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John vi. 9.

ration seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of [o the prophet] Jonas. And he left them, and departed. 5 And when his disciples were come to the other side, they P had forgotten to take bread.

6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. 7 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have taken no bread. 8 Which when Jesus perceived, he said [9 unto them], O ye of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread ? 9b Do ye bch. xiv. 17. not yet understand, neither remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took up? 10 ¢ Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how och. xv. 34. many baskets ye took up ? 11 How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you r concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? 12 Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. 13 When Jesus came into the 8 coasts of Cæsarea Philippi, o omitted in the oldest MSS.

P render, forgot. q omit.

r read, concerning bread? But beware . .. S render, parts : see ch. xv. 21. Daniel were just at their end; yet they sects. In Mark we read, “ and the discerned none of these things.

leaven of Herod.The Herodians were 4.] See note on ch. xii. 39.

more a political than a religious sect, the 5-12. WARNING AGAINST THE LEA: dependants and supporters of the dynasty VEN OF THE PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES. of Herod, for the most part Sadducees in Mark viii. 13—21. 5.] This cross- religious sentiment. These, though diing of the lake was not the voyage to rectly opposed to the Pharisees, were yet Magadan mentioned in ch. xv. 39, for united with them in their persecution of after the dialogue with the Pharisees, our Lord, see ch. xxii. 16 : Mark iii. 6. Mark adds (viii. 13), “entering into the And their leaven was the same,-hypo. ship again he departed to the other side.crisy,-- however it inight be disguised by

they forgot to take bread; viz. external difference of sentiment. They on their land journey further. This is were all unbelievers at heart. also to be understood in Mark (viii. 14), 8—12.] Not only had they forgotten who states their having only one loaf in these miracles, but the weighty lesson the ship, not to shew that they had for- given them in ch. xv. 16-20. The regotten to take bread before starting, but proof is much fuller in Mark, where see as a reason why they should have provided note. On the two sorts of baskets some on landing. 6. the leaven] See (cophini on the former occasion, spyrides beginning of note on ch. xiii. 33. It is on the latter), see note, ch. xv. 36. from the penetrating and diffusive power This voyage brought them to Bethsaida : of leaven that the comparison, whether i. e. Bethsaïda Julias, on the Northfor good or bad, is derived. In Luke Eastern side of the lake, see Mark viii. 22, xii. 1, where the warning is given on a and the miracle there related. wholly different occasion, the leaven is 13-20.] CONFESSION OF PETER. Mark explained to mean, hypocrisy; which is of viii. 27-30. Luke ix. 18—21. Here all evil things the most penetrating and St. Luke rejoins the narrative common to diffusive, and is the charge which our Lord the three Evangelists, having left it at most frequently brings against the Jewish ch. xiv. 22. We here begin the second

d ch. xiv.2.

he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am ? 14 And they said, a Some [t say that thou art] John the Baptist : some, Elias; and others, Je

remias, or one of the prophets. 15 He saith unto them, But Stonni.whom say ye that I am ? 16 And Simon Peter answered 1:2, 1 John and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.

ech. xiv. 33.

John vi. 69: xi. 27. Heb. i.2, 5. 1 John iv. 15: v.5.

t not expressed in the original.

great division of our Saviour's ministry on ship in the root of our human nature, and earth, introductory to His sufferings and which even then was taken by the Jews death. Up to this time we have had no as = the Son of God, (see Luke xxii. 69, distinct intimation, like that in ver. 21, of 70,) which would serve as a test of the these events. This intimation is brought faith of the disciples, according to their in by the solemn question and confession understanding of it. ' 14.] It is no now before us. And as the former period contradiction to this verdict that some of His ministry was begun by a declaration called him the Son of David (ch. ix. 27; from the Father of His Sonship, so this xii. 23 ; xv. 22); for either these were or also, on the Mount of Transfiguration. were about to become His disciples, or are

