saw the essence of this accusation duly distinguished upon myself for to-day. Forgive me, if I have mis- race. How fainly would I leave a name to range with by its conspicuous italics, from the crowd of minor di. employed the leisure you are willing to devote to the pe- theirs; but, alas! though the field of exertion remains cumstances, I felt rather perturbed, (for to every debeja rusal of my letters, by laying before you a series of sys- wide, and there is much to do for those who are willing to nation of this offence I entertain a most violent antipet, tems so contradictory. It is true, that they may be con- labour, it more befits me to acknowledge their merits, and naturally waited with great anxiety to see what sidered merely as fictions more or less ingenious; but and to recommend to public investigation a subject of so dence he intended to bring forward in support of such they may at least afford us the same sort of amusement as much interest.

a formidable charge. Finding, however, that it rested that we derive from reading a romance; and, perhaps, we

merely upon his ipse dixit, (as I do not " hold him sex may count among the number of gratifications thus pro

Literature, Criticism, &c.

reverently,'') my consternation was immediately contere cured us the self-satisfaction with which we console our.

into surprise that he should have ventured to maintain elves for our indolence, wben we perceive how unavailing

such a position ; when he must be aware that it is much are the ambitious labours of the learned.


more difficult to introduce an apt quotation, than to comi. (To be continued.]

pose, in our own language, a sentence to the same efecte “Stat magni nominis umbra."-Lucan.

From the tenor of your correspondent's previous toes.

"Lay on, Macduff, &c.—Shakspeare. The Philanthropist.

munications it was no more than I expected, when

last week assumed a more formidable position; aad LETTERS OF A LITERARY DEVOTEE. SIR.—Although the subject of the little discourse" I contented with assailing the out-posts of acient liders now offer to your notice has been in danger of growing hold of its defenders, and threatened to

ture, sounded the signal of assault upon the fery ang “stale, flat, and unprofitable," I shall, with all due apo. THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. logies, take the liberty of trespassing once more upon your

“Unload his great artillery and shake,

Nay, pulverize the walls they think defend them." indulgence, since I really could not quit the lists altoge

No longer would he exercise the keenness of bis elo On the fate of Henry Fauntleroy every tongue is elo ther without again lifting up my voice in defence of quence in lopping away the superfluous branches of the quent, and every heart is touched with the awful severity learned quotations, and running another tilt, certainly not venerable tree, but would fain lay the axe of his area of his punishment. Many, in the humbler walks of life, at the champion elect of affectation) against their trucu mentation to the root! This is really improving one whose offences have been far less aggravated, have suf- lent adversary, Anti-barbarus, junior, although that for the example of the fox, who, when accidentally deprime fered the same, unheeded, unknown; but the strong sen- midable personage has manifested symptoms of being in. of the honours of his brush, endeavoured to demostra sation which has been awakened on the present occasion, clined to carry the combat even à outrance. will surely lead to a revision of that sanguinary code which But whatever may be the disposition of your correspon. harangue, the beauty, expediency, and necessity of

to his assembled brethren, in a luminous and energeh has lowered our country in the eyes of foreigners, and dent in this respect, I must,

nevertheless, acknowledge my tailless state. I presume that A. B. is in the same which assuredly is inconsistent with that civilization we self extremely indebted to him, for the unexpected excess tion, and has a somewhat similar object in view, when pretend to. Our penal laws are on the system of intimi- of civility wherewith he has pointed out and amended seve labours to convince his readers of the inutility of these dation; death is inflicted more to deter others from offend- ral expressions of mine, which were weighed in the ba- of the classics. In pursuance of this desirable cors ing, than as the just penalty of the crime itself. Of the lance of his judgment, and found wanting. Now, al mation, he preludes his grand attack, by observing, success of this plan, let experience speak; of its propriety, though the extraordinary kindness of his intentions has the station occupied by them of old,” in chemistry let Christianity decide. When men shall study the pre-induced me to make my grateful acknowledgments, I cepts for Him who taught his followers to say, “ forgive would by no means have him believe that I bow with re- neath the high degree of perfection that has been ataite

tronomy, natural pbilosophy, &c. &c. was very much us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against spect to the peremptory dictates issued from his self-con- in those sciences by the brilliant efforts of the moders, us," they will learn to doubt the lawfulness of capital stituted tribunal, or salute him as “ a second Daniel come

Having established these incontrovertible premises, punishment in any case. It may be long before it is en- to judgment.” At the same time I must express my ez leads us, by dint of a most absolute " therefore "isto die tirely abolished, but that it will, in our days, be restricetd gret that I cannot reward his politeness by a similar kind.

