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sure as ye can. 66 So they went, and made the sepulchre 1 Dan. vi. 17. sure, 'sealing the stone, k and setting a watch.
XXVIII. 1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to
dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Maga ch. xvii. 56. dalene a and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. 2 And,
behold, there was a great earthquake : for 1 the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled
render, besides [posting] the guard. I render, an angel. Gospel was compiled, all à priori argu- dence, which now rests (speaking merely ments of this kind are good for nothing. objectively) on the unexceptionable testi
65.] Ye have—the verb rendered mony of three independent narrators, and may be either 1), indicative, Ye have:- of one, who besides was an eye-witness but then the question arises, What guard of much that happened. If we are to had they ? and if they had one, why go compare the four, and ask which is to be to Pilate ? Perhaps we must understand taken as most nearly reporting the exact some detachment placed at their disposal words and incidents, on this there can I during the feast—but there does not seem think be no doubt. On internal as well to be any record of such a practice. That as external ground, that of St. John takes the guards were under the Sanhedrim is the highest place : but not, of course, to plain from ch. xxviii. 11, where they make the exclusion of those parts of the narratheir report, not to Pilate, but to the tive which he does not touch. The chief priests :-or 2), imperative; which improbability that the Evangelists had doubtless it may be; see 2 Tim. i. 13 seen one another's accounts, becomes, in and note; and the sense here on that this part of their Gospels, an impossibility. hypothesis would be, Take a body of Here and there we discern traces of a men for a guard. And to this latter common narration as the ground of their I rather incline : see the note in my reports, as e. g. Matt. vv. 5–8: Mark vv. Greek Test. as yo can] literally 5-8, but even these are very few. as you know how :-in the best manner As I have abandoned all idea of haryou can. There is no irony in the words, monizing throughout, I will beg the stuas bas been supposed. The sealing was dent to compare carefully the notes on by means of a cord or string passing the other Gospels. 1. In the end of the across the stone at the mouth of the sabbath] There is some little difficulty sepulchre, and fastened at either end to here, because the end of the sabbath (and the rock by sealing-clay.
of the week) was at sunset the night beCHAP. XXVIII.1–10.] JESUS, HAVING fore. It is hardly to be supposed that RISEN FROM THE DEAD, APPEARS TO THE St. Matthew means the evening of the WOMEN. Mark xvi. 148. Luke xxiv. sabbath, though “dawn” is used of the 1-12. John xx. 1–10. The independ- day beginning at sunset (Luke xxiii. 54, ence and distinctness of the four narra. and note). It is best to interpret a doubttives in this part have never been ques. ful expression in unison with the other tioned, and indeed herein lie its principal testimonies, and to suppose that here difficulties. With regard to them, I refer both the day and the breaking of the day to what I have said in the Introduction, are taken in their natural, not their Jewish that supposing us to be acquainted with sense. Mary Magdalene and the other every thing said and done in its order Mary) In Mark, Salome also. St. John and exactness, we should doubtless be speaks of Mary Magdalene alone. See able to reconcile, or account for, the pre. notes there. to see the sepulchre] It sent forms of the narratives; but not was to anoint the Body, for which purhaving this key to the harmonizing of poses they had bought, since the end of them, all attempts to do so in minute par- the Sabbath, ointments and spices, Mark. ticulars must be full of arbitrary assump
In Mark it is after the rising of the tions, and carry no certainty with them. sun; in John, while yet dark; in Luke, And I may remark, that of all harmonies, at dim dawn; the two last agree with our those of the incidents of these chapters text. 2.] This must not be taken as are to me the most unsatisfactory. Giving pluperfect, “there had been, fc.,” which their compilers all credit for the best in would be altogether inconsistent with the tentions, I confess they seem to me to text. The words here must mean that weaken instead of strengthening the evi- the women were witnesses of the earth
c chị xii. 40:
xvi. 21 : xvii. 23: xx. 19.
back the stone [m from the door], and sat upon it. 3 1 His b Dan. x. 6. o countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow : 4 and for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men. 5 And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus which was crucified. 6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord Chirdi: "0bit. lay. 7 And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, d he goeth before you d ch. sxvi. 32. into Galilee ; there shall ye see him : lo, I have told you. 8 And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. 9 And [° as they went to tell his disciples,] behold, Jesus
m omitted by many ancient authorities. n render, appearance.