13. Cæsarea Philippi] A town in quoted as examples of rare faith, or as in Gaulonitis at the foot of Mount Libanus, ch. xii. 23, it was the passing doubt on not far from the source of the Jordan, a the minds of the multitude, not their day's journey from Sidon, once called settled opinion. The same may be said of Laish (Judg. xviii. 7, 29) and afterwards John vii. 26, 31; iv. 42. On our Lord's Dan (ibid.), but in later times Paneas, or being taken for John the Baptist, see ch. Panias, from the mountain Panium, under xiv. 2, from which this would appear to be which it lay. The tetrarch Philip enlarged the opinion of the Herodians. one of it and gave it the name of Cæsarea. In the prophets] that one of the old proafter times King Agrippa further enlarged phets is risen again,Luke ix. 19. It was it and called it Neronias in honour of the not a metempsychosis, but a bodily resurrecEmperor Nero. This must not be con- tion which was believed. On Elias, see note founded with the Cæsarea of the Acts, at ch. xi. 14. Jeremiah is mentioned first as which was Cæsarea Stratonis, on the Medi. being accounted by the Jews first in the proterranean. See Acts x. 1, and note. The phetic canon. The confession is not made following enquiry took place by the way, in the terms of the other answer : it is not Mark viii. 27. St. Luke gives it without we say' or •I say,' but Thou art. It is note of place, but states it to have been the expression of an inward conviction asked on the disciples joining our Lord, wrought by God's Spirit. The excellence who was praying alone, Luke ix. 18.

of this confession is, that it brings out The reading of the last words of the verse both the human and the divine nature of is somewhat uncertain. Some of the the Lord: the Christ is the Messiah, the oldest authorities have, Who do men say Son of David, the anointed King: the Son that the son of Man is? Some would of the living God is the Eternal Son, render as if our Lord had said, 'Who say begotten of the Eternal Father, not · Son men that I am ? the Son of Man?' i.e. the of God' in any inferior figurative sense, Messiah? but this is inadmissible, for the not one of the sons of God, of angelic answer would not then have been expressed nature, but THE SON OF THE LIVING ås it is, but affirmatively or negatively. God, having in Him the Sonship and Equally inadmissible is Olshausen's render the divine nature in a sense in which ing, Me, who am, as ye are aware, the they could be in none else. This was a Son of Man ?' an expression, Olshausen view of the Person of Christ quite distinct says, by which the disciples would be led from the Jewish Messianic idea, which to the idea of the Son of God. But appears to have been that he should then this would destroy the simplicity of be a man born from men, but selected by the following question, But who say ye God for the office on account of his emithat I am ? because it would put into nent virtues. This distinction accounts their mouths the answer intended to be for the solemn blessing pronounced in the given. The A. V. has beyond doubt the next verse. 16.] The word living must right rendering of this reading : and the not for a moment be taken here as it some. Son of Man is a pregnant expression, times is used, (e. g. Acts xiv. 15,) as merely which we now know to imply the Messiah. distinguishing the true God from dead

17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona : for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but 'my Father which is in heaven. Johnson 18 And I say also unto thee, That s thou art Peter, and 17 PS upon this rock I will build my church; and “ the gates of isa szxviii.

(1 Cor. ii. 10.

Gal. i. 16. g John i. 42. h Job xxxviii.

17. Ps. ix. 13; cvii. 18.


idols: it is here emphatic, and imparts See 1 Pet. ii. 4–6: 1 Tim. ii. 15 (where force and precision to Son.

