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clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: 20 and there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, 21 and desiring to be fed with u the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table : moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. 22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom : the rich
a read, that which. below. 19.] Now connects this points of contrast to the rich man: his directly with what goes before; being an only food, the crumbs, with which he answer, not immediately to any thing longed to fill his belly, but could not :said by the Pharisees, but to their scoff's his only clothing, nakedness and sores, at Him ;-as if He had said, 'hear now a and instead of the boon companions of parable. a certain rich man.] the rich man, none to pity him but the Tertullian thought that Herod was meant, dogs, who licked - certainly in pity, not and by Lazarus John; and this view has increasing his pain, as Bengel thinks,been taken by others also : but surely with his sores, as they do their own. Such no probability. Our Lord might hint with was the state of the two in this world. stern rebuke at the present notorious
22.] The burial of Lazarus is not crime of Herod, but can harılly be thought mentioned," "on account of the neglect to have spoken thus of him. That the attending the burial of beggars," as Eucircumstances will in some measure apply thymius.
was carried by the to these two, is owing, as above in ch. xv., angels] In the whole of this description, to the parable taking the general case, the following canon of interpretation may of which theirs was a particular instance, be safely laid down :-Though it is unOthers have thought that the rich man natural to suppose that our Lord would sets forth the Jews and the poor man the in such a parable formally reveal any new Gentiles. In my view, the very name of truth respecting the state of the dead, the poor man (see below) is a sufficient yet, in conforming himself to the ordinary answer to this. Observe, that this language current on these subjects, it is rich man is not accused of any flagrant impossible to suppose that He, whose es. crimes :-he lives, as the world would say, sence is Truth, could have assumed as ex. as became his means and station ; he does isting any thing which does not exist. It not oppress nor spoil other men : he is would destroy the truth of our Lord's say. simply a son of this generation, in the ings, if we could conceive Him to have highest form.
purple and fine used popular language which did not linen, the Tyrian costly purple-and the point at truth. And accordingly, where fine linen (for under clothing) from Egypt. such language was current, we find Him
20.] The significant name Lazarus not adopting, but protesting against it: and Eleazarus, the same as Eleazar,-and see Matt. xv. 5. The bearing of the meaning, God is my help, should have spirits of the just into bliss by the holy prevented the expositors from imagining angels is only analogous to their other this to be a true history. Perhaps employments : see Matt. xii. 41: Heb, i. by this name our Lord may have intended 14. Abraham's bosom] The above to fill in the character of the poor man, remark does not apply here for this, as which indeed must otherwise be under a form of speech among the Jews, was stood to be that of one who feared God. not even by themselves understood in
He was, or had been-cast down, its strict literal sense; and though the i. e. was placed there on purpose to get purposes of the parable require this, ver. what he could of alms.
his gate, 23, no one would think of pressing it into see on Matt. xxvi. 69: it was the portal, a truth, but all would see in it the which led out of the vestibule into the graphic filling up of a state which in court. 21.] It would seem that he itself is strictly actual. The expression did obtain this wish, and that the word Abraham's bosom signified the happy side desiring, as would fain in ch. xv. 16, of Hadës, where all the Fathers were must mean that he looked for it, will. conceived as resting in bliss. No preingly took it.
The moreover eminence is signified as in John xii. 23; seems also to imply, that he got the --all the blessed are spoken of as in crumbs : this verse relating the two Abraham's bosom. See also John i. 18.
man also died, and was buried; 23 and in hell he lift up
v literally, Hadës. It is not the final place of torment.
