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ix. 16: X. 19.
[i which I will give] for the life of the world. 52 The Jews
i omitted by almost all our most ancient authorities.
1 render, He that.
m ver. 27, 40,
the living man. I cannot therefore see He now has, and in which all things conhow any thing short of His Death can be sist; so is His Blood (“the blood is the here meant. By that Death, He has given life,” Lev. xvii. 11, 14) the Life which He His Flesh for the life of the world : not gave up, paid down, as the penalty for the merely that they who believe on Him may, sin of the world. By the shedding, pouring in the highest sense, have life; but that forth, of that Blood, is remission of sin. the world may have life. The very exist
It is quite impossible that these ence of all the created world is owing to, words should, as De Wette maintains, be and held together by, that Resurrection merely an expansion of “eating His flesh.” Body of the Lord. In Him all things are Even had the idea of drinking blood been gathered together and reconciled to God: one familiar to the Jews, the construction “ by Him all things consist," i.e. “hold would not have allowed such an interpreta. together,” Col. i. 17. (2) The question tion ;-but new as it was, and abhorrent whether there is here any reference to the from their habits and law, we must regard ORDINANCE OF THE LORD'S SUPPER, has it as specially and purposely added. been inaccurately put. When cleared of But what is this eating and drinking ? inaccuracy in terms, it will mean, Is the Clearly, not merely faith : for faith an. subject here dwelt upon, the same as that swers to the hand reached forth for the which is set forth in the ordinance of the food, but is not the act of eating. Faith Lord's Supper ? And of this there can is a necessary condition of the act: so that surely be no doubt. To the ordinance it. we can hardly say with Augustine, “believe, self, there is here no reference ; nor could and thou hast eaten,” but “believe, and thou there well have been any. But the spiri. shalt eat.” Inasmuch as Faith will necessatual verity which underlies the ordinance rily in its energizing lead to this partaking, is one and the same with that here insisted we sometimes incorrectly say that it is on; and so considered, the discourse is, as Faith: but for strict accuracy this is not generally treated, most important towards enough. To eat the flesh of Christ, is to a right understanding of the ordinance. realize, in our inward life, the mystery of
52.] The inference conveyed in the Hiş Body now in heaven,-to digest and word eat, which word, be it noted, first assimilate our own portion in that Body. comes from the Jews themselves, is yet a
To drink His Blood, is to realize, right one. If He is the Bread, and that in our inward life, the mystery of His Bread is His Flesh, we must eat His satisfaction for sin,- to digest and as. Flesh, though not in the sense here meant similate our own portion in that satisfac. by them. They contended against one tion, the outpouring of that Blood. And another, probably some having more in both these definitions may be gathered sight into the possibility of a spiritual into one, which is : The eating of His meaning than others.
53.] Our Flesh and drinking of His Blood import Lord not only ratifies their own word, eat, the making to ourselves and using as ob. but adds to it a more wonderful thing; jectively real, those two great Truths of that they must also do that against which our Redemption in Him, of which our a prohibition might seem to have existed Faith subjectively convinces us. from Noah downwards,—drink His Blood. And of this realizing of Faith he has been But observe, this Blood is not to be eaten pleased to appoint certain symbols in the in the Flesh, which was the forbidden Holy Communion, which He has com. thing (Gen. ix. 4: Levit. xvii. 10-16), in manded to be received ; to signify to us its strict literal form: but to be drunk, the spiritual process, and to assist us toseparate froin the flesh: again presup. wards it. ye have no life in you] posing death. Now as the Flesh of Christ Ye have not in you that spring of life, (see above) is the Resurrection-Body which which shall overcome death, and lead
ni John iii.
24: iv. 15, 16.
my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the
last day. 55 For my flesh is m meat indeed, and my blood n
o Shootothemes in is n drink indeed. 56 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh
2002 ni John is: my blood," dwelleth in me, and I in him. 57 As the living
Father hath sent me, and I live o by the Father: so he o ver. 19,50,51. that eateth me, P even he shall live o by me. 58 © This is
9 that bread which came down from heaven : pot as your fathers did eat [r manna], and 8 are dead : he that eateth [t of'] this bread shall live for ever. 69 These things
said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 1.0.60 P Many therefore of his disciples, when they [u had]
heard this, said, * This is an hard saying; who can hear
it ? 61 y When Jesus knew in himself that his disciples 9 Mark xvi. 10. murmured at it, [z he] said unto them, Doth this offend AIS. IV. you ? 62 9 a What and if ye b shall see the Son of man m read, true meat.
n read, true drink. O render, because of.
