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Jesus said unto them, i A prophet is not without honour, i Luke iv, 24.

John iv. 44. save in his own country, and in his own house. 58 And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

XIV. 1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus, 2 and said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist'; m he is risen from the dead; and therefore

m render, he himself. son of Alphæus, and another subtraction is with no such arrangements or limitations. from the number who did not believe on

58.) did not; could not do, Mark Him. Again Matthew (see note on Matt. vi. 5, where see note. On the identity, or ix. 9), if identical with Levi (Mark ii. 14), not, of this preaching at Nazareth with was another son of Alphæus ; which that related much earlier by Luke iv. 16 would make a fifth brother, and leave sq., see note there. therefore, out of five, three believing on CHAP. XIV. 1-12.7 HEROD HEARS OF Him at the time when it was said, neither THE FAME OF JESUS. PARENTHETICAL did his brethren believe on Him." This ACCOUNT OF THE DEATH OF JOHN THE view besides labours under the difficulty BAPTIST. Mark vi. 14-29. Luke ix. 7 arising from these brethren accompanying -9, who does not relate the death of John. and being found in connexion with Mary 1.) This Herod was Herod ANTIPAS, the mother of our Lord, whereas through. son of Herod the Great, by Malthacé, a Saout that time their own mother was living. maritan woman,-and own brother of ArcheThe way in which the assertors of this laus. The portion of the kingdom allotted view explain John vii. 5, is either by sup- to him by the second will of his father (in posing that all the brethren are not there the first he was left as king) was the implied, or that all are not here mentioned; tetrarchy of Galilee and Peræa (Jos. Antt. both suppositions, it seems to me, very xvii. 8. 1). He married the daughter of unlikely (compare e. g. John's minute the Arabian king Aretas; but having accuracy where an exception was to be during a visit to his half-brother Herod made, ch. vi. 23, 24). (2) That they were Philip (not the tetrarch of that name, but children of Joseph by a former marriage another son of Herod the Great, disin(or even by a later one with Mary wife of herited by his father) become enamoured Clopas, to raise up seed to his dead brother, of his wife Herodias, he prevailed on her -as Clopas is said to have been : but this to leave her husband, and live with him. needs no refutation). This view was taken (See below, on ver. 4.) This step, accomby several early Fathers, and mentioned panied as it was with a stipulation of by Origen, who says respecting it, those putting away the daughter of Aretas, who maintain this, wish to uphold the per involved him in a war with his father-inpetual virginity of Mary.This however, law, which however did not break out till while by no means impossible, and in some a year before the death of Tiberius (A.D. respects agreeing with the apparent posi. 37, u.c. 790), and in which he was totally tion of these brothers as older (according defeated and his army destroyed by Aretas; to the flesh) than the Lord (John vii. 3), a divine vengeance, according to the Jews has no countenance whatever in Scripture, as reported by Josephus, for the death of either in their being called sons of any John the Baptist. He and Herodias afterother woman, or in any distinct mention wards went to Rome at the beginning of of Joseph as their father, which surely in Caligula's reign, to complain of the assumpthis case would be required. (III) On tion of the title of king by Agrippa his the à priori considerations which' bave nephew, son of Aristobulus; but Caligula influenced opinions on this matter, see note having heard the claims of both, banished on Matt. i. 25; and on the traditional Antipas and Herodias to Lyons in Gaul, literature, see the references given in my whence he was afterwards removed to Greek Testament. Neander brings out Spain, and there died. The following the importance of the view which I have events apparently took place at Machærus, above, under (I), endeavoured to justify, a frontier fortress between Peræa and as shewing that the account.of the miracu. Arabia : see below on ver. 10. It was lous conception is not mythical, in which the fame of the preaching and miracles of case all would have been arranged to suit the Twelve, on their mission, of which the views of virginity from which it had Herod heard,--probably in conjunction arisen,-but strictly historical, found as it with the works of Christ : see parallel

XX. 21.

n mighty works do shew forth themselves in him. 3 For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put

him in prison for Herodias’ sake, his brother o (Philip)'s wife. a Lev, xviii. 16: 4 For John said unto him, a It is not lawful for thee to

have her. 5 And when he would have put him to death, b ch. xxi. 28. he feared the multitude, b because they counted him as a

prophet. 6 But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod. 7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. 8 And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a P charger. 9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. 10 And he nor, the powers work mightily in him.