The death of the rich man last when they left their bodies ? should be remarked; Lazarus was taken 25.] The answer is solemn, calm, and soon from his sufferings; Dives was left fatherly ;-there is no mocking, as is found longer, that he might have space to in the Koran under the same circumrepent. and was buried] There can stances; no grief, as is sometimes reprebe no doubt that the funeral is mentioned sented affecting the blessed spirits for the as being congruous to his station in life, lot of the lost. remember] Analogy --and, as Trench observes, 'in a sublime gives us every reason to suppose, that in irony,'-implying that he had all things the disembodied state the whole life on properly cared for; the purple and fine earth will lie before the soul in all its Iinen which he wore in life, not spared at thoughts, words, and deeds, like a map his obsequies. 23. in Hadës) Hadës, of the past journey before a traveller. in Hebrew Sheöl, is the abode of all dis. That which he was to remember is not embodied spirits till the resurrection; not, sufficiently expressed by receivedst,' A. V.: the place of torment,- much less hell, as it is analogous to the word in Matt. vi. understood commonly, in the A. V.
2, 5, 16,--and expresses the receipt in full, Lazarus was also in Hadës, but separate the exhaustion of all claim on. Those from Dives; one on the blissful, the other that were good things to thee, thy good on the baleful side. It is the gates of things came to an end in thy lifetime: Hadës, the imprisonment of death, which there are no more of them. What a shall not prevail against the Church (Matt. weighty, precious word is this thy: were it xvi. 18); - the Lord holds the key of not for it, De Wette and the like, who Hadës (Rev. i. 18):- Himself went into maintain that the only meaning of the the same Hadës, of which Paradise is a parable is, 'Woe to the rich, but blessed part. in torments-not eternal con- are the poor,' would have found in this demnation ;- for the judgment has not yet verse at least a specious defence for their taken place; men can only be judged in view. evil things-not, his evil the body, for the deeds done in the body: things,- for to him they were not so, -but, the certainty and anticipation of it. comforted: see ch. vi. 24. 26.] Even
he lift up his eyes, not necessarily if it were not so,--however, and for whatto a higher place, though that may be soever reason, God's decree hath placed meant. 24.] “The proud man of thee there,—thy wish is impossible. earth is the beggar in hell,” Augustine. a great gulf] In the interpretation,- the
On Father Abraham see Matt. iii. 9. irresistible decree-then truly so, but no
this filame, not subjective (i.e. con- such on earth- by which the Almighty fined to his own feeling) only, though Hand hath separated us and you, in order perhaps mainly. But where lies the limit that, not merely so that, none may pass it. between inner and outer to the disem. In the graphic description, a yawning bodied ? Hardened sinners have died cry chasm impassable. is fixed] for ever. ing Fire !'-Did the tire leave them. This expression precludes all idea that tho
a Matt. xviii.
6, 7. Mark
you ? cannot ; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. 27 Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house : 28 for I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. 29 zz Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. 30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham : but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.
31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the n John xii. 10, prophets, "neither will they be persuaded, though one rose
from the dead. a Matt. xville XVII. 1 a Then said he unto the disciples, a It is im1. 12. 1 Cor. possible but that offences will come : but woe unto him,
through whom they come! 2 It were better for him that
a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into 2 render, may not be able : and that they may not. z2 read, But Abraham.
å render, And he said. following verse indicates the beginning of have rejected Him, had He done so;a better mind in the rich man.