P render, he also. a render, the.
S render, died. u omit.
A render, This saying is hard. y render, But Jesus knowing.
2 omit. å render, What then if.
b render, should behold.
p rer. 00.
Matt. xi. O.
ch. iii. 13. Acts i. 9. Eph. iv. 8.
54.7 to the resurrection in the true sense :' conclusion of the discourse, referring back see above, ver. 44, and notice again the to the Bread with which it began and to solemn refrain. 55.] The sense is not its difference from the perishable food here, · My Flesh is the true meat &c.,' but which they had extolled : - and setting My Flesh is true meat, i. e, really TO BE forth the infinite superiority of its effects EATEN, which they doubted. The adverb, over those of that sustenance. which “ meat indeed,” or “drink indeed," as in came down,--past, now : because He has A. V., falls short of the depth of the ad. clearly identified it with Himself. jective. This verse is decisive against all 60-65.] Murmuring of some of the explaining away or metaphorizing the pas. disciples at the foregoing discourse, and sage. Food and drink, are not here were the answer of Jesus to them. 60.] It metaphors ;-rather are our common ma has been shewn by Lampe, that the word terial food and drink mere shadows and rendered hard signifies not so much ab. imperfect types of this only real reception surdily as impiety. It seems clear that it of refreshment and nourishment into the was not the difficulty, so much as the being. 56.] He who thus lives upon strangeness of the saying, which scandaMe, abides in Me (see ch. xv. 5 and note); lized them. It is the whole discourse, -and I (that living power and nourish the turu given to it, -the doctrine of the ment conveyed by the bread of life, which Bread of Life,--the giving His Flesh and is the Lord Himself) abide in him.
Blood to eat,at which they take offence. 57. The same expanded further--see ch.
who can hear it ? i. e. who can v. 26. The two branches of the feeding on listen to it? Who can stay and hear such Christ are now united under the general sayings as this ?' not, Who can underexpression, eateth ME. because of stand it ?
61.7 in himself, by His expresses the efficient cause. The Father divine knowledge. 62.7 What then is the Fountain of all Life: the Son lives if ye see ... not meaning 'will ye not then in and by the Father: and all created be much more scandalized ?' or, what will being generally, lives (in the lower sense) ye say (or do), then?' - but appealing to in and by Him; but he that eateth Him, an event which they should witness, as a shall (eternally and in the highest sense) certain proof of one part of the “hard live by Him.". 58.] forms the solemn saying," with which indeed the rest of it
tch, ii, 24, 25 :
bb ascend up where he was before ? 63 ? It is the spirit that r 2 Cor. tit. 6. C quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I d speak unto you, [e they] are spirit, and [e they] are life. 6+ But s there are some of you that believe not. For + Jesus - ver. 26. knew from the beginning who they were that believed sili. 11. not, and who f should betray him. 65 And he said, & Therefore u said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, u ver. 44, 15. except it h were given unto him of i my Father.
66 v k From that time many of his disciples went back, v ver.20. and walked no more with him. 67 1 Then said Jesus unto bb render, ascending.
C render, giveth life. d read, have spoken.
e omit. f render, it was that should. & render, For this cause have I said. h render, be.
i read, the. k render, Upon this.
I render, Jesus said therefore. was bound up,–His having descended from spoken,' i.e. • My discourses,' are to be heaven. All attempts to explain this taken in a spiritual sense,' and are life.' otherwise than of His ascent into heaven, But this is any thing but precise, even are simply dishonest,-and spring from after the forcing of the meaning of the laxity of belief in the historical reality of word “spirit.” 64.] . This accounts that event. That it is not recorded by for your murmuring at what I said, that John, is of no moinent here. And that ye do not believe.
