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his brother; James [p the son] of Zebedee, and John his brother; 3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James [p the son] of Alphæus, and [9 Leb
P not expressed in the original.
9 these words are variously read : see note. the Primate of the future Church, is as nent, and so first called as an Apostle, at clear as the facts above mentioned. For least of those four. James (the son) (1) no trace of such a pre-eminence is of Zebedee, and John his brother] Partfound in all the Epistles of the other ners in the fishing trade with Peter and Apostles ; but when he is mentioned, it is Andrew, Luke v. 10. 3. Philip, and either, as 1 Cor. ix. 5, as one of the Apos- Bartholomew] Philip was called by our tles, one example among many, but in no Lord the second day after the visit of wise the chief;-or as in Gal. ii. 7, 8, with Andrew and John, and the day after the a distinct account of a peculiar province naming of Peter. He was also of Bethof duty and preaching being allotted to saida, the city of Andrew and Peter, James him, viz. the apostleship of the circumci- and John. Andrew and Philip are sion, (see 1 Pet. i. 1,) as distinguished from Greek names. See John xii. 20-22. Paul, to whom was given the apostleship Bartholomew, i. e. in Heb., son of Talmai of the uncircumcision ;-or as in Gal. ii. or Tolomæus, has been generally supposed 9, as one of the principal pillars, together to be the same with Nathanael of Cana with James and John ;-or as in Gal. ii. in Galilee ; and with reason: for (1) the 11, as subject to rebuke from Paul as from name Bartholomew is not his own name, an equal. And (2) wherever by our Lord but a patronymic :-(2) He follows next Himself the future constitution of His in order, as Nathanael, in John i. 46, to Church is alluded to, or by the Apostles the Apostles just mentioned, with the its actual constitution, no hint of any such same formula which had just been used primacy is given (see note on Matt. xvi. of Philip's own call (ver. 44),—" Philip 18), but the whole college of Apostles are findeth Nathanael :"-(3) He is there, as spoken of as absolutely equal. Matt. xix. here, and in Mark and Luke (Gospel), in 27, 28; xx. 26, 28: Eph. ii. 20, and many connexion with Philip (that he was his other places. Again (3) in the two Epis- brother, was conjectured by Dr. Donaldtles which we have from his own hand, son ; but rendered improbable by the fact there is nothing for, but every thing that John, in the case of Andrew a few against, such a supposition. He exhorts verses above, expressly says “he findeth the presbyters as being their co-presbyter his own brother Simon,” whereas in ver. 46 (1 Pet. v. 1): describes himself as a par- no such specification occurs) :-(4) in John taker of the glory that shall be revealed : xxi. 2, at the appearance of our Lord on addresses his second Epistle to them that the shore of the sea of Tiberias, Nathanael have obtained the like precious faith with is mentioned as present, where seven ourselves (2 Pet. i. 1): and makes not the apostles (“ disciples ") are recounted. slightest allusion to any pre-eminence over Thomas, and Matthew the Publican] the other Apostles. So that first here Thomas, in Greek Didymus (the twin). must be understood as signifying the pro- John xi. 16; xx. 24 ; xxi. 2. Matthew minence of Peter among the Apostles, as the publican is clearly by this appellation well as his early calling. (See John i. 42.) identified with the Matthew of ch. ix. 9.
called Peter] Or Cephas, so We hear nothing of him, except in these named by our Lord Himself (John as two passages.
Dr. Donaldson believed above) at His first meeting with him, and Matthew and Thomas to have been twin again more solemnly, and with a direct brothers. Eusebius preserves a tradition reference to the meaning of the name, that Thomas's real name was Judas. Matt. xvi. 18.