the fact merely is here supposed, and that 27.] This is the believing and trembling in the very phrase which so often belongs of James i. 19. His eyes are now opened to His own resurrection. They were not to the truth; and no wonder that his persuaded-did not believe, though One natural sympathies are awakened for his rose from the dead. To deny altogether brethren. That a lost spirit should this allusion, is to rest contented with feel and express such sympathy, is not to merely the surface of the parable. be wondered at; the misery of such will Observe, Abraham does not say, 'they will be very much heightened by the awakened not repent'-but, they will not believe, be and active state of those higher faculties persuaded:' which is another and a deeper and feelings which selfishness and the thing. Luther does not seem to con·body kept down here. 29.] “ Faith clude rightly, that this disproves the posis by hearing, and hearing by the word of sibility of appearances of the dead. It Christ,” Rom. x. 17. “We are saved by only says, that such appearances will not faithful hearing, not by apparitions.” Ben- bring about faith in the human soul : but gel. This verse furnishes a weighty tes that they may not serve other ends in timony from our Lord Himself of the suf. God's dealings with men, it does not ficiency then of the 0. T. Scriptures for assert. There is no gulf between the the salvation of the Jews. It is not so now. earth and Hadës : and the very form of
30, 31.) Nay-not, they will not Abraham's answer, setting forth no imposhear them :' he could not tell that, and sibility in this second case, as in the besides, it would have taken away much of former, would seem to imply its possi. the ground of the answer of Abraham :- bility, if requisite. We can hardly pass the word deprecates leaving their salvation over the identity of the name LAZARUS in such uncertainty, as the chance of their with that of him who actually was rehearing Moses and the prophets seems to called from the dead, but whose return, him to imply.-- Leave it not so, when it far from persuading the Pharisees, was might be at once and for ever done by send the immediate exciting cause of their ing them one from the dead. Abra- crowning act of unbelief. ham's answer, besides opening to us a Chap. XVII. 1-10.] FURTHER DIS. depth in the human heart, has a plain courses. The discourse appears to proapplication to the Pharisees, to whom the ceed onward from the foregoing. parable was spoken. They would not hear 1.] The words were perhaps spoken owing Moses and the Prophets :-Christ rose from to some offence which had happened ;-the the dead, but He did not go to them ; departure of the Pharisees in disgust, or this verse is not so worded, they would some point in their conduct; such as the
20: xxi. 21. Mark ix. 28 : xi. 23.
the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones. 3 Take heed to yourselves : If thy brother b trespass b Matt. xviii. [c aguinst thee], rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive c Lev. xix. 17. him. 4 And if he b trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times [d in a day] turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him. 5 And the apostles said unto the Lord, e Increase our faith. d And a Matt. xvii. the Lord said, If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed, Mark. ye might say unto this f sycamine tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you. 7 But which of you, having a servant plowing or feeding cattle, will say unto him 8 by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat ? 8 And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, e and serve me, till I have eaten och. xii. 87. and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink? 9 Doth he thank h that servant because he did the things b render, sin.
Comit, with nearly all the oldest authorities,
e better, because literally, Add unto us faith. f render, mulberry. & see note.
h read, the. previous chapter alluded to. 2.] See tree is not very common in Palestine, but Matt. xviii. 6, 7, and notes. these still found there. It must not be conlittle ones] Perhaps the publicans and founded with the sycomore, ch. xix. 4, sinners of ch. xv. 1; perhaps also, re- which is the Egyptian fig. See note there. peated with reference to what took place, 7-10.] The connexion is,-Ye are Matt. 1. c.
3, 4.] See on Matt. servants of your Master; and therefore xviii. 15, 21, 22. The take heed to endurance is required of you,-faith and yourselves here is to warn them not to be trust to endure out your day's work be. too readily dismayed at offences, nor to fore you enter into your rest. Your meet them in a brother with an unfor Master will enter into His, but your time giving spirit. rebuke him] “Love will not yet come; and all the service begins with speaking truth,” Stier :—who which you can meanwhile do Him, is but remarks, that in the Church, as in the that which is your bounden duty to do,world, the love of many waxing cold, seeing that your body, soul, and spirit are not being strong or warm enough for this His. 7.] by and by (literally, immerebuke,- is the cause why offences abound. diately) in the A. V. is wrongly joined
5.7 Increase our faith,' of the with will say unto him: it corresponds to A. V., is not exact : Add unto us, i.e. give “afterward” in ver. 8, and must be joined us more faith, is more literal and simpler. with go and sit down. 8.) till I
This is the only example in the Gospels have eaten and drunken: see ch. xii. 37, in which the Apostles are marked out as where a different assurance seems to be requesting or saying any thing to the Lord. given. But our Lord is here speaking of They are amazed at the greatness of the what we in our state of service are to faith which is to overcome offences and for- expect; there, of what, in our state of give sins as in vv.3, 4:--and pray that more freedom, reward, and adoption, the won. faith may be added to them. 6.] Seeders of His grace will confer on us. Here on Matt. (xvii. 20) xxi. 21. On this occasion the question is of right : there, of favour. some particular tree of the sort was close 9.] Our Lord is not laying down at hand, and furnished the instance, just rules for the behaviour of an earthly as the Mount of Transfiguration in the master to his servants,—but (see above) former of those passages, and the Mount is speaking of the rightful state of relation of Olives in the latter. The mulberry between us, and Him whose we are, and
