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tion, and that it is not unreasonable to corresponds to their physical developments. expect it in the present age, “ when the Smoothness and evenness are upon their form creeds and dogmas of the past have lost not walk erect, but assume an inclined position,

generally. But, the clairvoyant adds, “ They do their influence and vitality.” But how frequently using their hands and arms in walk. think you, reader, is this “new revela- ing, the lower extremities being rather shorter tion, suited to the enlarged views and than the arms, according to our standard of

proportion. And by a modest desire to be seen spiritual needs of man, to be obtained ?" Only in an inclined position, they have formed Through a far safer channel than pro- this habit, which has become an established cus. phets, or apostles, or the Saviour--through tom among them.'-(Vol. i. 189) With all defer. the mediatorial element between mind ceptions of a graceful and perfect being that he

ence to our clairvoyant, it is not one of our con. and matterthe magnetic fluid!Ac- should go upon all-fours! But something more cordingly Mr. Chapman, some years ago, note-worthy still is recorded of the inhabitants published and edited two large volumes, is said, ' become instantly impressed upon their

* Sentiments arising in their minds,' it containing the clairvoyant ravings of a countenances, and they use their mouth and knave or lunatic, with the title, “ The tongue for their specific offices, and not as the Principles of Nature, her Divine Revela- agents for conversation. But that glowing radi.

ation which illumes their faces while conversing. tion, and a Voice to Mankind, by and is to us inconceivable. Their eyes are blue, and

gh Andrew Jackson Davis, the of a soft expression, and are their most powerful Poughkeepsie Seer and Clairvoyant.” agents in conversation. When one conceives a This Andrew, when in a clairvoyant thought, and desires to express it, he casts his

beaming eyes upon the eyes of another, and his state, could see what was doing in every sentiments instantly become known. And thus part of the universe. The inhabitants of do their countenances and eyes, together with the stars passed before him when asleep their gentle affability, typify the purity and as plainly as his own neighbours did beauty of their interiors." "-(Vol. i. 202.) when awake. Nay more, he could see

The following is the seer's account of down the long vista of time, and know man before he became perfect, for, accordwhat was taking place before Moses ing to him, he was a growth, a developwrote, and in the world before man was ment from a less perfect type :created. We almost fear that our readers “ The first type of man, it seems, made its will think we ourselves are drawing upon appearance in the early part of the sixth day. their credulity, in asserting that such worked their way into existence, are called

The creatures in question, which then somehow things have been gravely published by any quadrumana, because they were not so much

person, far less by a would be great bipeds as creatures going, Jupiter fashion, upon social and religious reformer like Mr. al.fours, being of a huge monkey or baboon

tribe. This Poughkeepsie Seer, this new cosmoChapman ; but it is a fact. We give the gonist, describing these embryo specimens of following specimens from Dr. Vaughan's humanity, says : Their body was short and lecture of the seer's visions :

beavy, their limbs disproportionately long, and

their heads of a very wide and low form. The " As to the inhabitants of Saturn, so clairvoy. spinal column, in the early species, resembled ant are they, that every man knows the surface more nearly that of the fish than tbat of any of the whole globe, and what is everywhere tak. other form.

The shoulders were of great ing place. They inhabit buildings,' says the width, and the neck was very short and full. seer, of an ingenious and peculiar structure, The whole body was covered with thick, heavy which are also beautiful and convenient. These hair, like many of the plantigrades of that period. are very large and extensive, covering immense some parts of the body of this quadrumana re. areas of land, like an extensive city among us.

sembled those of the lowest animals, such as the There are, however, but few of these large and fore limbs, which were used always in walking united buildings on the surface of the planet. This animal was the first type, after many ages these being near the equator, where light and of regeneration, which resembled in any particu. heat, which correspond to interior truth and lar the form of man.'-(Vol. i. 315.) So writes our love, are most perfectly enjoyed.' Concerning Poughkeepsie Moses.

Behold - Homer and the inhabitants of the planet Jupiter, the clair. Æschylus, ye Shakspeares and Miltons-behold voyant says, ' Much might be said that would be your sires! Those hairy brutes climbing their of interest; for their relation to our conceptions of way through yonder primitive forest, they—they a perfect being is much closer than the inhabitants are your fathers ! ” of Saturn. Their form is full, and well sustained by inward and physical forces. Their size, sym.

The last specimen needs no comment; metry, and beauty of form exceed those of the it is the manifesto of no less a personage earth's inhabitants. Their mental organization than Mr. Robert Owen, who has been

sane

lamenting the credulity of the world for

JUDGE NOT. the last half-century:

Judge not! the workings of his brain

And of his heart thou canst not see ; "MANIFESTO OF ROBERT OWEN TO

What looks, to thy dim eyes, a stain, ALL GOVERNMENTS AND PEOPLES. In God's pure light may only be

A scar, brought from some well-won field, PEACE, CHARITY, LOVE, UNION, AND PROGRESS,

Where thou wouldst only faint and yield. TO ALL THE INHABITANTS OY TNE EARTR.