Pi.e. a large dish.

o omit.

place in Mark. 2.] he himself is
emphatic; equivalent in English to “it is
he and no other, that... In Luke
ix. 7 it is said that Herod was perplexed
because it was said of some that John was
risen from the dead. There is no incon-
sistency in these accounts: the report
originated with others : but if Herod was
perplexed concerning it, he, in the terrors
of a guilty conscience, doubtless gave ut.
terance to these words himself. There is
no evidence that Herod was a Sadducee,
or a disbeliever in the resurrection as
then held by the Pharisees. See also
note on Mark viii. 14. There is no
allusion here to the transmigration of
souls, but to the veritable bodily resur-
rection, and supposed greater power ac-
quired by having passed through death.
This is an incidental confirmation of John
X. 41, where we read that John wrought
no miracle while living. 4.] The
marriage was unlawful for these three
reasons : (1) The former husband of He
rodias, Philip, was still living. This is
expressly asserted by Josephus. (2) The
former wife of Antipas was still living,
and fled to her father Aretas on hearing of
his intention to marry Herodias. (3) An-
tipas and Herodias were already related
to one another within the forbidden degrees
of consanguinity. For she was daughter
of Aristobulus, the brother of Antipas and

5.] This verse is further expanded in Mark vi. 20, which see. Josephus, not being aware of any other grounds for his imprisonment, alleges purely political ones, that Herod was afraid

lest John's power of persuading the people might be turned to seditious purposes. 6. birthday) Some hold that the word here means the feast of Herod's accession : but they give no proof that it ever had such a meaning. A great feast was given to the nobility of Galilee, Mark vi. 21. The damsel's name was Salome, daughter of Herodias by her former husband Philip. She afterwards married her uncle Philip, tetrarch of Ituræa and Trachonitis : and he dying childless, she became the wife of her cousin Aristobulus son of Herod, king of Chalcis, by whom she had three sons, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus. The dance was probably a pantomimic dance. 9.] the king was a title which Herod never properly possessed. Subsequently to this event, Herodias prevailed on him to go to Rome to get the title, which had been granted to his nephew Agrippa. He was opposed by the emissaries of Agrippa, and was exiled to Lugdunum. Herod was griered, because he heard John gladly (Mark vi. 20), and from policy did not wish to put him to death on so slight a cause. This is not inconsistent with his wishing to put him to death : his estimate of John was wavering and undecided, and he was annoyed at the decision being taken out of his hands by a demand, compliance with which would be irrevocable. 10.] It appears from the damsel's expression give me here, and this verse, that the feast was held either at Macharus or at no great distance from it. Antipas had a palace near; but he was not there on account of the war with Aretas,see above.

sent, and beheaded John in the prison. 11 And his head was brought in a 4 charger, and given to the damsel : and she brought it to her mother. 12 And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

13 c When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship o ch. 1. 28 : xii. into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities. 14 And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was a ch. ix. 26. moved with compassion toward them, and he healed their sick. 15 And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals. 16 But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat. 17 And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes. 18 He said, Bring them hither to me. 19 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, ehe blessed, and brake, and gave e ch. IV. 36

I i. e, a large dish. 13—21.] FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOU. His place of retirement. 15.] This SAND. Mark vi. 30-44. Luke ix. 10-17. evening was the first evening, the decline John vi. 1-13, where also see notes. of the day, about 3 p.m.; the evening, in 13.) There is some difficulty here in con- ver. 23, after the miracle, was late in the ceiving how the narration is to proceed night. the time is now past] i.e. the continuously. The death of the Baptist is time of the day is now late. evidently retrospectively and parentheti. 16, 17.] give ye them to eat, which is cally inserted; and yet the retirement of common to the three first Evangelists, is our Lord in this verse seems to be the im- considerably expanded in the more de. mediate consequence of his hearing of that tailed account of John, ver. 3–7; it was occurrence. But this may well have been Andrew who spoke in ver. 17, and the five so: for (1) the disciples of John would be loaves and two fishes were brought by a some days in bringing the news from Ma- lad: John vi. 8, 9. They were barley charus to Capernaum, and the report loaves and (salt) fish; ibid. And we have mentioned in ver. I might reach Herod (perhaps, but see note there) the vast meantime; (2) the expression with which concourse accounted for in John by the that report is introduced, “ At that time,fact that the Passover was at hand, and extends it over a considerable space of so they were collected on their journey to time; and (3) the message which the Jerusalem. See a very similar miradisciples of John brought to our Lord cle in 2 Kings iv. 42—44; only then there might have included both particulars, the were twenty barley loaves and an hundred death of their Master, and the saying of men. See also Numbers xi. 21, 22. Herod respecting Himself. He went 19. blessed] St. Luke supplies them,i. e. across the lake (John vi. 1) into a desert the loaves and fishes: St. John has for it place belonging to the city called Beth- gave thanks. Both are one. The thanks saïda (Luke ix. 10). His retirement (Luke, to heaven is the blessing on the meat. This ibid., and Mark vi. 30) was connected also miracle was one of symbolic meaning for with the return of the Twelve from their the Twelve, who had just returned from mission: compare the full and affecting their mission, as pointing to the freely account of the whole transaction in Mark ye received, freely give" of cb. x. 8 in a vi. 30–35. 14.] went forth, from higher sense than they then could have

f Job ix. 8.

the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. 20 And they did all eat, and were filled : and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full. 21 And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children.