"lame and impotent conclusion,” that it " behover" to murder, I confidently hope. Its opponents are gradu- ness; inasmuch as I have more pleasure in examining to take into consideration the utility of tie study of 2 ally increasing, its impropriety is held established by the the arguments of my opponent, than in scrutinizing, with cient literature. Now, as for you and other men" society of Friends, and they have exhibited to the world the searching glance of criticism, the expressions wherein Editor, I cannot answer, but as for my single self" a glorious example of penal legislation in the first seventy those arguments are conveyed. years of Pennsylvanian history.

A. B. junior (I hope your correspondent will not be most certainly never was my ultimate aim, in the peras Let him who cannot dispense with “ blood for blood,” wroth at this mutilation of the honours of his title) has, of the Greek and Latin authors, to acquire from examine with how much of just detestation of crime is in the last Kaleidoscope, adopted a strain of triumph, and pages a knowledge of chemistry, astronomy, or any mingled a feeling of vindictive revenge, that would hurry observed, with exultation, that a positive assertion of mine of the sciences he has so needlessly enumerated Wh the murderer after his victim without a moment's delay. stands in downright contradiction to an equally positive that actuate most men in this pursuit

, it is not my

were my motives, and I believe they are the saine as Far be it from me to decry that indignation which follows one advanced by my coadjutor Y. Z. and then he jumps tention here to explain, although, in the language of a the commission of an atrocious crime; it is a feeling ho- into the conclusion,” that our arguments do not rest upon correspondent, “I

could say a great deal more, if su nourable to man; but, how few stop to examine the in- a very sure foundation. Now wherein this alleged con.

was my pleasure." centives, the motives, the temptations, which lead to the tradiction consists, the most diligent perusal and collation

“Sixthly, and to conclude." I am extremely hay offence, and lie, as it were, at the root of the evil. Soli- of the passages in question have

not enabled me to deter to have an opportunity of showing d. B. janior, er tary confinement, and hard yet useful labour, offer a legiti- mine. It most certainly never was my intention to enu- direct instance of my gratitude than could be affonde mate medium of punishment, and, moreover, an advan. merate, amongst our inducements to quote, an admiration

a mere acknowledgment of my obligations to his tageous one, which, in my humble judgment, would of either the philosophy or morals of the ancients, neither prove quite as efficacious in preventing crime, as the in- of which, when compared to those of the present day, do be the more inclined to follow, as it is founded

mean to offer him a little friendly advice, which is fliction of death. It may be, the public is not prepared I profess to hold in excessive veneration. Neither was I for this doctrine. In more barbarous times ; in less civil- at all aware that any one could possibly imagine, that be- sed a very ready assent. He perfectly agrees with me

observation of mine, to the justice of which he has esp ized countries, such as Turkey; wherever the gospel has cause the Greeks had treated, with the most scornful neg. it is incumbent upon an author

to polish and resse not penetrated to the heart ; the less it is known and prac. ligence, the literary productions of their predecessors, they he publishes ; now I would most earnestly recoman tised,--the lower has the value of human life been uni- should necessarily have looked upon all their other attainformly estimated. In such tinies and countries the pu- ments in the same contemptuous point of view. But I that, when he feels disposed to enliven the wildernes nishment of death has been constant. Let us hope that conceive there is very little necessity to argue any farther his performance, by a touch of the facetious, he sad the time is approaching when the finger of scorn shall be on this point, since few of the defenders of quotations, be pleased to introduce wit of rather a more polished more fearful than the gallows, and the fear of shame however influenced they might be in general by the aw: refined description than that which graced the conclusie stronger than death, and the dread of disgrace shall tri- thority of antiquity, would seek to maintain their pro- of his epistle of November the 16th.—Yours, &c.

Dec. 5, 1824. umph over the love of life: then may the strong arm of priety, on the ground of their having been fashionable the law put down offenders and extinguish crime without some thousand years ago, when they might easily adduce shedding blood.

dumerous and brilliant instancss of their successful appli- ORIGIN OF THE CUSTOM OF DRINKING Montesquieu, Montagu, Beccaria, and Roscoe, magna- cation from the works of the most eminent and popular

HEALTHS, &c. nimous advocates of a milder policy, though the latter authors of their own day. alone remains in the land of the living, yet do they live I was somewhat surprised when A. B. in the course of

TO THE EDITOR. alike in their works, and powerfully plead, the living and his observations, proceeded to accuse the supporters of SIR - I beg to trouble you with the origin of the abor the dead, for a system of punishments more congenial to this unlucky practice of the sin of " sheer laziness.” When I mentioned custom, as your correspondent Arti-sarin


from his round and bold assertion, seems to be totally ig. say, that the authority of a man of talents and integrity and in private classes ; but I am inclined to think noraut of it.