Andrew] He, in James (the son) of Alphæus] From John conjunction with John (see note on John xix. 25, some infer (but see note there), i. 37-41), was a disciple of the Baptist, that Mary the (wife) of Clopas was sister and both of them followed our Lord, on of Mary the mother of our Lord. From their Master pointing Him out as the Mark xv. 40, that Mary was the mother Lamb of God. They did not however of James “the little," which may be this from that time constantly accompany
James. Hence it would appear, if these Him, but received a more solemn calling two passages point to the same person, (see Matt. iv. 17--22: Luke v. 1-11) - that Alphæus
Clopas. And indeed the in the narrative of which Peter is promi- two Greek names are but different ways
bæus, whose surname was Thaddæus] ; 4 Simon the Ca
naanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 5 These a see Acts i. 8. twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, a Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the
I read, Cananæan. of expressing the Hebrew name. If this Simon last mentioned was the father of be so, then this James the Less may pos- Judas Iscariot. But surely this is very sibly be “the brother of the Lord” men- uncertain, in the case of so common a tioned Gal. i. 19 apparently as an apostle, name as Simon. 5. saying] If we and one of “ His brethren” mentioned compare this verse with ch. xi. 1, there Matt. xiii. 55 (where see note) (?). But can be little doubt that this discourse of on the difficulties attending this view, see our Lord was delivered at one time and note on John vii. 5. Lebbæus] Much that, the first sending of the Twelve. difficulty rests on this name, both from the How often its solemn injunctions may have various readings, and the questions arising been repeated on similar occasions we can. from the other lists. The received reading not say: many of them reappear at the appears to be a conjunction of the two sending of the Seventy in Luke x. 2 ff. ancient ones, Lebbæus and Thaddæus: the
Its primary reference is to the then latter of these having been introduced mission of the Apostles to prepare His froin Mark: where, however, one of the way; but it includes, in the germ, inancient MSS. has Lebbæus. Whichever of structions prophetically delivered for the these is the true reading, the Apostle him- ministers and missionaries of the Gospel self has generally been supposed to be to the end of time. It may be divided identical with “ Judas of James” in both into tHREE GREAT PORTIONS, in each of Luke's catalogues, i. e. (see note there) which different departments of the subject Judas the brother (Dr. Donaldson sup- are treated, but which follow in natural posed son : see note on Luke xxiv. 13) of sequence on one another. In the FIRST James, and so son of Alphæus, and com- of these (vv. 5–15), our Lord, taking up monly supposed to be (?) one of the bre- the position of the messengers whom He thren of the Lord named Matt. xiii. 55. sends from the declaration with which the In John xiv. 22 we have a Judas, not Baptist and He Himself began their miIscariot,' among the Apostles : and the nistry, “ The Kingdom of heaven is at catholic epistle is written by a “Judas hand,” gives them commands, mostly litebrother of James.' What in this case the ral, and of present import, for their misnames Lebbæus and Thaddæus are, is im- sion to the cities of Israel. This portion possible to say. So that the whole rests concludes with a denunciation of judgment on conjecture, which however does not against that unbelief which should reject contradict any known fact, and may be their preaching. The sECOND (vv. 16-23) allowed as the only escape from the diffi- refers to the general mission of the Aposculty.
4. Simon the Cananæan] tles as developing itself, after the Lord This is not a local name, but is derived should be taken from them, in preaching from Canan, which is equivalent to Zelotes to Jews and Gentiles (vv. 17, 18), and (Luke, Gospel and Acts). We may there. subjecting them to persecutions (vv. 21, fore suppose that before his conversion 22). This portion ends with the end of he belonged to the sect of the Zealots, who the apostolic period properly so called, after the example of Phinehas (Num. xxv. ver. 23 referring primarily to the destruc7,8) took justice into their own hands, and tion of Jerusalem. In this portion there punished offenders against the law. This is a foreshadowing of what shall be the sect eventually brought upon Jerusalem its lot and duty of the teachers of the Gospel destruction. Judas Iscariot] Son of to the end, inasmuch as the coming of Simon (John vi.71; [xii. 4 various reading ;] the Son of Man’ is ever typical of His xiii. 2, 26). Probably a native of Kerioth final coming to judgment. Still the direct in Juda, Josh. xv. 25. Ish Kerioth, a man reference is to the Apostles and their misof Kerioth, as Istobus, a man of Tob, sion, and the other only by inference. Joseph. Antt. vii. 6. 1. That the name The THIRD (vv. 24–42), the longest and Iscariot cannot be a surname, as Bp. Mid. weightiest portion, is spoken directly (with dleton supposes, the expression
« Judas occasional reference only to the Apostles Iscariot the son of Simon," used in all the and their mission (ver. 40]) of all disciples above places of John, clearly proves. Dr. of the Lord,—their position,—their enDonaldson assumed it as certain that the couragements,—their duties,—and finally not:
John iv. 1
cch, xv. 24.
