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Ante pedes cæcis lucebat semita nobis :

Scilicet insano nemo in amore videt.
And ironically,

Scilicet is Superis labor est, ea cura quietos

Sollicitat. 8. Sic (a) in prayers; (b) in protestations. 9. Siccine? (implying a reproach.) "Is it thus that?"

Siccine me patriis avectam perfide, ab oris,
Perfide, deserto liquisti in litore, Theseu ?
ŞQuid quòd? (with Ind.)“Furthermore,"“Again."

10. . ,

VIII. (a) Be prepared to avail yourself of contracted

forms of words, as well as of long syllables resolved into two short ones. E.g. Vinclum, poclum, nauta ; lenibat, mollibat; noram, nos

sem; silüa, dissoluisse, persolüenda, &c. (b) Also of the occasional shortening of the

penult of the 3rd pers. pl. perf. ind. E.

Stětěrunt, pāllūěrunt, exciděrunt. (c) Also of the ending -êre instead of -ērunt, and

of -re instead of -ris in the passive. Also of the use of Greek forms of words, especially in

proper names. (d) Also of the licence allowed in the use and

combination of numerals, and in the use of sive-ve, seu-aut, sive—sive, and even first sive omitted. So et-et, que-et, que que,

&c. &c. IX. In translating it will be necessary sometimes to

condense, sometimes to expand, sometimes to break up, the English. In every case your aim should be to give the force and sense of the passage idiomatically, i. e. as a Latin poet would have expressed it. Servile adherence to literalness will result in a production that is not only neither poetry nor prose, but probably

not even Latin. X. Observe phrases and idioms in the course of your

reading, and collect them in a book. Study good translations, and commit them to memory. The turning of a difficult expression will often be suggested by something you have seen before.


I. (a) 2nd Declension.—Ovid and Propertius use Genitive Sing.

-ìī of Nouns with Nom. .ius, -ium: as īngěníī, ēxsīlīī. Virgil and Horace use the contracted forms, as oti,

ingeni, peculi. (b) 5th Declension.—In Gen. and Dat. Sing. e is long after

a vowel, e. g. diēī; but doubtful after a consonant. Thus we find fidēī in Lucretius ; but fiděī in writers of the Silver Age: so again rẽi in Horace, but rēc (sometimes rei, monosyll.) in Lucr.

N.B. It will be best to imitate Ovid, Horace, and Virgil, in using the contracted forms of the Gen, and Dat., as fidē, díē; except in the case of diei, for which

we have Virgil's authority. II. The i in fio is long, except in those tenses where r is pre

sent: e.g.

It is

Omnia jam fient, fieri quæ posse negabam.
III. Genitives in -ius have penult doubtful, as illiès or illīus.

So with ipsius, istius, nullius, ullius, unius.
safest to regard the penult of alterius, utrius, as short;
and of solius, totius, as long. Alīus has the penult

always long. IV. The final syllable in antea, interea, postea, præterea,

propterea, is long. Ovid, Fasti, i. 165, is no exception.


Postea there may be scanned postea, by Synæresis ; or

it may be resolved into post ea. V. (1) The prep. præ in composition, before a vowel, is

shortened ; e. g. præăcūtės, prăūstūs, prěčūntě. (2) The prep. pro, in composition, is mostly long before a con.

sonant, as prõdo, procumbo, prāficio.

Obs. (a) Propago (verb) and propago (-ginis), with procuro (procurator) and propino, have pro doubtful. Obs. (b) The best authors have pro short in

procella profugio

profanus profundo
profari profundus
profestus pronepos
proficiscor protervus.

profiteor N.B. In Greek compounds pro (= po) is short. VI. De, before a vowel, and re?, in composition, are short:

e. g. děhisco, děosculor : rěduco, rēfero, rěmitto.

Obs. Re is long in recido, rejicio, religio, religiosus, reliquiæ : also in the perfects recīdi, reperi, repuli, retuli, and tenses formed from them. These words are more correctly spelt reccidi, repperi, &c.

N.B. Rěfert, from rěféro : rēfert, impers. Also

rēcido (cado): but récīdo (cædo). VII. Observe omitto, òperio. VIII. Observe (1) sto, stāre, stābam, stābo, stārem : but

dăre, dăbam, dăbo, dărem, dótus, dăturus. , dās alone are long.

(2) The 2nd Pers. Sing. of Fut. Perf. and Perf. Subj. is doubtful. We have oraveris (Virg.), dederīs (Ov.).

The quantity of the penult in the 1st and 2nd Persons Plur. of the same tenses is also doubtful. We have, for instance, egerimus (Virg.), videritis (Ov.): but fecerīmus (Catull.), dederītis, contigerītis (Ov.).

(3) Hic (adv.) is always long: hic (pron.) is doubtful, but mostly long. Hoc (abl.) is long : hoc (nom.

and acc.) is long in the best writers. Catullus has profudit once; but the balance of authority is in favour of profundo. The same remark applies to propello, which has first syll. long, except in two passages of Lucretius.

Except, of course, when long by position, as rēscindo, rēscribo.


(4) Cor is best regarded as short. [The reading of Ov. Heroid. xv. 79 is open to question.] IX. The following compounds of facio have e short: cale.

facio, labefacio, madefacio, patefacio 3, pavefacio, rubefacio, stupefacio, tremefacio, tumefacio.

In putrefacio, e is short in Ovid. In liquefacio, e is generally short, but is found long in Ovid and Catul. lus. In tepefacio, e is short, with one exception in Catullus.

3 Lucr. has patēfecit, patēfiet.


EXERCISE I. (Graves).

Again the balmy Zephyr blows,

Fresh verdure decks the grove;
Each bird with vernal rapture glows,

And tunes its notes to love.

Ye gentle warblers, hither fly,

And shun the noon-tide heat;
My shrubs a cooling shade supply,

My groves a safe retreat. Stanza 1. 1, 2. Lo, again the Zephyr breathes pleasant odours; and the wood is-green, gay with new garb.-3. And every (nullus non, Aids II. 1) bird glows with vernal rapture (dulcedo).—4. And begins (ineo) the tender strain of first love.

Stanza 11. 1. “Hither fly," turn your flight hither.—2. To where (quò) the shade keeps off the ray of the noon-day (medius) sun.-3, 4. Here my shrubberies supply cool shades (latebræ); and my grove gives safe (non violandus, Aids 11. 1) retreats (tectum). See Poet. Orn. a.

EXERCISE II. (same continued).
Here freely hop from spray to spray,

Or weave the mossy nest;
Here rove and sing the livelong day,
At night here sweetly rest.


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