A great moral revolution is about to be effected The look, the air, that fret thy sight, for the human race, and by an apparent miracle.

May be a token that below Strange and incredible as it will at first appear, The soul has closed in deadly fight communications most important and gratifying With some infernal, deadly foe, have been made to great numbers in America,

Whose glance would scorch thy smiling grace, and to many in this country, through manifesta.

And cast thee shuddering on thy face. tions by invisible yet audible powers, purporting to be from departed spirits; and to me especi.

The full, thou darest to despise, ally, from President Jefferson, Benjamin Frank

May be the slackened angel's hand lin, his Royal Highness the late Duke of Kent,

Has suffered it, that he may rise Grace Fletcher, my first and most enlightened

And take a firmer, surer stand; disciple, and many members of my own family,

Or, trusting less to earthly things,
Welsh and Scotch.
I have applied all my powers of mind, so as

May henceforth learn to use his wings.
honestly and fearlessly to investigate these new
manifestations, said to be made by departed

And judge none lost; but wait and see spirits from another advanced state of existence,

With hopeful pity, not disdain, Until the commencement of this investigation,

The depth of the abyss may be a few weeks since, I believed that all things are

The measure of the height of pain, eternal, but that there is a constant change in

And love, and glory, that may raise

This soul to God, in after days. their combinations and results, and that there was no personal or conscious existence after

Household Words. death.

By investigating the history of these manifes. tations in America, and subsequently, as will be

Wisu not, dear friends, my pain awaynarrated, through the proceedings of the Ame. rican medium, by whose peculiar organisation

Wish me a wise and thankful heart, manifestations are obtained, I have been com.

With God in all my griefs to stay,

Nor from His lov'd correction start. pelled, contrary to my previous strong convic. tions, to believe in a future conscious state of life existing in a refined material, or what is called a

The dearest offering He can crave, spiritual state ; and that from the natural pro.

His portion in our souls to prove, gress of creation, these departed spirits have

What is it to the gift He gave, attained the power to communicate their feelings

The only Son of His dear love? and knowledge to us living upon earth, by vari. ous means."

In life's long sickness, evermore

Our thoughts are passing to and fro; Well may it be said now, as in the We change our posture o'er and o'er, days of Jeremiah,

But cannot rest, nor cheat our woe. “From the prophets of Jerusalem is profane.

Were it not better to lie still, ness gone forth into all the land. Thus saith

Let Him strike home, and bless the rod; the Lord of hosts, Hearken not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you: they

Never so safe as when our will

Yields undiscern'd by all but God? make you vain; they speak a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth of the Lord. I have heard what the prophets said, that pro.

Thy precious things, whate'er they be, phesy lies in my name, saying, I have dreamed, I

That haunt and vex thee, heart and brain; have dreamed. How long shall this be in the

Look to the cross, and thou shalt see heart of the prophets that prophesy lies? yea,

How thou may'st turn them all to gain. they are prophets of the deceit of their own heart; which think to CAUSK MY PEOPLE TO POR

So wanderers, ever fond and true, GET MY NAME BY TURIR DREAMS, which they tell

Look homeward, through the evening sky, every man to his neighbour, as their fathers have Without a streak of heaven's soft blue forgotten my name for Baal.”

To aid affection's dreaming eye.

A Sabbath well-spent brings a week of content,
And health for the trials of to-morrow;
But a Sabbath profaned,
Whato'er may be gained,
Is a certain forerunner of sorrow.

The wanderer seeks his native bower,

And we will look and long for Thee,
And thank Thee for each trying hour,
Wishing, not struggling, to be free.

Kxele.

THE “ WORKING CLASSES” AND THEIR LITERATURE:

WHAT IT IS, AND WHAT IT OUGHT TO BE.

No. I.