For Jesus none but the Twelve saw it, is unim- knew ...] De Wette remarks, that the portant; for how do we know that our foreknowledge of our Lord with regard to Lord was not here speaking to some among Judas renders it impossible to apply the the Twelve? To explain it of His death, ordinary rules of moral treatment, as Why as part of His going up where he was be- did He then continue him as an Apostle ? fore, is hardly less disingenuous. 63.] Why did He give him the charge of the spirit and flesh do not mean the spiritual purse, knowing him to be a thief? &c.,'and carnal sense of the foregoing discourse, to the case: and it is therefore better not as many Commentators explain them: for to judge at all on the matter. The our Lord is speaking, not of teaching fact is, we come here to a form of the merely, but of virifying : He is explaining problem of divine foreknowledge and human the life-giving principle of which He had free-will, which, in any of its endless combeen before speaking. “Such eating of My binations of expression, it is equally imflesh as you imagine and find hard to listen possible for us to solve from the to, could profit you nothing,- for it will beginning, from their first coming to have ascended up, &c.; and besides, gene. Him ;-the first beginning of their conrally, it is only the Spirit that can vivify nexion with Him. 65.] These unthe spirit of man; the flesh (in whatever believers had not that drawing to Christ, way used) can profit nothing towards this.' which leads (ver. 44) to true coming to He does not say “My Flesh profiteth no Him. Observe the parallelism between it thing,' but the flesh.' To make Him say were given him here, and all that which this, as the Swiss anti-sacramentalists do, the Father giveth me, ver. 37. Both these is to make Him contradict His own words gifts are in the Father's power. in ver. 51. the words that I have 66-71.] Many of the disciples leave spoken) viz. the words my flesh and my Him. The confession of the Twelve blood, above. They are spirit and life:- through Peter : and the Lord's warning spirit, not flesh only :- living food, not to them. 66. Upon this] The temcarnal and perishable. This menning has poral meaning prevails, but does not exbeen missed by almost all Commentators: clude the causal. It was upon this being Stier upholds it, and it seems to me beyond said, and it was also because this had been question the right one. The common in- said. many, viz. of those that believed terpretation is, the words which I have not : but not all. 67.] The first men.
x Matt. xvi. 16. Mark viii. 29. Luke ix. 20.
y Luke vi. 13.
the twelve, Will ye also go away? 88 Then Simon Peter
answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go ? thou hast w Acts v. 20., w the words of eternal life. 69 * And we mbelieve and are Mark Tiro 20. sure that thou art + that Christ, the Son of the living God.
1.27.... 70 Jesus answered them, yo Have not I chosen you twelve, 2 ch. xiii. 27. zand one of you is a devil ? 71 He spake of Judas
P Iscariot the son of Simon : for he it was that I should betray him, being one of the twelve.
VII. 1 r After these things Jesus walked in Galilee : for m render, have believed and know. n read, with most of the ancient authorities, the Holy One of God. o render, Did I not choose. P read, [the son of Simon Iscariot. a render, was about to.
Prender, And after. tion of the Twelve by John. The question & devil] It is doubtful in what sense this is asked in order to extract from them word should be taken. However we ex. the confession which follows, and thus plain it, it will be an expression only once to bind them closer to Himself. We must used in the N. T. In the dark act bere not forget likewise, in the mystery of our prophesied, Judas was under the immediato Lord's human nature, that at such a mo. instigation of and yielded himself up to ment of desertion, He would seek comfort Satan (compare our Lord's reply to Peter, in the faith and attachment of His chosen Matt. xvi. 23); and I would understand ones. 68.] Peter answers quickly and this expression as having reference to that earnestly for the rest, as in Matt. xvi. 16. league with and entertainment of the Evil
to whom shall we go ?] What they One in his thoughts and purposes, which had heard and seen had awakened in them his ultimate possession by Satan implies. the desire of being led on by some teacher This meaning can perhaps hardly be rentowards eternal life; and to whom else dered by any single word in another lanshould they go from Him who had, and guage. The A. V. 'a devil,' is certainly brought out of His stores for their instruc- too strong; devilish would be better, but tion, the words (see ver. 63) of eternal life ? not unobjectionable. Compare “ The son
69.7 we have believed seems to be of perdition," ch. xvü. 12. 71.] On used absolutely, as in ver. 64: we believe the name Iscariot (here applied to Simon, [in Thee), and have long done so.
