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Church of Scotland, and the piety of the God in his day. The interest attached Methodists from both; and this is a proof to this catechism consists in the fact, of itself that Churches, as to spiritual life, that it was compiled for the use of a Sabhave their individuality as well as the bath school, many years before the date individual Christian.
usually assigned to the origin of Sabbath But not only is the life of the Church schools. It was in the year 1757 that he susceptible of development, the same commenced his school, that is, twenty-four holds in regard to Church organization years before Mr. Raikes commenced his and machinery. We find in tracing the in Gloucester. Mr. Morison was a native chain of animal life, from the lowest of the county of Kinross, and studied forms to the highest, that for every addi- divinity under Mr. Moncrieffe, minister of tion of new instinct or capacity, there Abernethy, one of the four ministers who is a corresponding development in the first seceded from the Church of Scotanimal organization. The higher the in- land. He was, shortly after license, called telligence, the more refined is' tbe apto the Presbyterian church at Norham. paratus by which that intelligence may He continued there till the end of his be exhibited. In like manner, every days; and after a long and zealous mindevelopment of the spiritual life of the istry of sixty-eight years, he fell asleep Church necessitates a like development in Jesus, with the words upon his lips : in the ecclesiastical organization through “Lord, deal bountifully with thy servant!" which the life may be manifested. A We do not, in signalizing the services Church may remain true to its type, and of Mr. Morison, mean to dispute the yet be susceptible of this development. claims of Mr. Raikes as the founder of Indeed, we would regard it as the strongest Sabbath schools. Our only object is to proof of a Church being constructed after a direct attention to the early history of scriptural model, that it is susceptible of an institution which is characteristic of this adaptation to the growing life of the the times in which we live, and which, we Church.
have no doubt, is destined to tell, more The Sabbath school ought to be re- powerfully than it has yet done, on the garded as a development of the organi- life of the Church of God. Raikes is the zation of the Church, just as much as founder, inasmuch as the subsequent exthe missionary spirit is to be regarded as tension of the institution can be traced a development of the life of the Church; to his early efforts. The present nioveand they may both be traced very much ment can be proved to be direct sequence to the same period and the same source. from the impulse communicated by him. The larger our experience of the benefits He was favourably circumstanced for of the Sabbath school becomes, the more continuing the movement which he comare we convinced that it is no longer to menced, and preventing it from dying be considered as a mere appendage to our out, as a meteor flash in the heavens. Church organization, which may be dis. He was editor of a newspaper, and, in the pensed with or not, as the humour suits, exercise of his functions, shewed how a but that it must henceforth be regarded sanctified press may prove the most as an essential element of that organiza- powerful auxiliary to the Church of God. tion; and we hope to see the day when He was soon brought in contact with a minister would as soon think of giving that noble band of philanthropists, to up preaching, as giving up his Sabbath whom the missionary movement may al. school.
so be traced, I mean the philanthropists We have been led to these reflections known by the name of the Clapham by accidentally meeting with a catechism sect, and of which the more active memby the Rev. David Morison, who was bers were Wilberforce and Thornton. minister of Norham about the middle of They saw how admirably adapted the last century. It was put into our hands Sabbath school was to the growing life by a descendant, who fondly cherished it of the Church and the wants of the times. As a memorial of one highly honoured of They lent a helping hand, and soon the
Sabbath school was established in all to be held in veneration, that were honparts of Britain. There is no difficulty, oured by God in ushering in a better then, in tracing the present extension day, though they should be afterwards of Sabbath schools to Raikes' school at obscured by others of greater lustre. Gloucester, and to him, then, belongs John the Baptist felt it to be an honour the honour of tounder. Hook enunci. to be the forerunner of Christ, though ated the principle of gravitation with his own light was destined to decrease almost as much precision as Newton as that of his Master increased. There himself; but to Newton belongs the were reformers before the Reformation, bonour of establishing the great law but their light waned before that of of the