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chamber, loose rubbish, some part of a the Prussian crown. The jurisdiction of destroyed arch, perhaps in an inverted the Bishop was to extend over English position—a portion of a broken floor-or, clergy and congregations,—and any who as in some cases, a small portion of toler- might join his church-in Palestine, ably solid masonry, and, if so, this would Syria, Chaldea, Egypt, and Abyssinia. probably rest upon loose rubbish. There his chief missionary care was to be was not, in fact, in any of the six large directed to the conversion of the Jews, shafts sunk to the rock, one foot of any- to their protection, and to their useful thing that could be depended on until we en yment. He was to establish and reuched the maiden earth, and this only maintain, as far as in him lay, relations remained undisturbed in two very small of Christian charity with other churches portions, where it formed only thin strata represented at Jerusalem, and, in partiupon the rock-all, all, is unsubstantial cular, with the orthodox Greek Church ; deposit of the razing siege or the destroying taking special care to convince them that earthquake. Finding such an unsolid the Church of England does not wish to substratum, I determined at once to disturb, or divide, or interfere with them; proceed down to the rock, and thus but that she is ready, in the spirit of obtain a foundation against which the Christian love, to render them such rain might descend, and the storm beat offices of friendship as they may be without fear of its being moved. Ac- willing to receive." To this it was added, cordingly, the shaft at the south-east that German congregations were to be angle was commenced and carried down under the care of German clergymen to the solid rock, and on the 28th Janu- ordained by the bishop, and under his ary 1842, the first stone was laid by jurisdiction.” Bishop Alexander, on the rock of Mount Zion, at the depth of thirty-five feet from
To provide an endowment, the King of the surface. The other shafts were also Prussia subscribed £15,000, the interest sunk, the lowest point touched being no of this, and of other subscriptions, to be less than thirty-nine feet from the sur- paid to the bishop until the capital sum face !'”
can be advantageously converted into land Truly was it foretold that Jerusalem situated in Palestine. The first bishop would be “laid on heaps," and that “the was Dr. Alexander, a converted Jew, stones of the sanctuary would be poured who, dying in 1815, was succeeded by Dr. out on every street !"
Gobat, formerly a missionary in AbysThe operations of the society, and the sinia. In September 1853, when Mr. erection of the church, led the way to the Bartlett was in Jerusalem, the census of establishment of an English bishopric the congregation was as follows :at Jerusalem. The history of this insti.
Adults. Children. tution is somewhat singular. It origin English,
34 18 ated with the King of Prussia, and is con
Jewish Proselytes, 32 27 tained in an instruction given to Bunsen,
Jewish Catechumens, 19 7 his ambassador at London.
Prussian Congregation, 21 “The envoy was instructed to inquire, 'In how far the English National Church,
126 76 already in possession of a parsonage on the Mount Zion, and having com.