That the pillar is not Timotheus, but the conPeter when he uttered the words, under gregation of the faithful) and note : Gal. stood by them in detail all that we now ii. 9: Eph. ii. 20: Rev. iii. 12. And it is understand, is not of course asserted : on Peter, as by divine revelation making but that they were his testimony to the this confession, as thus under the influence true Humanity and true Divinity of the of the Holy Ghost, as standing out before Lord, in that sense of deep truth and re- the Apostles in the strength of this faith, liance, out of which springs the Christian as himself founded on the one foundation, life of the Church. 17.] Blessed art Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. iii. 11-that the thou, as in ch. v. 4, &c., is a solemn ex Jewish portion of the Church was built, pression of blessing, an inclusion of him to Acts ii.-v., and the Gentile, Acts x., xi. whom it is addressed in the kingdom of After this last event, we hear little of him; heaven, not a mere word of praise. And but during this, the first building time, he the reason of it is, the fact that the Father is never lost sight of: see especially Acts i. had revealed the Son to him (see ch. xi. 15; ii. 14, 37; ii. 12; iv. 8; v. 15, 29; 25—27); cf. Gal. i. 15, 16, in which passage ix. 34, 40; x. 25, 26. We may certainly the occurrence of the word “revealseems exclaim with Bengel, “ All this may be to indicate a reference to this very saying said with safety; for what has this to do of the Lord. The whole declaration of St. with Rome?Nothing can be further Paul in that chapter forms a remarkable from any legitimate interpretation of this parallel to the character and promise given promise, than the idea of a perpetual pri. to St. Peter in our text, -as establishing macy in the successors of Peter; the very Paul's claim to be another such rock or notion of succession is precluded by the pillar as Peter and the other great Apos- form of the comparison, which concerns tles, because the Son had been revealed in the person, and him only, so far as it inhim not of man nor by men, but by God volves a direct promise. In its other and Himself. The name Simon Bar-jona is general sense, as applying to all those doubtless used as indicating his fleshly living stones (Peter's own expression for state and extraction, and forming the members of Christ's Church) of whom the greater contrast to his spiritual state, Church should be built, it implies, as name, and blessing, which follow. The Origen excellently comments on it, saysame . Simon son of Jonas' is uttered when ing, that all this must be understood as he is reminded, by the thrice repeated en said not only to Peter, as in the letter of quiry, ‘Lovest thou me?' of his frailty, in the Gospel, but to every one who is such his previous denial of bis Lord. 18.] as Peter here shewed himself, as the spirit The name Peter (not now first given, but of the Gospel teaches us. The application prophetically bestowed by our Lord on His of the promise to St. Peter has been elabofirst interview with Simon, John i. 43) or rately impugned by Dr. Wordsworth. His Cephas, signifying a rock, the termination Zeal to appropriate the rock to Christ being only. altered from Petra to Petros has somewhat overshot itself. In arguing to suit the masculine appellation, denotes that the term can apply to none but God, the personal position of this Apostle in he will find it difficult surely to deny all the building of the Church of Christ. He reference to a rock in the name Peter. was the first of those foundation-stones To me, it is equally difficult, nay im(Rev. xxi. 14) on wbich the living temple possible, to deny all reference, in “upon of God was built : this building itself be this rock," to the preceding word Peter. ginning on the day of Pentecost by the Let us keep to the plain straightforward laying of three thousand living stones on sense of Scripture, however that sense this very foundation. That this is the may have been misused by Rome. simple and only interpretation of the words church] This word occurs but in one of our Lord, the whole usage of the New place besides in the Gospels, ch. xviii. 17, Testament shews : in which not doctrines and there in the same sense as here, viz. nor confessions, but men, are uniformly the the congregation of the faithful: only pillars and stones of the spiritual building. there it is one portion of that congrega

John xx. 23.

ich will. 18. hell shall not prevail against it. 19 [a i And] I will give unto

thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and

whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in k ch. xvii. 9. heaven. 20 * Then charged he his disciples that they should

tell no man that he was [V Jesus] the Christ. 21 From that Ich xx. 17. time forth began Jesus to 'shew unto his disciples, how that

he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be u omitted by our oldest MSS.

vomit. tion, here the whole. The gates of something bound and something loosed, hell (Hades), by a well-known Oriental and not merely the power of the keys just form of speech, is equivalent to the power conferred. The meaning in John xx. 23, of the kingdom of death. The form is though an expansion of this in one partistill preserved when the Turkish empire cular direction (see note there), is not to is known as “the Ottoman Porte.' This be confounded with this. 20.] See promise received a remarkable literal ful. note on ch. viii. 4. filment in the person of Peter in Acts xii. 21-28.] Our LORD ANNOUNCES His 6–18, see especially ver. 10. The APPROACHING DEATH AND RESURRECmeaning of the promise is, that over the TION. REBUKE OF PETER. Mark viji. Church so built upon him who was by the 31--ix. 1. Luke ix. 22—27. See note on strength of that confession the Rock, no ver. 13. Obscure intimations had before adverse power should ever prevail to ex- been given of our Lord's future sufferings, tinguish it.

19.) Another personal see ch. x. 38: John iii. 14, and of His promise to Peter, remarkably fulfilled in resurrection, John ii. 19 (x. 17, 18?), but his being the first to admit both Jews and never yet plainly, as now. With St. Mark's Gentiles into the Church; thus using the usual precise note of circumstances, he power of the keys to open the door of sal. adds, “ He spake that saying openly." vation. As an instance of his shutting it