universe, as he made this law Luther, and their names are comparathe foundation of a system capable tively unknown. Yet it is with no comof indefinite application to all the new mon interest and veneration that we phenomena emerging in the history of read of these holy men, who, amidst astronomy. Hook's idea was a solitary darkness and persecution, raised the phenomenon, which did not germinate torch of truth, to prepare the way for into a mighty system; and he therefore him who was destined by God to effect missed the honour that was reserved for a revolution, only equalled in its results Newton. But who can read the history by the first propagation of Christianity of science without pausing at the name itself. of Hook; and while we see him verging Though we do not attempt to place on the brink of a mighty discovery, and Mr. Morison on the same level with Mr. feel as if another step would put the clue Raikes, yet it is right that his name to the mysteries of the universe into his should not be forgotten. He was spared hand, are we not struck with the convic- to see the wide-spread of an institution tion that he was no ordinary man, and which he was the first to commence; he that, after all, though unconsciously, he died in 1824, being then ninety-six years forwarded the discovery of the great law of age. He realized in his life what he which Newton had the honour of demon- prayed for in his death; the Lord had, strating? It is seldom or never that the indeed, dealt bountifully with him — he discovery of any great law in the natural died full of years, but full of thankful. world, or any great revolution in the ness too, for seeing the work he had been moral world, is a sudden or accidental honoured to begin, so rapidly carried out. thing ; no doubt there may be circum- The catechism by Mr. Morison, to which stances to precipitate the movement; we have alluded, is admirably simple, and bat, after all, there was a previous and to the point--shewing that he was well preparatory movement. The popular acquainted with the requirements of the mind feels gratified in tracing great dis- young. coveries in the natural, and great move- It is often difficult to estimate, by any ments in the moral world, to accident. tangible results, the amount of good done Hence the story of Newton's apple, and the by any special machinery for the religious thunder-bolt of Luther. It is imagined, I improvement of the people. The special that the honour is greater if they stood influence is masked by so many other alone, like Melchizedek, without father or causes, that it is difficult to say how much mother, with no acknowledged descent is due to this particular one. We are, from previous times. But these lights however, bound to labour on, believing of the world never appear without a that good is done, if we use the means dawn announcing their advent. It may sanctioned by God, though we cannot sometimes be longer, like the long twi. point to any special results. We must light of the artic regions, and sometimes cast our bread upon the waters, believing shorter, like the twilight of the tropics; that it will return to us, though after but there is always a preparatory period. many days. It is, however, satisfactory The dawn is part of the day, as well as to meet with cases in which the good the full sunshine. And those names ought can be directly traced to the means employed; and it would be gratifying to and the cause of difference so distinctly know what effect has been produced in marked, that we cannot hesitate to reany special locality by the operation of gard it as a most gratifying testimony the Sabbath school. No doubt, many into the beneficial effects of the Sabbath dividual cases can be quoted where school, and its vital importance as a part Sabbath school teaching has been the of our Church machinery. Though it is means of conversion ; and even such gratifying to record such distinctly cases alone would be a sufficient en- marked cases, the conscientious labourer couragement to continue the good work. in the Lord's vineyard will exact no such Still, the value of the Sabbath school as evidence as a condition of his labours. a part of our ecclesiastical machinery, In by far the largest proportion of his will be tested chiefly by its power in labours, he must be content with unseen moulding the religious character of the influence and unseen fruit. But, though people as a body. We are not acquainted unseen, may we not presume that it is with the religious condition of Norham great if he has really done God's work or Gloucester, and cannot say whether honestly and faithfully? How disheartenthey bear any marks of their being ing would it be to a minister if he could honoured as the first seats of the Sabbath only count upon, as the fruit of his school. We are, however, familiarly ac- labour, distinct and obvious cases of quainted with the religious condition of conversion! Well might the heart of the a parish which was among the very first zealous labourer sink within him if he in Scotland to benefit by the Sabbath was to take courage only from the visible. school. A member of the chief family But he has the higher source of comfort, of the Clapham sect had settled there, that many may rise up at the great day and having soon caught the spirit of the of account to acknowledge him as the movement going on in England, lost no unconscious instrument of turning them time in organizing schools in the parish, from darkness unto light, and from the and personally sharing in the work. power of Satan unto God. The scheme at once took with the people ;