The minister of the church is the Rev. menced there the building of a church, Mr. Nicolayson, so long missionary there. would be inclined to accord to the Evan- The services are as follows:- The Angligelical National Church of Prussia a
can service at 10 A.M. every Sunday sisterly position in the Holy Land.' This proposal was warmly received by
morning, and on the principal festivals; the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, as well the same in German every second Sunas the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the day, at three P.M.; and the same in Bishop of London, and the negotiation Hebrew every morning, at six in summer, was speedily effected. It was stipulated and seven in winter, besides the comthat the English Bishop of Jerusalem munion service in Arabic every Sacrawas to be nominated alternately by the crowns of England and Prussia, the ment Sunday early. Archbishop having the absolute right of " Whatever may be thought," says Mr. veto, with respect to those nominated by Bartlett, “in a religious point of view,
of this mission, one thing is certain, it, Jordan, &c., that they must leave Pahas undeniably promoted the cause of lestine utterly ignorant of the present European civilization in Jerusalem. state of society, manners, and feelings in Wherever the English establish them- the Holy City. Some who attend the selves, they never fail to introduce a services in Christ Church on Mount higher standard of comfort, improved Zion, are surprised to find a numerous sanitary regulations, to give a stimulus congregation, with their bishop, priests, to industry and agriculture. The neigh and deacons offering the well-known bouring peasantry find their account in prayers and praises of the Church of this new state of things, and are increas. England Liturgy, in the English laningly sensible that their interests are guage, and with the propriety and order interwoven with those of the Franks. so dearly prized at home. But what They get not only a better market, but this congregation is, and why here assembetter prices also. But this increase of bled, few appear to know. Should the animal comforts is the lowest result that traveller be furnished with introductions has followed the settlement of the Eng- to the English bishop, the minister, the lish. A feeling of rivalry on the part of consul, the physician, or others, he will other sects has led them to emulate the probably find himself some evening in educational measures of the mission, and either of their houses, amid a numerous a general activity has succeeded to the assemblage, perhaps some forty or fifty, stagnant torpor of ignorance and sloth, whom, he will be told, are residents in that has so long settled over the Eastern Jerusalem. Interesting conversation, churches. The society of the place has carried on in French, German, Italian, been enlarged and improved. The con- English, &c., and perhaps a little music, sulates of the principal foreign powers with every appearance of European comare no longer filled up by Syrians, but fort, may prompt the question : * Is this by educated and often distinguished really Jerusalem, where everything has natives of the different countries repre- been described as so barbarous ? What Bented, who form an intellectual and has brought all these people liere ? and refined circle ; 80 that in winter, when what are they doing ? the city is visited by numerous travellers, * Directly or indirectly, Religious inas many as fifty or sixty invitations have terest in the Holy City has been the motive been issued for an evening party at the which has collected together so large a consulate. The Franks in the city are number of intelligent Europeans. The DOW every way in the ascendant; their various gentlemen of the assemblage are numbers and influence are continually either attached to the English Episcoon the increase, while in both respects pate, or to the Prussian Mission, or the Turks are as steadily losing ground. agents of missionary societies, or officers It should be mentioned, in connexion of the various consulates. These, with with the increasing influence of the their ladies, form a large circle, besides Christians, that the government of Jeru- other persons of independent fortune, salem has been changed from that of a who have chosen the Holy City as their simple Arab Mutsellim to a Turkish home; and it sometimes happens that Pashalic, expressly to protect more effi- travellers prolong their visits for several caciously the various Christian interests months. Thus a numerous and superior of Turkish subjects."
society may at all times be found in
Jerusalem. Such are some of the indirect results springing from the establishment of the She then proceeds to detail the various mission in Jerusalem. These, however, steps connected with the institution of are so fully and clearly traced by Mrs. the mission, the building of the church, Finn, that we feel we cannot do better and the foundation of the bishopric, and than quote so much of her communica- adds that tion as we can find room for.
