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Piedmontese unpopular with the lower classes . . .
Popular with the higher classes in Naples . .
Influence of Orsini . . . . . .
Subjection of the French .. ..
Effect of Universal Suffrage . .
Causes which may overthrow Louis Napoleon
Popularity of a war with England.
Condition of the Roman people ..
Different sorts of courage in different nations.
Destructiveness of war not found out at first.
Effect of service on conscript.
Expenditure. of Louis Napoleon .
Forebodings of the Empress . .
Prince Napoleon. .. ..
Ampère on Roman affairs .
Inquisition .. . .
Infidelity . .
Mortara affair . .
Torpor of Roman Government ..
Interference with marriages. .
Ampère expects Piedmont to take possession of Rome.
Does not think that Naples will submit to Piedmont
Wishes of Naples only negative .
Ampère's reading . . . .
Execution of three generations ..
Familiarity with death in 1793
Sanson . . . . .
Public executioners . .
The “Chambre noire'. .
Violation of correspondence.
Toleration of Ennui . . .
Prisoners of State . . . . . . . . .
M. and Madame de La Fayette .
Mirabeau and La Fayette . .
Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette.
Evils of Democratic despotism .
Ignorance and indolence of La Jeune France'
Algeria a God-send . . . . .
Family life in France .
Moral effect of Primogeniture .
Descent of Titles . .
Shipwreck off Gatteville

• . . . . Ampère reads 'Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme' . . .

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The modern Nouveau Riche. .
Society under the Republic . .
Madame Récamier . . . . . . . . . . .
Chateaubriand and Madame Mohl .
Ballanche . . . .
Extensiveness of French literature .
French and English poetry . i
The 'Misanthrope' , .
Tocqueville's political career ..
Under Louis Philippe in 1835
Independence .. .

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In 1839 and 1840 . . . . . .
Opposition to Guizot . .
Inaction of Louis Philippe .
Tocqueville would not submit to be a minister without power .
Mistaken independence of party . .
Could not court popularity . . .
Reform came too late . .
Faults in the Constitution ..
Defence of the Constitution ..
Tocqueville wished for a double election of the President.
Centralisation useful to a usurper. ..
England in the American War . .
Defence of England . . . .
Politics of a farmer . . . . . . . .
Wages in Normandy . .
Evils of Universal Suffrage.
Influence of the clergy .
Prince Napoleon . .

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Constitutional monarchy preferable to a republic
Republic preferable to a despotism . .
Probable gross faults of a republic . ..
Evils of socialist opinions . . .
Mischievous effects of strikes . . .
Mistaken tolerance of them in England.
Tocqueville's tomb . . . . . . . .

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APPENDIX.

Mr. Senior's report of M. de Montalembert's speech in 1854.

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TOCQUEVILLE DURING THE EMPIRE

FROM DECEMBER 23, 1851

TO

APRIL 20, 1858.

VOL. II.

CONVERSATIONS.

PARIS, 1851-2.

[THE coup d'état took place on the 2nd, and Mr. Senior reached Paris on the 21st of December.-ED.]

Paris, December 23, 1851.-I dined with Mrs. Grote, and drank tea with the Tocquevilles.

** This,' said Tocqueville, ‘is a new phase in our history, Every previous revolution has been made by a political party. This is the first time that the army has seized France, bound and gagged her, and laid her at the feet of its ruler.

Was not the 18th fructidor,' I said, “almost á parallel case? Then, as now, there was a quarrel between the executive and the legislature. The Directory, like Louis Napoleon, dismissed the ministers, in whom the legislature had confidence, and appointed its own tools in their places, denounced the legislature to the country, and flattered and corrupted the army. The legislature tried the usual tactics of parliamentary opposition, censured the Government, and refused the supplies. The Directory prepared a coup d'état. The

I was not able to resist retaining this conversation in the Journals in France. -Ed.

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