B. B. and its influence in this case was enhanced by the circumstance, that the Sabbath “Besides the Scriptures of truth, God school served as a link between the has provided three books for the instruchighest rank and the humblest condition tion of His intelligent creatures. The in life. But the point to which we would book of Creation, which is interpreted by advert is the circumstance, that the
he natural science; the book of Providence,
which history unfolds to us; and the blessing of this early enjoyment of the
the book of the Human Heart, in which all advantages of the Sabbath school is dis. that is real in biography and poetry forms tinctly marked at the present day. We a chapter.”—Passages in the Life of a do not refer so much to the individual Daughter at Home. cases of parishioners, who look back with
HYMN. gratitude to the efforts made for their good, and can trace serious impressions to
“ Teach me to do thy will; for thou art my
God."-Psalm cxviii, 10. this instrumentality, as to the general ef
Give me, O God! an earnest heart fect upon the parish, and more especially
Anxious to do thy will ; the village, whose population has been
Contented with whatever part
In life 'tis mine to fill. remarkably fixed, and therefore well adapted for testing the influence of the Fearful of wealth, and worldly prido; Sabbath school. This village is noted,
Glad, if a low degree,
With even sorrow by my side, among the other manufacturing villages
Helps me to walk with thee. in the locality, for the orderly habits of the people, their respect for divine or
Cautious of all the gauds and glows
By earthly sunshine given; dinances, and all the usual tests of a sound
Choosing the cloudiest paths below religious condition. The grounds of
So they lead up to heaven. comparison are in this case so obvious,
Monscli's Parish Musings.
THERE are, we presume, few of our gives important and interesting informareaders who are not acquainted with one tion, containing, as it does, not merely or other of the beautiful volumes in which the result of his own acute and unpreMr. Bartlett has endeavoured to illus- | judiced inquiries, but also a lengthened trate those spots which are memorable contribution by Mrs. Finn, the accomas the scenes of Scriptural events. His plished lady of our consul there, whose Walks about Jerusalem, his Forty Days in long residence in Jerusalem has rendered the Desert, his Nile Boat, and his Foot- her peculiarly fitted to give full and acsteps of our Lord and His Apostles, have curate details of everything connected each, in their turn, served to give to stay with the progress of improvement, and at-home travellers striking and accurate the march of events there. views of these memorable places to which, It is now many years since the attenday after day, the hearts of so many in tion of the English Church was first Christendom are turned with earnest directed to Jerusalem as a suitable spot longing. For our own part, we frankly for establishing a mission to the Jews. confess, that the engravings of Mr. The London Society for Promoting Bartlett have succeeded in conveying to Christianity among the Jews, which was us by far the clearest ideas we have ever founded in 1809, sent its first mission of been able to form of the various scenes inquiry thither in 1820 ; and in 1824 it depicted by him. In this respect, even sent Dr. Dutton to reside there as a the magnificent drawings of Mr. Roberts medical missionary. In the following -however superior in artistic effect year, the Rev. Mr. Nicolayson arrived must yield the palm to those of Mr. at the seat of the mission, but it was not Bartlett.
till some years later that the work of the The volume before us, the last, alas ! mission could be said to have commenced. that we are to receive from the pen and Proposals were ere long circulated for pencil of its accomplished author, who building a church; but in consequence of died somewhat suddenly last autumn on difficulties connected with the purchase board a steamer in the Mediterranean,- of a proper site, it was not till 1838 that is well entitled to rank with its predeces- its erection was commenced. In addition sors. Taken along with his Walks about to political difficulties, however, physical Jerusalem, the two give by far the best obstacles of no ordinary character had to and clearest description we possess of be overcome. Mr. Johns, the architect the Holy City.