Jer. 1. 6, 17. Ezek. xxxiv. 6. 1 Pet. ii. 25.
e see Acts vii.
1 Tim. v. 18.
• Samaritans enter ye 6 but go rather to the lost sheep b seei? Kinga of the house of Israel. 7 And as ye go preach, saying,
The kingdom of heaven is at hand. 8 Heal the sick, Isa liii. 6. cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils : freely ye have received, e freely give. 9 Provide neither gold, a ch. iii. 2: ir. nor silver, nor brass in your purses,
10 nor scrip for your € 18; 20. journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet 8 staves : for the workman is worthy of his meat. 11 And into f1 Cor. ix. 7. whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence. 12 And when
S read, a staff, concludes with the last great reward of value, connected by the nor, intro(ver. 42). In these first verses, 5, 6,- ducing a climax--no gold, nor yet silver, we have the location ; in 7, 8, the pur- nor yet brass -- in their girdles (so, litepose; in 9, 10, the fitting out; and in rally, Luke x. 4). In the Greek it is, 11-14, the manner of proceeding,-of no gold, nor even silver, nor even brass.' their mission : ver. 15 concluding with a So again in ver. 10. (2) Food : here scrip, prophetic denouncement, tending to im. in Mark “no scrip, no bread :” similarly press them with a deep sense of the im- Luke. (3) Clothing-neither two coats : portance of the office entrusted to them. 80 Mark and Luke.- neither shoes ; in Samaritans] The Samaritans were Mark expressed by
“ be shod with santhe Gentile inhabitants of the country dals :” explained in Luke x. 4 by “carry between Judæa and Galilee, consisting of no shoes,” i. e. a second pair.- nor yet a heathens whom Shalmaneser king of As- staff = “save a staff only” Mark. They syria brought from Babylon and other were not to procure expressly for this places. Their religion was a mixture of journey even a staff': they were to take the worship of the true God with idolatry with them their usual staff only. The (2 Kings xvii. 24–41). The Jews had no missing of this explanation has probably dealings with them, John iv. 9. They ap- led to the reading staves both here and pear to have been not so unready as the in Luke. If it be genuine, it does not Jews to receive our Lord and His mission mean two staves; for who would ever think (John iv. 39–42: Luke ix. 51 ff., and of taking a spare staff? but a staff each. notes) ; -- but this prohibition rested on The whole of this prohibition was tempojudicial reasons. See Acts xiii. 46. In rary only; for their then journey, and no Acts i. 8 the prohibition is expressly taken more. See Luke xxii. 35, 36. 10. for off: 'Ye shall be witnesses in Jerusalem, the workman...] This is a common truth and in all Judæa, and in Samaria, and of life-men give one who works for them unto the uttermost part of the earth.' his food and more; here uttered however And in Acts viii. 1, 5, 8, we find the re- by our Lord in its highest sense, as applied sult. See ch. xv. 21-28.
6. the to the workmen in His vineyard. See lost sheep] See besides reff., ch. ix. 36 : 1 Cor. ix. 13, 14: 2 Cor. xi. 8: 3 John 8. John X. 16. 7.] This announcement It is (as Stier remarks, vol. i. p. 352, ed. 2) shews the preparatory nature of this first a gross perversion and foolish bondage to apostolic mission. Compare, as shewing the letter, to imagine that ministers of the difference of their ultimate message to congregations, or even missionaries among the world, Col. i. 26–28. 8. freely, the heathen, at this day are bound by the &c.] See Acts viii. 18—20. 9. Pro- literal sense of our Lord's commands in vide neither ...] All the words following this passage. But we must not therefore depend on this verb, and it is explained by imagine that they are not bound by the the parallel expressions in Mark and Luke. spirit of them. This literal first mission They were to make no preparations for was but a foreshadowing of the spiritual the journey, but to take it in dependence subsequent sending out of the ministry on Him who sent them, just as they over the world, which ought therefore in were. This forbidden provision would be spirit every where to be conformed to of three kinds (1) Money: in Mark (vi. 8) these rules. 11. worthy] Inclined to (literally)“ brass,” in Luke (ix.3)“ silver :receive you and your message, - worthy here all the three current metals in order that you should become his guest. Such
h Neh. v. 13.