IN modern phraseology, the term foremost men of England, " the working “working-class” signifies only one sec- classes ! are those not worthy of the tion of that large body politic which men name, and in its very highest sense, few call the “ state.” In the present limited comparatively in number though they be, acceptation of the term, we behold but who, by their noble powers of thought, one phase of our social condition, and re- make those discoveries in science which cognise under that designation only those have given tenfold efficacy and value to Bons and daughters of manual toil, of labour, turned it suddenly into a thouwhom it is indeed literally true that they sand new channels, and conferred on all eat their bread in the'sweat of their brow; classes of society new conveniences and but who, regarded from a political stand- enjoyments ? Are we to overlook those point, are seen to be the very marrow great intellects which have devoted themand sinews of a commercial country. The selves to statesmanship and jurispru. limitation to which we refer will at dence, to morals, to the science of medionce appear too narrow and contracted. cine,--securing and advancing the per“ Work” is not confined, as a curse or manent interests of mankind, and reliera privilege, to one class of the commun- ing them from physical anguish and ity, but is equally necessary to all. It misery; the genius devoted to literature, is universal in its demands. The sove- refining, expanding, and elevating the reign, amid the ceremonies and tedious minds of all capable of it, and whose routine of royal life; the legislator, amid immortal works are glittering like stars the intrigues, cares, and responsibilities of the first magnitude in the hemisphere of government; the merchant in his of thought and imagination ?” No! these counting-house or on the exchange; the men are as truly “working men” as the man of science, amid his profound specu- mechanic, whose mind is never devising lations and experiments, which in after though his hand is ever acting, the railyears, it may be, when the grass of the way-stoker, the coalheaver, the pitman, churchyard is waving above his head, the dustman, the wayside stone-breaker, will carry throughout his own, and to and any of the “hewers of wood and many a distant land, great and glorious drawers of water," wherewith the world benefits; the physician, as he passes from is stored. But there is yet one other sick-room to sick-room, striving by his member of the "working class,” though skill and experience to alleviate distress, modern phraseology excludes him. Where to smooth the couch and ease the aching can we go to find a better specimen of a head; the lawyer, amid the multifarious true “workman” than to him who, amid duties of his responsible position; the the toils, and cares, and anxieties of that man of letters and philosophy, as he opens sacred sphere to which Providence has up new avenues of thought, knowledge, called him, to bear the vessels of the and pleasure for coming generations; the sanctuary, and minister at the altar in man, too, of ancestral peerage and lordly holy things, is ever active,“ in season domain, standing amid that narrow circle, and out of season,” labouring among that the nobles of the land, -all these, every flock over which he has been appointed one of them, belong to that large and overseer, striving by precept and example, ever-busy tribe, the universal“ working- by words of love, as well as words of class.” “The working classes ! ” says an terror, by a holy life, by purity, zealousauthor, whose recent publications, both in ness, gentleness, forbearance, and charity, the departments of romance and juris- to turn many to righteousness. There is prudence, have placed him among the no labourer on the surface of the wide

world so diligent and honoured as the tural occupations,—" from the foreman faithful minister of God. Angels guard in the factory to the shepherd boy on the his every step, and hover round him in green hill side.” It is unnecessary to say his going out and coming in, and for him any thing regarding the importance of there is reserved a golden crown of hea- this class of the commuuity. Adam venly mould which shall never be dimmed; Smith has told us all that can be said, and his brows will be encircled by that and personal experience, whose testimony laurel chaplet, whose leaves, plucked from is as good at least as Adam Smith's, bears the tree beside the clear crystal stream, out what he affirms. The working man will never wither through eternity's long is absolutely necessary to our present and endless ages.

Yes! he is a true social condition. So long as the human labourer ; a labourer in that field, the body requires its daily sustenance, and world, and when like Ruth he has gleaned man, woman, and child feel it incumbent there until the evening, he will return on them to be clothed; so long, in fact, to his Master's house rejoicing, bringing as humanity is not regenerated; and until his sheaves with him.

a second and better golden age arrives All of us, high and low, rich and poor, than poets have sung,—when the mornyoung and old, have work assigned to us ing streaks of the millennial sun light up here below; it may be tedious, toilsome, the mountain tops of earth, and the saints and cheerless, but work we must, and the of God live and reign here below, then, wearied labourer is encouraged in all his perhaps, but certainly not before it, must arduous toils by the whisper which ever there be in every circumstance, under soundeth in his ear: “ There is a rest every condition, in every state, bond or remaining for the people of God,”—a free, monarchical or republic, Utopian or place where the “great and the small are real,-a working population. Nay, begathered,” and “ the servant is free from fore man fell, he was a working man; the his master.” “Work !--work !-work!” very object for which he was placed in is stamped on all things under the sun; the garden was to till and to dress it, and, for nature in this work is our companion when he did fall, the command to labour constant and gay. We may read it in all was not imposed, but only intensified. its changes and evolutions; from the fall. If that mighty mass of our working popuing leaf of autumn to the bursting bud of lation was to suspend its operations for spring; from the calm, blue cloudless one single week, the whole fabric of our summer sky to the black tempest-covered commercial greatness would fall with a heaven, pealing and crashing with the world-appalling crash. It is on that awful thunder, and flinging to and fro the mighty mass that it all rests, even as the vivid lightning flash; from the gentle globe was said to rest on the broad ripple of the tide, which glides with crisp- shoulders of old Atlas. · If there was one ing gurgle over the white sand; or as in universal and continued