Judas's father), see on Matt. x. 4. In the following words the readings vary; CHAP. VII.-X.] JESUS THE LIGHT OF the common text having been to all ap- THE WORLD. The conflict at its height. pearance introduced from Matt. xvi. 16. VII. 1-52.7 JESUS MEETS THE UN. The circumstance of the Lord not being BELIEF OF THE JEWS AT JERUSALEM. The elsewhere called the Holy One of God by circumstances (verses 1-13). 1.) The John, is of course in favour of the read. chronology of this period is very doubtful. ing: on the principle that an unusual ex. I have remarked on it in my note on Luke pression was generally by the transcribers ix. 51. Thus much we may observe here. altered to a more usual one, not vice versa. that after these things cannot apply emThe idea however is found (ch. x. 36). I phatically to ch. vi., but must be referred regard the coincidence with the testimony back to ch. V., as indeed must the Jews of the dæmoniacs, Mark i. 24 and parallel seeking to kill Him, and the miracle alluded places, as a remarkable one. Their words to in ver. 23. But it will not follow from appear to have been the first plain declara- this, that ch, vi. is not in its right place : tion of the fact, and so to have laid hold on it contains an independent memoir of a the attention of the Apostles. 70.] miracle and discourse of our Lord in GaliThe selection of the Twelve by Jesus is the lee which actually happened in the interval. consequence of the giving of them to Him and only serves to shew us the character of by the Father, ch. xvii. 6,-in which there this Gospel as made up of such memoirs, also Judas is included. So that His select. more or less connected with one another, and ing, and the Father's giving and drawing, selected by the Evangelist for their higher do not exclude final falling away.
spiritual import, and the discourses arising
Mark iii. 31
he would not walk in Jewry, a because the Jews sought to a ch. v. 10, 18. kill him. 26 Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at b Lev. xxiii. hand. 3 c His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart c Matt: mi. 40. hence, and go into Judæa, that thy disciples also may t see Acts i. 14. the works that thou doest. 4 For [a there is) no man [a that] doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou – do these things, y shew thyself to the world. 5d For ? neither did his brethren a Mark ill. 21. believe in him. 6 zz Then Jesus said unto them, e My time e ch 11.4.
viii. 20. ver. is not yet come: but your time is alway ready. 7. The chos. world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, 8 because I 8 ch. iii. 19. testify of it, that the works thereof are evil. 8 Go ye up unto a this feast: I go not up tb yet] unto this feast; h for h ch. vili. 20. 8 render, as usual, Judæa.
t render, behold thy works. I omit.
render, doest. y render, manifest : see ch. i. 31; ii. 4; ii. 21; ix. 3; xvii. 6, &c., where the word is the same.
z render, even his brethren did not. zz render, Jesus therefore.
& read, the. b omitted by some ancient authorities. from them. I would understand this verse to have been a larger number of disciples, as merely carrying on the time from ch. v. in the wider sense, in Judæa, or to be and ch. vi.,- and its contents as intro gathered in Judæa by the feast, who yet ductory to the account of Jesus not going wanted assuring, by open display, of the up at first to the feast. Ch. vi. is in some reality of His wonderful works. In measure presupposed in our ver. 3, as ver. 5 (as well as by “thy disciples," ver. indicating that He had not constantly 3), we have these brethren absolutely exobserved the festal journeys of late.
cluded from the number of the Twelve (see 2.] See Deut. xvi. 13–17. Josephus callsch. vi. 69); and it is impossible to modify this the holiest and greatest feast. It be the meaning of the word “believe," so as gan on the 15th (evening of 14th) of Tisri to suppose that they may have been of the (Sept. 28), and lasted till the evening of Twelve, but not believers in the highest the 22nd (Oct. 6). 3–5.) Respecting sense. This verse also excludes all His the BRETHREN OF THE LORD, see note on brethren : it is inconceivable that John Matt. xiii, 55. They seem to have had should have so written, if any among them at this time a kind of belief in the Messia, believed at that time. The emphatic nic character of Jesus, but of the very expression, for even his brethren, &c., is a lowest sort, not excluding the harsh and strong corroboration of the view that they scoffing spirit visible in these words. They were really and literally brethren ;- see recognized his miracles, but despised bis also Ps. Ixix. 8. 6-9.] My time can apparent want of prudence and consistency hardly be taken as directly meaning the of purpose, in not shewing himself to the time of my sufferings and death,'-but as world. In the words that thy disciples also the same expression in ch. ï. 4: My time may see, &c., there is perhaps a reference to for the matter of which you speak, viz. the desertion of many of his disciples just be manifestation to the world. That (ch. xii. fore. Nay, more than this: the indication 32), was to take place in a very different furnished by this verse of the practice of manner. But they, having no definite end our Lord with regard to His miracles up to before them, no glory of God to shew forth, this point is very curious. He appears as but being of the world, always had their yet to have made His circuits in Galilee, opportunity ready of mingling with and and to bave wrought miracles there, in the standing well with the world. Then (ver. presence of but a small circle of disciples 7), 'you have no hatred of the world in properly so called : and there would seem your way: but its hatred to Me on account