Philem. 11. & Luke ix. 51
59. John iv.
that were commanded him ? [i I trow not.] 10 So likewise
ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are 1 Job XXI1.3: commanded you, say, We are 'unprofitable servants : we Mitsis so, have done that which was our duty to do.
1: 11 And it came to pass, 8 as he went to Jerusalem, that 6 Luke ihn he i passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.
12 And as he k entered into a certain village, there met him h Lev. xiii. 40. ten men that were lepers, h which stood afar off : 13 and
they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have
mercy on us. 14 And when he saw them, he said unto Lev. xii, it them, 'Go shew yourselves unto the priests. And it came
to pass, that, as they went, they were cleansed. 15 And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, 1 and with a loud voice glorified God, 16 and fell down on his face at his feet, giving him thanks : and he was a
Samaritan. 17 And Jesus answering said, m Were there not i omitted by several ancient authorities. j render, was passing. k render, was entering. I render, glorifying God with a loud voice. m render, Were not the ten cleansed ?
Lev. xiii. 2: ziv. 2. Matt. viii. 4. ch. v.
whom we serve, 10.7 This shews the tween Samaria and Galilee,' on the fronsense of the parable, as applying to our tiers of both. This seems to be parallel own thoughts of ourselves, and the im- with Matt. xix. 1. The journey mentioned possibility of any claim for our services to there would lead Him between Samaria God. In Rom. vi, 23 (see also the and Galilee. 12.] afar off: see Levit. foregoing verses) we have the true ground xiïi. 46: Num. y. 2. Their misery had on which we look for eternal life set broken down the national distinction, and before us :-yiz. as the gift of God whose united them in one company. On the servants we are not the wages, as in the nature of leprosy and its significance, see case of sin, whose we are not. In the case on Matt. viii. 2. 14.] One of our of men this is different; a good servant is Lord's first miracles had been the healing “profitable” (Philem. 11), not useless. of a leper; then He touched him and said, See Acts xvii. 25. The case supposed •Be thou clean :' now He sinks as it were introduces an argument à fortiori, i. e. the healing, and keeps it in the back. from the stronger to the weaker : "how ground ;- and why so ? There may have much more, when ye have failed in so been reasons unknown to us; but one we many respects.' Wretched is he, whom can plainly see, and that is, to bring out the Lord calls an unprofitable servant: for the Church the lesson which the his. happy, he who calls himself so.' Bengel. tory yields. In their going away, in the
Thus closes the series of discourses absence of Jesus, they are healed : what which began with ch. xv. 1.
need to go back and give him thanks ? 11 -19.] HEALING OF TEN LEPERS. It Here was a trial of their love : faith they does not appear to what part of the last had, enough to go, and enough to be journey this is to be referred. There is no cleansed : but love (with the one excepreason for supposing it to have been sub- tion)-gratitude, they had not. sequent to what has just been related :- shew yourselves] See note on Matt. viii. 4. this is not implied. It may have been at
as they went] The meaning evi. the very beginning of the journey. From den ly is, that they had not gone far, and the circumstance that these lepers were a that the whole took place within a short mixed company of Jews and Samaritans, time. They had not been to the priests, the words rendered through the midst of as some suppose. 15.] The words here Samaria and Galilee, probably mean be- set before us something immediate, and,