employed, at first attempted to rest the It is not, however, our intention at this building upon a concrete foundation. time, to endeavour to give our readers any account of the outward appearance
"I was, however,' he says, "soon con
vinced of the utter impossibility of formof Jerusalem, or to enter into controversy
ing a foundation which could be depended regarding the numerous disputed sites
upon of this material, from the honeycomb within and around it; our object is, to nature of the debris accumulated on the rock edrich our pages with the latest informa of this portion of Mount Zion, from the tion regarding the actual condition of its
numberless sieges and earthquakes Jeruinhabitants, and the progress now being
salem has been subjected to, from the
time when David wrested his stronghold made by civilization and Christianity. from the Jebusites till the wars of MeheOn these points, Mr. Bartlett's work met Ali, its late possessor. Such unchamber, loose rubbish, some part of a the Prussian crown. The jurisdiction of destroyed arch, perhaps in an inverted the Bishop was to extend over English position-a portion of a broken floor-or, clergy and congregations-and any who as in some cases, a small portion of toler- might join his church-in Palestine, ably solid masonry, and, if so, this would Syria, Chaldea, Egypt, and Abyssinia. probably rest upon loose rubbish. There His chief missionary care was to be was not, in fact, in any of the six large directed to the conversion of the Jews, shafts sunk to the rock, one foot of any- to their protection, and to their useful thing that could be depended on until we employment. He was to establish and reached the maiden earth, and this only maintain, as far as in him lay, relations remained undisturbed in two very small of Christian charity with other churches portions, where it formed only thin strata represented at Jerusalem, and, in partiupon the rock-all, all, is unsubstantial cular, with the orthodox Greek Church; deposit of the razing siege or the destroying taking special care to convince them that earthquake. Finding such an unsolid the Church of England does not wish to substratum, I determined at once to disturb, or divide, or interfere with them; proceed down to the rock, and thus but that she is ready, in the spirit of obtain a foundation against which the Christian love, to render them such rain might descend, and the storm beat offices of friendship as they may be without fear of its being moved. Ac- willing to receive.” To this it was added, cordingly, the shaft at the south-east that German congregations were to be angle was commenced and carried down under the care of German clergymen to the solid rock, and on the 28th Janu- ordained by the bishop, and under his ary 1842, the first stone was laid by jurisdiction." Bishop Alexander, on the rock of Mount Zion, at the depth of thirty-five feet from
certainty of soil and rubbish existed, that • Jerusalem Revisited. By W. H. Bartlett, | you could not form any conjecture as to Author of Walks about Jerusalem, with Illustra. what the next blow of the pickaxe would tions, London: Arthur Hall,: Virtue, and Co. alight upon. It was impossible to foresee 1855.
| whether it would be a portion of a ruined
To provide an endowment, the King of the surface. The other shafts were also
Prussia subscribed £15,000, the interest sunk, the lowest point touched being no of this, and of other subscriptions, to be less than thirty-nine feet from the sur- paid to the bishop until the capital sum face!'”
can be advantageously converted into land Truly was it foretold that Jerusalem
situated in Palestine. The first bishop would be “laid on heaps," and that "the
was Dr. Alexander, a converted Jew, stones of the sanctuary would be poured
who, dying in 1815, was succeeded by Dr. out on every street !"
Gobat, formerly a missionary in AbysThe operations of the society, and the
sinia. In September 1853, when Mr. erection of the church, led the way to the Bartlett was in Jerusalem, the census of establishment of an English bishopric the congregation was as follows :at Jerusalem. The history of this insti.
Adults. Children. tution is somewhat singular. It origin
English,. . 34 18 ated with the King of Prussia, and is con Jewish Proselytes, 32 tained in an instruction given to Bunsen,
Jewish Catechumens, 19 7 his ambassador at London.
Arab Communicants, 20 22
Prussian Congregation, 21 “The envoy was instructed to inquire, In how far the English National Church,
126 76 already in possession of a parsonage on the Mount Zion, and having com
The minister of the church is the Rev. menced there the building of a church, Mr. Nicolayson, so long missionary there. would be inclined to accord to the Evan- | The services are as follows:- The Angligelical National Church of Prussia a
can service at 10 A.M. every Sunday sisterly position in the Holy Land.'
morning, and on the principal festivals; This proposal was warmly received by the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, as weil the same in German every second Sunas the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the day, at three P.M.; and the same in Bishop of London, and the negotiation Hebrew every morning, at six in summer, was speedily effected. It was stipulated and seven in winter, besides the comthat the English Bishop of Jerusalemmunion service in Arabic every Sacrawas to be nominated alternately by the crowns of England and Prussia, the ment
the ment Sunday early. Archbishop having the absolute right of “Whatever may be thought,” says Mr. veto, with respect to those nominated by Bartlett, “in a religious point of view,