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Queen Elizabeth and Mountjoy.-p. 274.

Queen Elizabeth writes thus to Mountjoy in 1602, when that noble-minded person (one of the best and wisest men in an illustrious age,) would, if means had been afforded him, have laid the sure foundation of good government in Ireland: “ Because we know your affection is so well mixed with understanding of the state We stand in both here and there, as you can well consider of what importance it is to Us to ease our kingdom of those great or rather infinite charges which we have thus long sustained, which still continuing in that height, would take away the true feeling of our victories, We have thought good to deliver you Our pleasure in that behalf; for it were almost as good for us to lack a great part of their reduction, as to be driven to that charge in keeping them, which our crown of England cannot endure, without the extreme diminution of the greatness and felicity thereof, and alienation of Our people's mind from Us, considering that for these only rebellions in Ireland, We have been forced to part with many of Our ancient possessions, which are part of Our flowers of Our Crown, and to draw from our subjects (a thing contrary to Our nature,) those great payments, which (but for the hope they had that this same should serve to work their future ease and respiration,) they would not so willingly have borne, nor We so justly could have imposed upon them.” And she then gives directions for reduction and retrenchment. “ If it had pleased her Majesty," says Mountjoy, longer continued her army in greater strength, I should the better have provided for what these clouds do threaten, and sooner and more easily either have made this country a rased table, whereon she might have written her own laws, or have tied the ill-disposed and rebellious hands till I had surely planted such a government as would have overgrown and killed any weeds that should have risen under it."-Fynes Moryson, Part ii. pp. 245–268.

Ireland and the Jews.-p. 277. Harrington's scheme for establishing the Jews in Ireland is thus stated in his Introduction to the Oceana.

" Panopea, the soft mother of a slothful and pusillanimous people, is a neighbour island, antiently subjected by the arms of Oceana; since almost depopulated for shaking the yoke, and at length replenished with a new race. But through what virtues of the soil, or vice of the air soever it be) they come still to degenerate. Wherefore, seeing it is neither likely to yield men fit for arms, nor necessary it should, it had been the interest of Oceana so to have disposed of this province, being both rich in the nature of the soil, and full of commodious ports for trade, that it might have been ordered for the best in relation to her purse; which, in my opinion, (if it had been thought upon in time,) might have been best done by planting it with Jews, allowing them their own rites and laws; for that would have brought them suddenly from all parts of the world, and in sufficient numbers. And though the Jews be now altogether for merchandize, yet in the land of Canaan (except since their exile, from whence they have not been landlords, they were altogether for agriculture ; and there is no cause why a man should doubt, but having a fruitful country, and excellent ports too, they would be good at both. Panopea well peopled would be worth a matter of four millions dry rents; that is besides the advantage of the agriculturer's trade, which, with a nation of that industry comes at least to as much more: wherefore, Panopea being farmed out to the Jews and their heirs for ever, for the pay of a provincial army to protect them during the term of seven years, and for two millions annual revenue from that time forward, besides the

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customs, which would
pay the provincial army,

would have been a bargain of such advantage both to them and this commonwealth, as is not to be found otherwise by either. To receive the Jews after any other manner into a commonwealth, were to maim it; for they of all nations never incorporate, but taking up the room of a limb, are of no use or office to the body, while they suck the nourishment which would sustain a natural and useful member.”

Our Ancestors knew this.- p. 284.


“ In all councils and conferences," said the Lord Keeper Sir Nicholas Bacon, addressing the House of Peers, in Queen Elizabeth's

name, . in all councils and conferences, first and chiefly there should be sought the advancement of God's honour and glory, as the sure and infallible foundation whereupon the policy of every good public weal is to be erected and built ; and as the straight line whereby it is principally to be directed and governed; and as the chief pillar and buttress wherewith it is continually to be sustained and maintained."

Desire of death.-p. 243.

"Albeit the glass of my years," says Sir George Mackenzie, " hath not yet turned five-and-twenty, yet the curiosity I have to know the different limbos of departed souls, and to view the card of the region of Death, would give me abundance of courage to encounter this King of Terrors, though I were a Pagan. But when I consider what joys are prepared for them who fear the Almighty, and what craziness attends such as sleep in Methusalem's cradle, I pity them who make long life one of the oftest repeated petitions of their Pater Noster.”The Virtuoso, or Stoic. Moral Essays, p. 81.




St. Kentigern.-p. 5.


appears from the brief notice of this saint, in that valuable little volume, the Cambrian Biography, that the fables concerning Kentigern were not current in Wales. “Cyndeyrn Garthwys, son of Owain ab Urien, or Kentigern, one of the most distinguished British saints, to whom several churches are dedicated. He lived about the middle of the sixth century. The Triads record that he was Chief Bishop, or Primate of the Northern Britons under Gwrthmwl, who was chief elder, under the sovereignty of Arthur; and that his see was at Penryn Rhionydd, a place situated probably in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. He seems to have had the ecclesiastical epithet of Mwyngu or Urbanus; hence he is called St. Mungo, in old authors.”

There is a life of St. Kentigern among the Cotton MSS. (Vitellius, c. viii. 12.) by which it appears that he was also called Inglaschu.

Punishment of death for incontinence said in the Legend of St. Kentigern to have been established among the Picts.p. 7.

The Jesuit F. Alford has a remark upon this subject, which is equally worthy of his sagacity and his candour,..of his sagacity in arguing from this part of the fable as if it were an historical fact, of his candour in the description which he gives of British morals after the Reformation. Vide Lector, (he says,) inter barbaros et infideles castissimam legem matrimoniis' faventem: et puta falli eos, qui vel communes uxores, vel promiscuos amplexus, huic Insulæ affinxerunt. Si enim Britannorum incultissimi, ad montes et Septentrionem positi, quique ad civilitatem componi nunquam potuerunt, adeo modesti fuerunt ; id multò rectius de Australibus sentiendum. Ut Saxo etiam matrimonia sanctè coluerit, dixi supra. Sic omni sæculo a castitatis laude commendari meruit Insula, donec nova lex, e duplici divortio uxoris Fideique nata, permisit omni ordini, instituto, sexui, præ Græciá lascivire." —Annales Ecc. AngloSaxonicæ, t. ij. p. 20.

Men and brethren why marvel ye?"-p. 16. . Viri fratres, quid admiramini, aspicientes verbum hoc ? Credite mihi, antequam homo inobediens suo Conditori existeret, non solum animalia, sed etiam elementa obtemperabant illi, Nunc vero ob ipsius prævaricationem omnibus in adversa versis, leo lacerare, lupus devorare, serpens sauciare, aqua submergere, ignis comburere, aer corrumpere, terra sæpe ferrea effecta fame subruere consuevit ; et ad cumulum consueti mali, homo non solum hominem sed ipse homo in seipso peccando contra seipsum sponte desævit. Sed quoniam plerique sancti in verá innocentia, et purd obedientia, in sanctitate, dilectione, fide et justitia coram

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