Acts xiii. 51:
xviii. 0. ich, xi, 22, 24.
Phil. ii. 15. mch. xxiv. 9.
n Acts v. 40.
ye come into an house, salute it. 13 And if the house be
worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not & Ps. xxxv. 18. worthy, let your peace & return to you. 14 And whosoever
shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city," shake off the dust of your
feet. 15 Verily I say unto you, 'It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city.
16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of * Rom. xvi. 40. wolves: be ye therefore k wise as serpents, and 'harmless as doves.
17 But beware of men: for they will m deliver you up to the councils, and they will ” scourge you in their persons in this case would be of the same Israelites, but Gentiles. Thus the verse kind as those spoken of Acts xiii. 48 as forms a kind of introduction to the next
disposed to eternal life” (see there). portion of the discourse, where the future The precept in this verse is very much mission to the Gentiles is treated of. more fully set forth by Luke, x. 7 ff. The or city brings in the alternative; till ye go thence] i. e. Until ye depart “ house, if it be a house that rejects you, out of the city. 13.] The peace men- city, if a whole city." 15.] The first tioned is that in the customary Eastern verily I say unto you; with which exsalutation, Peace be with you. Luke has pression our Lord closes each portion of Peace be to this house (x.5). Compare with this discourse. day of judgment, the spirit of vv. 10--13,-ch. vii. 6. Stier i. e. of final judgment, “ that day remarks that the spirit of these commands Luke x. 12. It must be noticed that this binds Christian ministers to all accus. denunciatory part, as also the command tomed courtesies of manner in the coun- to shake off the dust, applies only to the tries and ages in which their mission may people of Israel, who had been long prelie. So we find the Greek salutation in pared for the message of the Gospel by stead of the Jewish form of greeting, the Law and the Prophets, and recently Acts xv. 23: James i. 1. And the same more particularly by John the Baptist; spirit forbids that repelling official pride and in this sense it may still apply to by which so many ministers lose the affec- the rejection of the Gospel by professing tions of their people. And this is to be Christians; but as it was not then apwithout any respect to the worthiness or plicable to the Gentiles, so neither now otherwise of the inhabitants of the house. can it be to the heathen who know not In the case of unworthiness,
God. peace return (See Isa. xlv. 23) to you,' 16 -23.] SECOND PART OF THE DISi. e. 'be as though you had never spoken
See above on
ver. 5, for the it.' 14.] See Acts, in the references. subject of this portion. 16.] I is not A solemn act which might have two without meaning. It takes up again the meanings: (1) as Luke x. 11 expresses at subject of their sending, and reminds them more length, We take nothing of yours Who sent them. send forth, Gr. with us, we free ourselves from all con- apostello, is in direct connexion with their tact and communion with you;' or (2),- name Apostles. sheep in the midst which sense probably lies beneath both of wolves] This comparison is used of the this and ver. 13, “We free ourselves from people of Israel in the midst of the Genall participation in your condemnation : tiles, in a Rabbinical work cited by Stier: will have nothing in common with those see also Ecclus. xiii. 17. 17. beware] who have rejected God's message. See The wisdom of the serpent is needed for 1 Kings ii. 5, where the shoes on the feet this part of their course; the simplicity of are mentioned as partakers in the
guilt the dove for the take not anxious thought of blood. It was a custom of the Phari. in ver. 19. The but turns from the sees, when they entered Judæa from a internal character to behaviour in regard Gentile land, to do this act, as renouncing of outward circumstances. councils] all communion with Gentiles : those then See Acts iv. 6, 7; v. 40. They are the who would not receive the apostolic mes- courts of seven (on which see Deut. xvi. sage were to be treated as no longer 18), appointed in every city, to take
0 Acts xxiv, 10:
t take no
synagogues; ye shall be brought before o o governors and okings for my sake, for a testimony against them and 2Tim. iv. 16. the Gentiles. 19 But when they deliver you up, thought how or what ye shall speak: for p it shall be given prod. 17. 12. you in that same hour what ye shall speak. 20 For it is not ye that speak, but the 9 Spirit of your Father which 92 şam.xxiii. speaketh in you. 21 ? And the brother shall deliver up the min. 10, brother to death, and the father the child : and the chil- - see vv. 85, 86. dren shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death. 22 And ye shall be hated of all men for name's sake: but she that endureth to the end shall s ch. xxiv. 18.