o omitted in most of the oldest and best authorities. quake, and that which happened. It cords only this one appearance to the was not properly an earthquake, but was Apostles, and in Galilee. It appears the sudden opening of the tomb by the strange that this should be the entire descending Angel, as the for shews. The testimony of St. Matthew: for it seems rolling away was not done naturally, but hardly likely that he would omit those by a shock. It must not be supposed important appearances in Jerusalem when that the Resurrection of our Lord took the Apostles were assembled, John xx. place at this time, as sometimes imagined, 19, 26, or that one which was closed by and represented in paintings. It had the Ascension. But perhaps it may be in taken place before ;—“ He is risen, fc.," accord with his evident design of giving are the words of the Angel. It was not the general form and summary of each for Him, to whom (see John xx. 19–26) series of events, rather than their characthe stone was no hindrance, but for the teristic details. See below on ver. 20. women and His disciples, that it was
The goeth before here is not to be rolled a way. 3.) His appearance; understood as implying the journeying on not in shape (as some would explain it the part of our Lord Himself. It is cited away), but in brightness.
5.) In from His own words, ch. xxvi. 32, and Mark, a young man in a white robe was there, as here, merely implies that He sitting in the tomb on the right hand : would be there when they arrived. It has in Luke, two men in shining raiment a reference to the collecting of the flock (see Acts i. 10) appeared to them. . St. which had been scattered by the smiting John relates, that Mary Magdalene looked of the Shepherd ; see John x. 4. into the tomb and saw (but this must there shall ye see him is determined, by have been afterwards) two angels in white “there shall they see me," below, to be sitting one at the head, the other at the part of the message to the disciples : not feet where the Body had lain. All at. spoken to the women directly, but certempts to deny the angelic appearances, tainly indirectly including them. The idea or ascribe them to later tradition, are dis- of their being merely messengers to the honest and absurd. That related in John Apostles, without bearing any share in the is as definite as either of the others, and promise, is against the spirit of the conhe certainly had it from Mary Magdalene text: see further in note on ver. 17. herself. ye is emphatic, addressed lo, I have told you is to give solemnity to to the women.
6.] as he said is the command. These words are peculiar further expanded in Luke, vv. 6, 7. Sce to Matthew, and are a mark of accuracy. ch. xvi. 21; xvii. 23.
8.] “With fear, because of the prodi(only found this once in Matt. as an appel. gies; with joy, for the promises,” Euthym. lation of Jesus) is emphatic ;-'a glorious 9.] Neither St. Mark nor St. Luke recounts, appellation,' Bengel.
7.] This ap or seems to have been aware of, this appearance in Galilee had been foretold pearance. St. Mark even says “they said before his death, see ch. xxvi. 32. It nothing to any man : for they were afraid.” is to be observed that St. Matthew re. But (see above) it does not therefore follow
e Rom. viii. 29
Heb. ii. 11.
met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held
him by the feet, and worshipped him. 10 Then said Jesus e Rom. viii, 20 unto thein, Be not afraid : go tell my brethren that they
go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.
11 Now when they were going, behold, some of the P watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. 12 And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers, 13 saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. 14 And if this I come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and r secure you. • 15 So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.
16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into P render, guard. a render, be heard before the governor.
I render, bear you harmless. that the narratives are inconsistent. St. of the narrative rather imply that it was Mark's account (see note there) is evidently a secret compact between those (the mabroken off suddenly; and St. Luke's (see jority) who were bitterly hostile to Jesus ? also note there) appears to have been de. The circumstance that Joseph had taken rived from one of those who went to no part in their counsel before, leads us to Emmaus, who had evidently but an imper. think that others may have withdrawn fect knowledge of what happened before themselves from the meeting, e. g., Gamathey left the city. This being taken into liel, who could hardly have consented to account, we may fairly require that the such a measure as this. 14.] not, as judgment should be suspended in lack of in A. V., come to the ears of the further means of solving the difficulty. governor,' but be borne witness of before