should be rejected because “his example may have been that this would not be the case in large establishments " The custom of pledging healths, still preserved among praise-worthy in almost every instance except just that and our public schools. The author is somewhat heSaglishnen, is said to be owing to the Saxons' mutual under consideration ?" This is the very reason why we terodox, as appears from his dedication to Mr. Hamilton, regard for each others' safety, and as a caution against the should huve recourse to the authority of a great man; be. whose new mode of teaching is making so much noise in 'reacherous in hospitality of the Danes, when they came to cause, as it is very easy for such a man, for instance Dr. the world, and with whom he is connected. His book, ve in peace with the natives.”_Wise's Observations on Johnson, to speak on a thousand different subjects, we however, which consists partly of translations and partly be Thite Horse, and other Antiquities, published 1742, may just as correctly suppose a person to quote one of of originals, is amusing, and show sthat the most familiar Orford, cited in Brand's Popular Customs.

those thousand praise-worthy examples, as one of the few subjects, as tales, songs, &c. may be turned into elegant Mr. Strutt says,—“ The old manner of pledging each which are not praise-worthy: and, in reality, the chance Latin verse. The following are some of the subjects : eler when they drank was thus: the person who was against his quoting a wrong opinion will thus be nearly as Witch, Death caused by the Prick of a Needle, Tobacco, going to drink asked any one of the company who sat 1000 to 1.

Noah, Skaiting, Woollen Manufactures of England, jest him whether he would pledge him; on which, an- I shall not trouble you, Sir, any more at present; but i Translation of Atterbury's Epigram on a Fan, The False Fering that he would, held up his knife or sword to guard I pledge myself to prove, in time for your next Kaleidos. Eye, Tavern Signs, Cudgel Playing, Description of a Sea in whilst be drank.” But the custom is here said to cope, that there are passages which cannot be translated Fight, Wolsey, Old Parr, Whittington, Country Squire, 172 first taken its rise from the death of young King from Latin to English correctly, without losing their force Vicar of Bray, &c. dward, called the martyr, who was, by the contrivance and dignity; and this is the extent of my assertion, though From the nature of the work considerable tact was ne* Elfrida, his step-mother, treacherously stabbed in the your correspondent, by raising up a phantom of his own, cessary to avoid extreme inelegance, which the author has, ack, as he was drinking. Strutt's authority is William of and attacking it sword in hand, has endeavoured to per- with few exceptions, effected. His Alcon, a pastoral, is Malmesbury, and he observes, from the delineation he suade you and your readers that he has run my protegé his master-piece in this respect. It is I believe a translaises us (and it must be noted, that his plates being copies through the body. The phantom to which I allude is, his tion, or rather an imitation, of an Italian poet of the 16th 1. aneicat illuminated MSS. are of unquestionable au- hitherto undisputed assertion, that there are no untrans-century; and, though the Latin is infinitely superior, iority) that it seems perfectly well to agree with the re- latable passages: but this, perhaps, does not stand so se- yet, even in English, much of genuine poetry, according rted custom : the middle figure is addressing himself to cure as its author imagines.-Yours, &c.

to Horace's definition of it, is manifest. Some pretty companion, who sems to tell him that he pledges Dec. 8, 1824.

Y. Z. specimens in the epigrammatic style are to be found toe holding up his knife in token of his readiness to as

ward the end of the book. The author has given some and protect him.-Brand's Origin of Popular Cus. P. S. I would not have it understood from the above, exercises in Sapphic and Alcaic verse, preceded by a few

that I consider the opinion of a great man on speculative concise but invaluable canons for those noble metres, the Dr. Henry, in bis History of England, has the follow. subjects as decisive and positive proof-not by any means; favourites of the inimitable Horace. About the year 1975, "If an Englishman presumed to drink in the pre- I go this far, when the opinion of a great man coincides if I mistake not, Sir Win. Browne, Knt. M. D. directed ce of a Dane, without his express permission, it was with your own, it gives very great weight and authority to three gold medals to be given—the first to him who writes ened so great a mark of disrespect, that nothing but what you say, and in such cases it becomes one who is of the best Greek ode in imitation of Sappho, the second for instan: death cruld expiate it. Nay, the English were a c in rary opinion to well consider and argue his cause. the best Latin ode in imitation of Horace, the third for the stimidated, that they would not venture to drink even But in matters of learning, and matters of fact, the testi- best Greek and Latin epigrams; the former after the manner an they were invited, until the Danes had pledged their mony of a great and learned man is incontrovertible, un- of the Anthologia, and the later after the model of Martial. pour for their safety, which introduced the custom of less it be opposed by authority equally great, or unless the Since that period the epigrammatic style, and the comdging each other in drinking, of which some vestiges falsity of his testimony be demonstrated.

position of Sapphic and Alcaic verse, has been much atstill remaining among the common people in the north

tended to in the higher forms of our public schools; nor England, where the Danes were most predominant."

is this to be wondered at when we find many of the heads the first of these accounts, viz. that the custom of


of the above and first classics among the list of successful dging healths was occasioned by the treachery of the

candidates. It is to be wished that Mr. U. had given ines to the English, when the latter were drinking, is


more examples in the lyrics ; he will perhaps turn his atst is given in the Encyclopædia Britannica, in that of Sır, -Having perceived, in your excellent miscellany, tention to this suggestion before the publication of a second s, and in the Etymological Dictionary of Dr. Jamie- some articles on classical literature, you may perhaps judge edition.