“The establishment by Dr. Gobat of a After giving some account of the Diocesan school, in which were taught various classes of travellers who visit boys and girls of all creeds and naJerusalem, she says :
tions, Jews, Moslems, Christians-Copts,
Greeks, and Latins-children of Hebrew "Even the more intelligent of the converts to Christianity, and of German European travellers who visit Jerusalem and English parents,—the establishment at the season of Easter, are so occupied of this school speedily gave an impulse to with the ceremonies to be seen or joined education, and schools for girls, under in, and the hurried visits to Bethlehem, the supervision of Sisters of Charity, and
for boys, were opened by the Latin patri. and good bread is made by several arch, and have been very well attended. bakers. The Greeks also could no longer resist “New houses spring up on every side. the progress of events, and opened their By new houses are meant new fabrics schools. Boi h of these communities have upon old foundations; for as yet the now (1853) upper schools, or seminaries, waste places are not reclaimed, and onein which young men receive classic and half the ancient city is a desolation, general education under European mas. while other parts are overcrowded. The ters. The Greek upper school contains Frank quarter is chiefly from Mount fifty scholars, and the day school num. | Zion and the Jaffa Gate to the Damascus bers ninety, with four masters in the Gate; but, of late years, a good many latter. Even the Armenians, an ex- houses have been taken in the Moslem clusive and thoroughly Oriental com- quarter, between the Damascus and St. munity, have added to their enormous Stephen's Gates. It is a remarkable convent a fine building with separate evidence of the decrease in Moslem fanapartments, for the accommodation of aticism, that single ladies are permitted twenty young men, who are here to to live quietly in the heart of the Moslem receive a seven years' training. It is to quarter, without any man-servant or be hoped that the effort which is now other protector. And even during the being made to re-establish the English present excitement about the war with college will be supported. Having for- Russia, no insult has been offered even in merly set the example to others, the the most crowded bazaars to any person ; English have at this moment no college even ladies and children pass to and fro in Jerusalem; but it cannot be supposed as usual ;--and this at a time when the that this state of things is to continue. native Christians made no secret of their
“The Medical Mission of the above- (very needless) dread of a Moslem rising named Jews' Society has been perhaps to massacre themselves.” one of the most beneficial efforts made “It cannot fail to strike the most for the good of Jerusalem. The hos- casual observer, that while the native pital, where several hundred in-door, and Moslem population are diminishing in several thousand out-door cases are an-numbers and influence, the Christians, nually relieved, has been a direct benefit strengthened and supported from abroad, to the poor Jews."
are gaining in both respects. Foreign
residents, and consuls of foreign nations, After enumerating the different reli- intimately acquainted with the history, gious and benevolent institutions of the languages, manners, and population, must
needs carry weight, which the evervarious Christian sects, Mrs. Finn changing Turkish officers could but feebly adds:
withstand, if they were able to compre.
hend or appreciate. This state of things “ The foregoing facts will serve to is not confined to the city of Jerusalem ; show, that while other cities in the Turk- the Christian villages of Bethlehem, Beit ish empire are falling to ruin and decay, Yala, and Ramallah, are more numerbeing depopulated and barbarized, Jeru- ously populated, clean, and prosperous, salem is rapidly springing up into new than those belonging to Moslems, who life. European manners and European scarcely keep their ground, while the wants are bringing in civilization and others increase their lands and houses enterprizing industry. Good hotels are every year. The peasantry, both Mosfound to accommodate most travellers lems and Christians, are also far better better than the Casa Nuova, so long the acquainted with the Europeans (who only shelter for the Frank pilgrim of daily meet them in their walks and rides, whatever nation or religion. There are give them medicines, encamp on their shops where all kinds of European goods ground in summer, buy their farm-profind a ready sale for their commodities; duce, and employ their services) than carpenters, watchmakers, blacksmiths, they can possibly be with pashas whom glaziers, tipmen, dyers, laundresses, they never see, and whose soldiers are shoemakers, &c., exercise their various but known to them as a means of enforccallings. There are three flourishing ing payment of taxes, or the giving up of European tailors. The daily markets a refractory subject. The peasantry find
pplied abundantly with good a ready market among the Europeans mutton; and poultry and eggs are cheap. and at the convents, for poultry, vegeMany hundred goats are kept for the tables, fruit, corn and barley, wine, oil, sole purpose of supplying the city with straw, charcoal, wood, water, stone, lime, milk; and of late cow's milk is to be and other building materials; and the bad. Fruit and vegetables are abundant; several thousand pounds annually ex.