held him by the feet, partly in fear the governor, come before him officially : and as suppliants, for the Lord says, “fear i. e., if a stir be made, and you be in not,”—but shewing also the joy with which trouble about it. persuade, viz., that fear was mixed (ver. 8),-joy at having by a bribe of money, which, “knowing the recovered Hiin whom they loved. 10.7 covetous character of the man, they were my brethren; so also to Mary Magdalene, confidently able to promise.” Trench, on John xx. 17. The repetition of this the A. V., p. 72. 15.] Justin Martyr injunction by the Lord has been thought says that the Jews sent men far and wide to indicate that this is a portion of another to disseminate this report. narrative inwoven here, and may possibly 16-20.] APPEARANCE OF THE LORD belong to the same incident as that in ver. ON A MOUNTAIN IN GALILEF. This was 7. But all probability is against this : the after the termination of the feast, allowing passages are distinctly consecutive, and two first days of the week, on which the moreover both are in the well-known style Lord appeared to the assembled Apostles of St. Matthew (e. g., “behold” in both). (John xx. 19, 26), to elapse. It illustrates There is perhaps more probability that this the fragmentary nature of the materials out may be the same appearance as that in of which our narrative is built, that the John xx. 11-18, on account of “touch me appointment of this mountain as a place of not,” there, and “my brethren,”—but in assembly for the eleven has not been men. our present imperfect state of information, tioned, although the text seems to imply this must remain a mere probability. that it has. Stier well remarks (Reden
11-15.] THE JEWISH AUTHORITIES Jesu, vii. 209) that in this verse St. BRIBE THE GUARDS TO GIVE A FALSE Matthew gives a hint of some interviews ACCOUNT OF THE RESURRECTION. Pecu. having taken place previously to this in liar to Matthew. This was a meeting Galilee. And it is important to bear of the Sanhedrim, but surely hardly an this in mind, as suggesting, if not the official and open one; does not the form solution, at least the ground of solution,
ver. 7. g Dan. vii. 13
14, cha xỉ. 27: xvi. 28. Luke
sa mountain 'where Jesus had appointed them. 17 And Sch. 1xvi. 32. when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some 8 March doubted. 18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, 132 & All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. v*: 111.8: 19 Go ye [t therefore], and h a teach all v nations, baptizing Rom. xiv.o.
Eph. i. 10, 21. Phil. ii. 0,10. Heb. i. 2: ii. 8. 1 Pet. iii. 22. Rev. xvii. 14. h Isa. li, 10. Acts il. 38,
John iii. 35:
xvii. 2. Acts ii. 36.
1 Cor. xv. 27.
30. Rom. x, 18. Col. i. 23.
S render, the.
t omitted by many ancient authorities.
render, the nations.
of the difficulties of this passage. Ver. through the Spirit, which is the founda17 seems to present an instance of this tion of the Church of Christ in all the fragmentary narrative. The impression world. And when we baptize into the given by it is that the majority of the Name (i. e. into the fulness of the conseeleven worshipped Him, but some doubted quence of the objective covenant, and the (not, whether they should worship Him; subjective confession) of Father, Son, and which is absurd, and not implied in the Holy Ghost, it is this which forms the word). This however would hardly be ground and cause of our power to do sopossible, after the two appearances at that this flesh of man, of which God hath Jerusalem in John xx. We are therefore made all the nations, is glorified in the obliged to conclude that others were present. Person of our Redeemer, through whom Whether these others were the “500 bre. we all have access by one Spirit to the thren at once’of whom St.Paul speaks 1 Cor. Father. Go.... and make discixv. 6, or some other disciples, does not ap. ples] Demonstrably, this was not under. pear. Olshausen and Stier suppose, froin stood as spoken to the Apostles only, but the previous announcement of this meeting, to all the brethren. Thus we read (Acts and the repetition of that announcement by viii. 2, 4), “they were all scattered the angel, and by our Lord, that it probably abroad .... except the Apostles :--they included all the disciples of Jesus; at least, that were scattered abroad went every all who would from the nature of the case where preaching the word.” There is be brought together.
18. came] peculiar meaning in make disciples of, They appear to have first seen Him at a All power is given me-go therefore distance, probably on the top of the moun- and ... subdue ? Not so: the purpose tain. This whole introduction forbids us of the Lord is to bring men to the knowto suppose that the following words are ledge of the truth--to work on and in their a mere compendium of what was said on hearts, and lift them up to be partakers of various occasions. Like the opening of the Divine Nature. And therefore it is not ch. v., it carries with it a direct asser- 'subdue,' but make disciples of (see below). tion that what follows, was spoken then,
all the nations again is closely conand there.