ke, what wide - echoing roar, wave after wave would become of our merchants, our dashes and breaks in showers upon the manufacturers, our shipowners, our landed gray cliffs ;-all these speak of a constant proprietors, our farmers, and all other work, a mighty universal“ current" classes in the empire ; and where, too, through all the kingdoms of vegetable, would go the accumulated capital of the animal, and mineral existences,

wealthiest nation of the world? We ever In speaking, however, of the “working desire to speak with deepest veneration classes,” what we now mean is that limited and most cordial affection of the nobles section to which, as we have said, modern of the land; we know the good which phraseology confines the definition,—those they have done, and are still doing; we who by manual labour contribute to the look with proud delight on such illustriprosperity of the country, whether that ous names blazing on the scroll of our labour is accomplished in the factories of nobility as Shaftesbury, Argyle, Eglinton, dark, dingy, unhealthy cities, or in the Derby, Lansdowne, Carlisle,—but still, more genial sphere of rural and agricul- disguise it as we may, it is to the pea

santry and working class of our country, of God not descend and burn up this that, under God, Britain owes her great-world.” Well may the spirit of the godly ness in the past, her glory in the present, man faint within him at the spectacle. and will owe her power in time to come. Thousands and thousands of his countryAnd if this be true; if it be true that we men growing up in destitution of the are indebted to that portion of our brethren water and bread of life ; not only devoid for wealth, comfort, luxury, greatness, of principle, but trained up into every safety, and glory, is there nothing which vice which exists under the sun. We do it can demand at our hands in return ? not speak now of the cities of Scotland, Our obligation to the labouring classes is of the crime of Glasgow, Edinburgh, not discharged when we pay them their Paisley, Dundee, or Aberdeen,--reserving wages for value received : it goes farther. that for an article by itself; but let us It follows the workman from the fac- glance at London. A few years ago, it tory or the field to the domestic circle; was calculated that, deducting infants it finds for him sufficient recreation and and parties left necessarily in charge of innocent enjoyment; it cautions, it coun- house property, at least 1,312,500 of the sels, it instructs him. But it does more. It population might and ought to attend sees that his children are educated as well church or chapel ; but the fact appears to as fed, that his dwelling is wholesome be, that the number of sittings is less than and well ventilated; but greater still, it one-half the number specified as necessary sees that the means of spiritual instruction for those who might attend; and the acare placed within his reach. In short, we tual attendance on public worship would must look on the labourer as a Man, not as not reach by one-third the accommodaa MACHINE; as a being with a soul, which tion provided; while that accommodation throughout eternity is destined either to is less than one-half of what ought to be sing with God's triumphant church in hea- required, and could be made use of, did ven the song of Moses and the Lamb; or, all possessing the opportunity to attend dreadful alternative, to join its wailings church use that opportunity. The Lonwith the wailings of the lost. And there don City Magazine, so far back as 1846, are men who do look on their fellows as says that the number of churches in Lonmere machines, who pay them their fair don was 799. “ But if we reckon them," day's wage for their fair day's work, but the writer continues, " at 800, and allow as to whose temporal and eternal weal a 70, communicants for each church and question is never asked. Such men there chapel, (which is more than an average, are; shame be on their name—theirs is an seeing many of the churches are nearly awful responsibility! It may be that the empty, and many of the chapels very souls of the workmen will be required small,) 800 times 70 will give but 56,000." at the hands of the master, and what ex. Since that time church accommodation cuse will he plead for his neglect, when has been greatly extended; but has not assembled worlds are listening for his the population multiplied in a far greater reply, and that scrutinising eye, which ratio ? “Once more," says Vanderkeste, reads the deepest secrets of man's heart, “it is proved that in three of the South is fixed upon his thoughts. The masters Sea Islands, numbering 18,000 inhabiof Britain have been too careless in regard tants, the attendance on public worship to the upbringing of those beneath them was 9000, or one-half, whilst in Islington, in the social scale. They have neglected the most favoured parish in London, with to provide for the intellectual, moral, and a population in 1841 of 55,600, the whole spiritual necessities of the masses of the of the churches were capable of seating only population. And what has been the re- ONE-HALF, or 27,850, and many of these sult? To that neglect we may trace an churches were and are very far from immense proportion of the immorality, being well filled.” The occupations of crime, and infidelity at the survey of those who do not attend public worship, which the Christian stands appalled, and it is needless to say, are drunkenness, asks: “Can these things be, and the fire sensuality, robbery, thefs, sometimes eren

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