The truth, then, of my assertion is evident from the following worthy of a place in your pages. of the above accounts, viz. that although the custom

During the life of Porson, Perry's Morning Chronicle, Most people must have heard the satirical “ Nos Gér. rinking or pledging healths, barbarous in its origin, mani non cúramus quantitatem syllabarum." Whether and other periodicals were often adorned with Latin metri

now necessary, yet that it once was necessary. And, the German classics ever merited, to the full extent, the cal emanations from his pen ; and were this art to be cul. the assertion of your correspondent, that it was never implied severity, I cannot take upon me to determine; but tivated in proportion to its utility and elegance, we should wary at all, proves only his ignorance of the fact. certain it is, that the celebrated Heyne has justiy incurred perhaps see the Kaleidoscope, and other similar publica. do not knox, Sir, how your correspondent makes the censure of late critics

, for not comprehending the im- tions, more frequently graced with elegant productions of that I thou_ht the argument of " silently and portant branch of versification in his classical courses.

this sort. If you approve of the present contribution, I ptly bringing to our support the authority of a great From what knowledge I have of the present state of shall be happy, at a future period, to forward my senti. ”a very grand one. I gave the sentence just as it classical literature in Germany, I can state that, at the pre

ments with regard to other branches of the ancient lannow between the commas, without calling it grand, sent time, the Germans are not liable to the charge. We

guages. - Meantime, accept the good wishes of a or any thing of the kind. But what is the refula- ourselves can now boast of a Bloomfield, a Monk, a Parr, a

CANTAB. le gives to the argument of authority ? " That the Butler, a Kidd, a Barker, a Burgess, a Russell, &c. All the ist man is liable to errors, and may have been mista- above have shown, by their own example, that they esteem Curious Fact in Natural History.-It is a fact, we berith regard to the very thing which we are examin- metrical knowledge of the greatest importance to the forma- lieve, not much known, that the eel, though it lives in an Also, “That his authority may have been praise.t.o. of the elegant classical scholar. Eton, and many of atmospheric changes, is yet singularly affected by high

element that seems to place it beyond the reach of the by in almost every instance except just that under our primary schools have cultivated the study for many winds. This is well known to the inhabitants of Linlithderation.” Your correspondent, of course, then, does years, and it must be grateful to men of classical taste to gow, who have an excellent opportunity of observing the at once with testimony and authority; for if we take find that their example is becoming more generally imi- habits of that animal, in the loch adjoining the town. rity at all, it certainly must be that of great men. tated in the respectable private establishments throughout The stream which flows out of that loch at the west end when he takes away the testimony of great men, Britain. Scotland, hitherto notoriously negligent on this reservoir, from which it escapes by a number of holes in akes the foundation of society. The authenticity head, seems to have become sensible of the utility of me. the sides and bottom. These holes are too small to let cient volumes, which are delivered down from age to trical compositions, as we find, from the speech of the cels of a common size pass, and hence this reservoir an. and which depend solely on the authority of great chaplain to the new Edinburgh school, that it is intended swers the purposes of an eel-trap or cruive. The fish, ood men, is destroyed at once. But I would have to pursue the study of that art to an extent commensurate however, are rarely found in it in calm weather ; but when

strong winds blow, especially from the west, these tenants > know, that the testimony which gives authenticity with its importance.

of the waters seem to be seized with a general panic, and olume, may, by the same rule, be brought in sup. I was led more immediately to the present remarks by hurry from their lodgings like rats from a conflagration. of an opinion ; for many books depend solely for the perusal of a book entitled Studia Metrica, by a Mr. At these times they rush through the outlet in crowds, ruth on the opinion of great men. But I forbear to Underwood, a gentleman who is, I believe, now resident and fall pell mell into the reservoir, from which they are ay more on a point which is attempted to be refuted in this town. To Mr. U.'s mode of teaching versification, speedily transferred to the frying-pans of the burgesses. ch ridiculous reasons: your correspondent argues as exhibited in the preface, I cannot subscribe. It may the reservoir every day, and in one day no less than two st himself. Can any thing be more absurd than to answer, and possibly very well, with private tutors, cart-loads !

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