21.7 On must, which is common to also, witness his speech to Simon Magus, the three Evangelists, see Luke xxiv. 26 : Acts viii. 21. whatsoever thou shalt John ii. 14, and ch. xxv. 54. bind, &c.] This same promise is repeated suffer many things] be rejected in in ch. xviii. 18, to all the disciples gene. Mark and Luke. These many things were rally, and to any two or three gathered afterwards explicitly mentioned, ch. xx. together in Christ's name. It was first 18: Luke xviii. 31, 32. elders and however verificd, and in a remarkable and chief priests and scribes] The various prominent way, to Peter. Of the binding, classes of members of the Sanhedriin: sec the case of Ananias and Sapphira may note on ch. ii. 4. On the prophecy serve as an eminent example: of the of the resurrection, some have objected loosing, the “ Such as I have, give I thee,that the disciples and friends of our Lord to the lame man at the Beautiful Gate of appear not to have expected it (see John the Temple. But strictly considered, the xx. 2: Luke xxiv. 12). But we bave it binding and loosing belong to the power directly asserted (Mark ix. 10 and 32) of legislation in the Church committed to that they did not understand the saying, the Apostles, in accordance with the Jew. and therefore were not likely to make it a ish way of using the words bind and loose ground of expectation. Certainly enough for prohibit and allow. They cannot re- was known of such a prophecy to make the late to the remission and retention of sins, Jews set a watch over the grave (Matt. for though to loose sins certainly appears xxvii. 63), which of itself answers the ob. to mean to forgive sins, to bind sins for jection. Some Commentators reason about retaining them would be altogether with the state of the disciples after the cruciout example, and, I may add, would bear fixion, just as if they had not suffered any no meaning in the interpretation : it is not remarkable overthrow of their hopes and the sin, but the sinner, that is bound, reliances, and maintain that they must liable to eternal sin ” (so in text) (Mark have remembered this precise prophecy if iii. 29). Nor can the ancient custom of it had been given by the Lord. “But on fastening doors by means of cord be alluded the other hand we must remember how to; for the expressions clearly indicate slow despondency is to take up hope, aud

raised again the third day. 22 Then Peter took him, and w began to rebuke him, saying, > Be it far from thee, Lord : this shall not be unto thee. 23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: m thou art an m Rom. viii. 7. offence unto me :: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. 24. n Then said Jesus nch. x. 88.

Acts xiv, 22. unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him iness is

2 Tim. iii. 19. deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 25 For ° whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever Luke vyf1.33.

John xii. 25. will lose his life for my sake shall find it. 26 For what I is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own 2 soul ? or what shall a man give in exchange for

w the oldest MS. reads, saith to him, rebuking him. A render, God be gracious to thee.

y some of the best MSS. read, shall a man be profited. Z render, life. how many of the Lord's sayings must rebukes. . 23.) As it was Peter's have been completely veiled from their spiritual discernment, given from above, eyes, owing to their non-apprehension of which made him a foundation-stone of the His sufferings and triumph as a whole. Church, so is it his carnality, proceeding He Himself reproaches them with this from want of unity with the divine will, very slowness of belief after His resur- which makes him an adversary now. Comrection. It is in the highest degree im- pare ch. iv. 10, also Eph. vi. 12. thou probable that the precision should have art an offence unto me) literally, Thou been given to this prophecy after the event, art my stumbling-block (not merely a as Meyer supposes: both from the character stumbling-block to me), “rock (petra) of of the Gospel History in general (see Prole- offence,in Peter's own remarkable words, gomena), and because of the carefulness and i Pet. ii. 7, 8,- joined too with the very precision in the words added by St. Mark; expression, which the builders disallowed see above. 22.] The same Peter, who (rejected), which, as above noticed, occurs but just now had made so noble and spiri. in this passage in Mark and Luke. Be. tual a confession, and received so high a fore this rebuke St. Mark inserts “when blessing, now shews the weak and carnal he had turned about and looked on his side of his character, becomes a stumbling disciples," that the reproof might be beblock in the way of his Lord, and earns fore them all. 24.) When he had the very rebuiff with which the Tempter called the people unto him with his disbefore him had been dismissed. Nor is ciples also, Mark viii. 34; he said to them there any thing improbable in this; the all, Luke ix. 23. This discourse is a soexpression of spiritual faith may, and fre- lemn sequel to our Lord's announcement quently does, precede the betraying of respecting Himself and the rebuke of carnal weakness; and never is this more Peter: teaching that not only He, but probable than when the mind has just also His followers, must suffer and selfbeen uplifted, as Peter's was, by com- deny ; that they all have a life to save, mendation and lofty promise took more precious than all else to them; and (hold of) him) by the dress or hand, or that the great day of account of that life's perhaps took him aside privately.

welfare should be ever before them. On The “ Be it far from theeof the A. V. this and the following verse, see ch. X. 38, is literally (God be) gracious (or, pro- 39. After his cross Luke inserts “ daily." pitious) to thee. this shall not be

26.] There is apparently a referunto thee] It is an authoritative declara ence to Psalm xlix. in this verse. Com. tion, as it were, on Peter's part, This shall pare especially the latter part with ver. not happen to thee, implying that he 7, 8, of that Psalm. lose his own knew better, and could ensure his divine life = “lose himself,Luke. Compare Master against such an event. It is this also 1 Pet. i. 18. what shall a man spirit of confident rejection of God's re- give in exchange for his life ?] We must vealed purpose which the Lord so sharply not here render soul, but life, understand

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