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multarum quod fuit, unus habes.” Cf. Hor. C. ï. 15. 13. It belongs chiefly to epigrams, or

playful poetry. 4. Apostrophe; by which persons, or inanimate ob

jects, are addressed in order to add force or pathos. See Aids vi. Part I. Exercises V. LI. LII. CVII. &c. Cf. Virg. Æn. ii. 59. Ov.

Met. x. 41; Fasti iv. 439. 5. Aposiopēsis ; by which the latter part of a sentence

is passionately and abruptly broken off. Virg. Æn. i. 135, “Quos ego-sed motos præstat," &c. &c. Ov. Her. xii. 207, “Quos equidem

actutum !~sed quid,” &c. 6. Apposition; by which a subordinate definition is

added to a substantive, not necessarily forming one idea with it, but serving to define or characterize it more closely: e.g. "Tarquinius, rex Romanorum." "Effodiuntur opes, irritamenta malorum,” Ov. M. i. 140. Cf. Part I. Exercises

V.1; LVI. 1. 4; XCI. 4. 7. Asynděton ; by which conjunctions are omitted:

Virg. Æn. i. 602, “Urbe, domo socias."
Fast. i. 126, “ It, redit officio Jupiter ipse suo.”
Cf. Part I. Exercise IV. 16; XXXIX. 6;

LXXVIII. 4. Part II. LVI. 6. 8. Attraction ; by which (a) the Relative is drawn

into the case of the Antecedent: e.g. Hor. Sat. i. 6. 15, “ Judice quo nosti, populo." This however is rare. Cf. Terence. Heaut. i. 1. 35. “Hâc quidem causâ quâ dixi tibi.”—Cicero, Ep. ad Div. v. 14.—Or (6) the Antecedent is drawn into the Relative clause. E.g. Hor. Epod. ii. 37. “Quis non malarum quas amor curas habet Hæc inter obliviscitur?" Cf. Sat. ii. 2. 59. Virg. Æn. i, 573.-Ov. Met. xiv. 350.


Eun. iv. 3. 11: Andr. Prol. 3 and 26.-Cæsar.
B. G. iv. 21. Ov. Her. iv. 174. “Sic tibi dent
Nymphæ... quæ levet unda sitim.” See Part

I. Exercise LIV. 6. 8. 8. Ellipsis; by which a word easily supplied is

omitted. Ellipses of verbs, prepositions, and conjunctions are most common. See Part I.

Exercises CXVI. 11. 1; CXI. 1. 1. 10. Epanalepsis ; by which the word in the beginning

of the first clause in a sentence closes the second clause: e.g. Virg. Æn. i. 754, “ Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore multa.

Cf. Propert. ii. 1. 12. (See Poet. Orn. f.) 11. Epizeuxis ; by which the same word is repeated

with emphasis: e.g. Hor. Epist. i. 1. 53, “O cives, cives, quærenda pecunia primum.” Cf.

Virg. iii. 264. (Poet. Orn. S.) 12. Hendiadys; by which two nouns are used to

convey one notion : e.g Virg. G. ii. 192,“ Pateris libamus et auro,” i. e. “aureis pateris.” Cf. Ecl. ii. 8; and see Part I. Exercise

XXXIII. 5, note ; LXVI. 6. 13. Hypallăge; by which the proper and natural

relations of words to one another seem to be mutually altered—frequently the attraction of an adjective to a substantive with which it does not properly agree (as in Part I. Exercise XVII. 6. Part II. Exercise X. 2); or sometimes a

change of case, as Virg. Æn. iii. 61 ; i. 199. 14. Litotes ; by which a strong notion is conveyed

under a weak form of speech : e. g. Virg. G. iii. ā," Illaudati Busiridis aras.” See Aids II.

N.B.—Ironia and Meiosis may be referred to this figure.

2 Particularly the verb “sum.”

15. Oxymoron ; by which opposite words are placed in

juxta-position : e.g. Catull. lxiv. 83,“Funera nefunera.” Lucr. i. 99, “ Casta inceste." Hor. C. i. 34. 2. Cf. Part II. Exercise XXXV. II. 1.

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16. Parenthèsis ; by which a clause is inserted. This

figure may often be used with very good effect :

Occupat hunc-vires insania fecerat—Ino," Ov. M. iv. 527. “ Cantabam, memini (meminerunt omnia amantes),” Ov. Heroid. xv. 43 Cf. Part II. Exercises III. 3; LV. 11. 3.



Orn. e.

17. Paronomasia ; by which words of similar sound

are placed in juxta-position. It is not out of

place in Epigrams and playful compositions. 18. Periphrăsis ; by which an idea is circuitously ex

pressed. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, may be of two kinds; of the word, or of the thing. Instances of the former are such expressions as

error Herculis," “ Catonis virtus,” “nitor Hebri," "decus innuptarum," "rigor ferri," non unquam, ruborem dare." Cf. Poet.

Aids 1. Instances of the latter are such expressions as “ Jocosa montis imago” Echo, Hor. C. i. 12. 4. Cf. Part I. Exercises

XXXIII. 4, and LXXIII. 10. 19. Pleonasm ; by which apparently superfluous words are used : e. g. ore loqui,”

” « animo reminisci," &c. Cf. Aids III. Part I. Exercise XCII. 2 ;

LXX. 12. 20. Polyptoton; by which the same word is repeated

in a different case or tense: e. g. “Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem,” Virg. Æn. ii. 354. 'Spectantem specta-ridenti mollia ride,” Ov. R. A. 279.


21. Polysyndèton; by which conjunctions are

peated : e. g. “Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque procellis Africus," Virg. Æn. i. 89.

Cf. Aids III. 22. Prolepsis ; see Part I. Exercises LXIII. note;

CXI. note; CXXV. 2. 23. Synecdoche; by which the whole is put for a part,

a part for the whole; the genus for the species. and vice versâ. See Part I. Exercises V. note;

LVI. note; CXXIII. note; CXXXVII. 7. 24. Zeugma; by which two nouns are joined to a verb

which only suits one of them, but suggests the other verb. Occasionally the same verb is applied to different nouns in a different sense.





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