All power is given, nected with “all power in earth.” all &c.] The words are a reference to the the nations including the Jews. It is abprophecy in Daniel, which compare. surd to imagine that in these words of the Given, by the Father, in the fulfilment Lord there is implied a rejection of the of the Eternal Covenant, in the Unity of Jews, in direct variance with his cominands the Holy Spirit. Now first is this cove- elsewhere, and also with the world-wide nant, in its fulness, proclaimed upon earth. signification of “ in earth,” above. BeThe Resurrection was its last seal: the sides, the (temporary) rejection of the Jews Ascension was the taking possession of consists in this, that they are numbered the Inheritance. But the Inheritance is among all the nations, and not a peculiar already won; and the Heir is only remain: people any longer : and are become, in the ing on earth for a temporary purpose-the providence of God, the subjects of that assuring His joint-heirs of the verity of His preaching, of which by original title they possession. All power in heaven and ought to have been the promulgators. We earth: see Eph. i. 20--23; Col. ii. 10; find the first preachers of the gospel, so far Heb. i. 6; Rom. xiv. 9; Phil. ii. 9-11; from excepting the Jews, uniformly bear1 Pet. iii. 22. 19.) therefore is not ing their testimony to them first. With found, or found in varying forms, in many regard to the difficulty which has been of the ancient authorities. It is probably raised on these words, that if they had a gloss, but an excellent one. It is the been thus spoken by the Lord, the Aposglorification of the Son by the Father tles would never have had any doubt about
them w in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with
you > alway, even unto the end of the world. [y Amen.]
W render, into. 8 render, all the days. y omit. the admission of the Gentiles into the “ In” should have been into, (as in Gal. ii. Church,- I would answer that the Apostles 27 al.,) both here and in 1 Cor. x. 2, and never had any doubt whatever about wherever the expression is used. It imadmitting Gentiles,- only whether they ports, not only a subjective recognition should not be circumcised first. In this hereafter by the child of the truth implied command, the prohibition of ch. x. 5 is for in the Name, &c., but an objective admisever removed. baptizing them Both sion into the covenant of Redemption-a these present participles are the conditions putting on of Christ. Baptism is the of the imperative preceding. The making contract of espousal (Eph. v. 26) between disciples consists of two parts—the initia. Christ and His Church. Our word 'in' tory, admissory rite, and the subsequent being retained both here and in our teaching. It is much to be regretted that formula of Baptism, it should always be the inadequate rendering, teach,' has in remembered that the Sacramental declaour Bibles clouded the meaning of these ration is contained in this word; that important words. It will be observed that it answers (as Stier has well observed, vii. in our Lord's words, as in the Church, the 268) to the “ This is my Body,” in the process of ordinary discipleship is from other Sacrament. On the difference be. baptism to instruction-i. e. is, admission tween the baptism of John and Christian in infancy to the covenant, and growing up baptism, see notes on ch. iii. 11: Acts into observing all things commanded by xviii. 25; xix. 1-5.
20.] Even in Christ-the exception being, what circum the case of the adult, this teaching must, stances rendered so frequent in the early in greater part, follow his baptism; church, instruction before baptism in the though as we have seen (on ver. 19), in case of adults. On this we may also his exceptional case, some of it must go remark, that baptism, as known to the before. For this teaching is nothing less Jews, included, just as it does in the Acts than the building up of the whole man (ch. xvi. 15, 33), whole households – wives into the obedience of Christ. In these and children. As regards the com- words, inasmuch as the then living dismand itself, no unprejudiced reader can ciples could not teach all nations, does doubt that it regards the outward rite of the Lord found the office of Preachers in BAPTISM, so well known in this gospel as His Church, with all that belongs to it,having been practised by John, and re- the duties of the minister, the schoolceived by the Lord Himself. And thus it teacher, the scripture reader. This “teachwas immediately, and has been ever since, ing’ is not merely the preaching of the understood by the Church. As regards all gospel—not mere proclamation of the good attempts to explain away this sense, we news-but the whole catechetical office of may say—even setting aside the testimony the Church upon and in the baptized. furnished by the Acts of the Apostles,
and, lo, ....] These words imply that it is in the highest degree improbable and set forth the Ascension, the manner that our Lord should have given, at a time of which is not related by our Evangelist. when He was summing up the duties of
I, in the fullest sense: not the His Church in such weighty words, a com- Divine presence, as distinguished from the mand couched in figurative or ambiguous Humanity of Christ. Šis Humanity is language-one which He must have known with us likewise. The vine lives in the would be interpreted by His disciples, now branches. Stier remarks the contrast belong accustomed to the rite and its name, tween this I am with you,' and the view otherwise than He intended it. into of Nicodemus (John üi. 2) ‘no man can do the name ...] Reference is apparently these miracles-except God be with him.' made to the Baptism of the Lord himself, with you] mainly, by the promise where the whole Three Persons of the God. of the Father (Luke xxiv. 49) which He head were in manifestation. Not the has poured out on his Church. But the names, but the name-setting forth the presence of the Spirit is the effect of the Unity of the Godhead. into] It is presence of Christ- and the presence of unfortunate again here that our English Christ is part of the gift of all power Bibles do not give us the force of this word, above-the effect of the well-pleasing of