pended have added so much to their the summer months, and are treated with buried treasures, that most of the villages the utmost respect by the peasantry, who are actually rich; and every year sees gladly let their grounds for the pitching fresh fields cleared and sown, and more of their tents. Even with those engaged olive-trees and vines planted. Besides in guerilla warfare among each other, no the daily traffic, which occupies not less one case has occurred, during eight years, than 800 camels, there is also trade of incivility or annoyance to the various carried on with Egypt in soap made in camps from the Arabs. On the contrary, Jerusalem, and to travellers are sold they have been known to dri their great quantities of small articles manu- cattle thither by night for safety. The factured in olive and Hebron oak wood, large number of English, American, and (chiefly made by Europeans,) rosaries, other travellers who annually visit Jeruboxes, mother-of-pearl shells, and various salem, has had a great effect upon the other articles made in Bethlehem, whence, manners of the Arab population, and the moreover, several thousand pounds worth wild Bedouin. Having learnt the value are annually exported to France, Italy, of foreign gold, they respect the persons Spain, and Austria. The seaport town and property of those who spend so much of Jaffa has more than doubled its num- money among them; and the visits to ber of inhabitants within seven years, Petra, Jordan, and Palestine in general, and has now a population of 17,000. which were formerly made at the risk of Seven years ago, not one English mer life, are now a matter of business arrangechant ship had ever been seen there, and ment between the sheikhs, the travellers, but few of any other nation. The first and their consuls. How is it that perwas the John Cobbold, chartered in sons, who are obliged to leave England 1847 by the London Society for Propa- in search of a milder climate, or others gating Christianity among the Jews, to who prefer living abroad, do not choose bring out the roof of Christ Church, and the most interesting city and country in carpenters to put it up. Now several the world for their residence? Why hundred vessels from the United States, should not young clergymen, at least, Sweden, Norway, France, Greece, Eng- spend one year among Bible scenes, and land, Italy, &c., receive and discharge acquiring Bible languages, before entercargoes. Three times per month Aus- ing upon their active duties? Sixty trian and French steamers touch at Jaffa, pounds per annum would be quite enough for the delivery and receiving of Jeru. for all expense of board and lodging (insalem mails; but there is no English cluding the keep of a horse) for a single stearer. The port of Kaiffa has in- person, and sixty pounds more would creased its trade in at least equal propor- cover the expense of the journey there and tion ; so has that of Sidon; while Beyroot back. Even travellers, who spend a little is now a bustling mercantile town, con- fortune in Palestine to the enrichment sidered to have 35,000 inhabitants. of their dragomen, (who sacrifice the char.
“The climate of Jerusalem is, on the acter of their employers, and oppress and whole, good. It would be one of the grind hotel-keepers, muleteers, &c.,) know finest in the world, were common atten- little or nothing of the country which tion paid to the cleanliness of the streets they have passed through, under the and houses. During the spring and blind guidance of blind guides. Neversutumn months agues and fevers prevail
, theless, the mighty tide which during being engendered by the exhalations from three centuries impelled half the nations the cisterns and rubbish accumulated in of Europe towards the rocky shores of ibe city. But the mountain breeze Palestine—then ebbing during the temrarely fails by day or night, excepting porary ascendency of Rome-is now rising during a part of April and May, when annually higher. Travellers from every the easterly winds are oppressive. A western nation, and 10,000 pilgrims from very little care in covering the head from the East, visit the shrines of Bethlehem the sun, avoiding too low a diet, espe- and Calvary; Moslems come from Arabia, cially undue quantities of fruit and vege- Tartary, and India, and from the utmost tables, and in taking open air exercise, shores of Africa, to worship at the (falsely preserves the health of the Europeans; called) tomb of Moses. The Jewish and even when they are attacked by people go to pray over the ruins of their lever or ague, the disease is easily sub- city and temple, that the time of their dued if treated without delay. Travel- deliverance may be hastened. lers are most blameably careless in all “The deep religious interest in Jeruthe above points, and frequently fall salem, which has for two thousand years victims to their ignorance and folly. been gaining strength among the nations Many of the Europear residents encamp of the earth, is becoming more intense ; at a sbort distance from Jerusalem during and high and mighty potentates study,
with anxious care, politics, whose interest perty cannot be let or sold. The partcentres in Jerusalem.