22 And straightway r Jesus constrained his disciples to get into su ship, and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away. 23 And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into ta mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone. 24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves : for the wind was contrary. 25 And in the fourth watch of the night a Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. 26 And when the disciples saw him 'walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. 27 But straightway w Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. 28 And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. 29 And r read, he.

8 render, the. t render, the.

a read, he. V render, an apparition : literally, a phantasm. Wor, he. understood it :--but see the symbolic im- but too anxious to second this wish of the port of the miracle treated in the notes to multitude; and their dismissal was there. John vi. Meyer well remarks, that fore an important step towards the other. the process of the miracle is thus to be 22.] Mark adds "to Bethsaïda,” John conceived :--the Lord blessed, and gave “to Capernaum :" for the Bethsaïda, the the loaves and fishes to the disciples, as city of Philip and Andrew and Peter, was they were ; and then, during their distri. distinct from Bethsaïda Julias, in whose bution of them, the miraculous increase neighbourhood the miracle took place, took place, so that they broke and distri- and in the direction of Capernaum. buted enough for all. The cophinus 25.] The fourth watch according to the (which is the word here rendered basket) Roman calculation, which was by this was the usual accompaniment of the Jew : time common among the Jews (who themsee quotation from Juvenal in my Gr. selves divided the night into three parts or Test. Reland supposes that the basket watches). This would be,-near the vernal was to carry their own meats on a journey, equinox, which this was,- between three for fear of pollution by eating those of the and six in the morning. The words walkGentiles. 21.] beside women and ing on the sea are common to the three children is peculiar to Matt., although Evangelists, and can have no other meanthis might have been inferred from men ing here, than that the Lord walked being mentioned in the other three Evan bodily on the surface of the water. In gelists. See note on John vi. 10.

Job. ix. 8 we read of the Almighty,Which 22–23.7 JESUS WALKS ON THE SEA. alone spreadeth out the heavens, and Mark vi. 45-52. (Luke omits this in- treadeth upon the waves of the sea." cident.) John vi. 16–21. The conviction Mark adds" and would have passed by of the people after the foregoing miracle them :" John, “and drawing nigh unto the was, that Jesus was the Messiah; and ship.See notes on John. 28.) This their disposition, to take Him by force, narrative respecting Peter is peculiar to and make Him a king. See John vi. 14, Matthew. It is in very strict accordance 15. For this reason he constrained His with his warm and confident character, disciples to leare Him, because they were and has been called almost a ‘rehearsal of

he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. 30 But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid ; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. 31 And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt ? 32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. 33 Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God.

34 And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret. 35 And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased ; 36 and besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and 6 as many as touched were made per- 8 cheris fectly whole.

XV. 1 Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, 2 Why do thy disciples transgress a the tradition of the elders ? for they wash not their a Col. ii. 8. hands when they eat bread. 3 But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the command

Acts xix. 12.

his denial afterwards. It contains one of see note on ch. ix. 20. the most pointed and striking revelations CHAP. XV. 1-20.] DISCOURSE CONwhich we have of the nature and analogy CERNING EATING WITI UNWASHED of faith; and a notable example of the HANDS. Mark vii. 1- 23. From Mark power of the higher spiritual state of man it appears that these Scribes and Pharisees over the inferior laws of matter, so often had come expressly from Jerusalem to brought forward by our Lord. See ch. watch our Lord : most probably after that xvii. 20; xxi. 21. 32.) John (vi. 21) Passover which was nigh at the time of adds " and immediately the ship was at feeding the five thousand, John vi. 4. the land whither they went :"-see note 2.] The Jews attached more importance there. 33.] These persons were pro to the traditionary exposition than to the bably the crew of the ship, and distinct Scripture text itself. They compared the from the disciples. On Son of God, see written word to water; the traditionary ch. iv. 3. It is the first time that our exposition to the wine which must be Lord is called so by men in the three mingled with it. The duty of washing first Gospels. See ch. iii. 17; iv. 3; viii. before meat is not inculcated in the law, 29: and John i. 34, 50. This feeling but only in the traditions of the Scribes. of amazement and reverence pervaded the So rigidly did the Jews observe it, that disciples also : see the strong expressions Rabbi Akiba, being imprisoned, and having of Mark vi, 52.

water scarcely sufficient to sustain life 34-36.] Mark vi. 53–56. Gennesar or given him, preferred dying of thirst to Gennesaret, a district from which the lake eating without washing his hands. was also occasionally so called, extended The elders" here, as in Heb. xi. 2, must along its western shore. Josephus gives a be taken to mean the ancients. See ref. glowing description of the beauty and fer. Heb. 3. ye also] The also implies tility of this plain, Jewish Wars, ii. 10. 7. that there was a transgression also on their At its northern end was Capernaum, near part - acknowledging that on the part of wbich our Lord landed, as would appear the disciples. the commandment of from John vi. 24, 25. 36.] On hem, God] A remarkable testimony from our

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