t render, take not anxious thought. cognizance of causes both civil and cri. nishes, and God alone, His Christ, His minal, ch. v. 21: here perhaps put for Spirit, is the worker.
21.] any courts of assembly in general. The Spoken perhaps of official information scourging in the synagogues is supposed given against Christians, as there are no to have been inflicted by order of the female relations mentioned. But the Tribunal of Three, who judged in them. general idea is also included. 22. all
18. and] literally, yea; and more- men] i. e. all else but yourselves ; not, as over; assuming what has just been said, sometimes interpreted, a strong expresand passing on to something more. sion, intended to signify many, or the governors - Proconsuls, Proprætors, Pro. majority of mankind. but he that curators, as (Pontius Pilate,) Felix, Festus, endureth] In order to understand these Gallio, Sergius Paulus.
kings, as words it is necessary to enter into the (Herod,) Agrippa. The former verse was character of our Lord's prophecies respectof Jewish persecution; this, of Gentile: ing His coming, as having an immediate the concluding words shew that the literal, and a distant foreshadowed fulfilscope of both, in the divine purposes, as ment. Throughout this discourse and the regarded the Apostles, was the same, viz. great prophecy in ch. xxiv., we find the for a testimony. The “ testimony” is in first apostolic period used as a type of the both senses-a testimony to, and against whole ages of the Church; and the ven. them (see ch. viii. 4, note), and refers to geance on Jerusalem, which historically both sets of persecutors: to them, i.e. the put an end to the old dispensation, and Jews (not the “rulers and kings,” for they was in its place with reference to that are in most cases Gentiles themselves), and order of things, the coming of the Son of to the Gentiles. It was a testimony in the Man, as a type of the final coming of the best sense to Sergius Paulus, Acts xiii. 7, Lord. These two subjects accompany and but against Felix, Acts xxiv. 25; and this interpenetrate one another in a manner double power ever belongs to the word of wholly inexplicable to those who are unGod as preached - it is a "two-edged accustomed to the wide import of Scripsword” Rev. i. 16; ii. 12). 19. take ture prophecy, which speaks very generally not anxious (or distracting) thought] A not so much of events themselves, points spiritual prohibition, answering to the of time,--as of processions of events, all literal one in vv. 9, 10. See Exodus iv. ranging under one great description. 12.
20. For it is not ye .] Thus in the present case there is certainly This shews the reference of the command direct reference to the destruction of Jeru. to a future mission of the Apostles, see salem ; the end directly spoken of is that John xv. 26, 27. (1) It is to be observed event, and the shall be saved the preserthat our Lord never in speaking to His vation provided by the warning after. disciples says our Father, but either my wards given in ch. xxiv. 15—18. And the Father (ch. xviii. 10), or your Father (as next verse directly refers to the journeys here), or both conjoined (John xx. 17); of the Apostles over the actual cities of never leaving it to be inferred that God is Israel, territorial, or where Jews were in the same sense His Father and our Fa. located. But as certainly do all these ther. (2) It is also to be observed that expressions look onwards to the great final in the great work of God in the world, coming of the Lord, the end of all pro. human individuality sinks down and va- phecy; as certainly the shall be saved