proprietors have always the first choice “ It is often asked why Russia, which and refusal, should the property be sold. takes so decided a part in Oriental Now, the said archimandrite is known as politics, whose interest in the sanctuaries the purchaser of half-carâts, quarterof Jerusalem has threatened to disturb carâts, or whole carâts, as the case may the peace of Europe, whose army apnu- be, of every ruined shop, house, or plot ally devotes one day's pay to the support of ground, to be bought within the walls of the establishments of Jerusalem, and of Jerusalem; and, moreover, as possessor whose sailors may frequently be observed of immense tracts without the walls of marching two and two, in military order, the city, as far as Bethlehem, and in from one hallowed spot to another,- why other parts of Palestine. Russia has no consul in Jerusalem ? “Even the tiny plots of vegetable Hitherto it has been quite unnecessary garden belonging to the village of Siloam that she should have any. The influence own the same person as possessor of of her consul-general at Beyroot, and of carâts, or half-carâts. Until very reher vice-consul at Jaffa, supported by the cently, no part of these great possessions powerful Greek patriarchates and con was cultivated; but within the last five vents at Jerusalem, is quite sufficient for years, many thousand mulberry and the protection and advancement of Rus- olive trees have been planted in the sian interests. At this moment, when neighbourhood of Jerusalem ; the most the dismemberment of Turkey and the unpromising hills, apparently mere masses occupation of Constantinople by the of rock, have been cleared with the aid Russians are the engrossing themes, it of gunpowder, the rich soil exposed, walls has been thought by many that they built, terraces formed, vines planted, and have forgotten the Holy Land, or that small annual crops raised between the they regard Jerusalem as a question of trees. Silk factories and houses are minor importance. Far from it. It must being built. At present public roads. be remembered that the Emperor of twenty feet wide, are being made and Russia is head of the Greek Church; walled in across the hills and valleys, that there are two almighties (auto- between the Convent of the Cross and cratores)-one in heaven and one in St. Jerusalem, a distance of twenty minutes, Petersburg.' During a period of several in order to prevent passengers from tresyears, the Greek convent has been gra- passing upon the plantations in progress. dually extended over one-fourth of ha. Gradually one piece after another is bitable Jerusalem, by the purchase of fenced in, and already the rides around houses which have been connected with Jerusalem are much interfered with by the convent, by means of arches thrown the boundary walls, while the rich verover the intervening streets. Of late, dure is a beautiful addition to the hitherto not only the houses inmediately con barren landscape. Large numbers of the tiguous, but buildings and plots of ground Moslem and Christian Arab peasantry n every part of the city, have been are employed in building, ploughing, bought up by a Greek ecclesiastic, who, and planting; and they commonly, while being a native of Turkey, can legally calling down blessings on the Greek purchase. The convent cannot legally Convent, term the Patriarch · Aboo purchase land, but it is allowed in law to Dahab,' (the Father of gold.) The corbecome possessor of property left to it by rupt Effendies are also well acquainted will on the death of the purchaser. The with the various Russian coins, which archimandrite Nikephoros has revenues are very common in the markets of Jer. so inexhaustible, that there can be no usalem. doubt as to their source. Every kind of “Thus, while diplomacy is exercised property in the East is supposed to con- by the various European powers, while sist of twenty-four parts or carâts. Whe-able ministers are arranging the Eastern ther a horse, a house, a field, or a question, and studying the ancient limits diamund, it is divisible into twenty-four of the sanctuaries, title-deeds are being carâts, and may be owned by one person accumulated in the Greek Convent, which or by several. Each person, in the latter the shock of war itself will not be able case, is considered possessor of one, two, to invalidate, and which must indisputthree, four, or more carâts, according to ably confirm the right of the Russocircumstances, and these descend to his Greek purchasers to their possessions in heirs; so that the horse, house, field, or Jerusalem and Palestine. diamond, may at length have forty or “ These are some of the effects of the fifty proprietors, each owning carâts, half religious interest felt for Jerusalem. Thiror quarter carâts, or less, and so on; and teen years ago, destitute and barbarous, without the consent of all, the said pro-' with a plague-stricken and decreasing