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D. J. Holmes, of Sheboygan, read a report on The best method of securing regular and punctual attendance at School.

The following resolution was offered for discussion :

Resolred, That in the education of the sexes, separate schools are both desirable and necessary.

Remarks were made in opposition to the sentiment contained in the resolution by Messrs. Pradt, Richards, McMynn, Clark, and Turner; after which the following substitute was unanimously adopted :

Resolred, That all the institutions of learning in the State should be open for the education of both sexes.

Adjourned to 2 o'clock, P. M.

AFTERNOON SESSION.

D. Y. Kilgrove, from the committee to nominate Editors for the Journal of Education, reported the following: J. L. Pickard, Platteville; J. G. McMynn, Racine; A. J. Craig, Palmyra; J. Emerson, Beloit; D. J. Holmes, Sheboygan; O. M. Conover, Madison; T. R. Williams, Albion; A. Pickett, Horicon; A. C. Barry, Sylvania. Report adopted.

The report of the special committee on Normal Schools was again taken up, and discussed by Messrs. Conover, Barry, Pickett, McMynn, Bean, Clark and others, and was finally laid aside to give place to the regular order of business.

D. Y. Kilgrove, of Madison, gave an address on the subject: “What constitutes a Teacher ?

A. A. Griffith gave a report “ On Reading."

Rev. Dr. Savage, President of Carroll College, extended an invitation to the Association to visit the College buildings and grounds.

H. B. Coe, of Racine, made some remarks on “ Music in Schools."

On motion of J. L. Pickard, it was voted to accept the invitation of Dr. Savage, and visit Carroll College at 7 o'clock, P. M. After singing, the Association adjourned to Friday, 8 o'clock, A. M.

(On Thursday evening, Prof. Reed, of Madison, delivered an address in the Baptist Church. Subject — "Political Instruction in Schools.N. A. Calkins, of New York, also gave an address on the same evening at the same place; subject —Old fashioned and modern School Teaching."]

FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 1511. Association opened with prayer by Prof. Conover.

J. G. McMynn, Treasurer of the Association, presented his report, as follows:

Wisconsin State Teachers' Associition in account with J. G. McMyxx.
DR.
Aug. 22, 1856, To order,

$20 00 23,

6 10 13, 1857,

25 00

24 50 Amount to Balance on hand,

THIRD DAY.

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$130 00

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CR. By amount received of Socretary at annual meeting of the Association, 1856, $58 00 from Treasurer for 1855,

30 00 from Secretary at present session, (1857,)

42 00

$130 00 Audited and found correct.

J. P. FISK,
A. B. CORNWALL, Committee.

A. J. CRAIG, J. G. McKindley, from the committee on the nomination of officers, reported as follows:

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President:-0. M. CONOVER.
1st Vice President :--M. Frank.
2d Vice President:--R. C. Parsons.
3d Vice President :-G. B. Cooley.
Secretary:~J. W. Strong.
Treasurer :-J. G. McMyan.

Counselors :-A. J. Craig; J. B. Pradt; D. Y. Kilgore; F. C. Pomroy; A. A. Griffith.

Mr. Hendrickson, from a committee to recommend a place for the next mecting of the Association, reported in favor of Horicon, and the first day of August, 1858, as a suitable time.

Prof. Magoffin moved to amend by substituting Portage City, which amendment was carried, and Portage City agreed upon as the next place of meeting

Prof. Conover, from the committee on resolutions, offered the following:

Resolved, That a system of exchanges of maps, drawings, and specimens of Natural History, among the schools of the State, would greatly conduce to a love of such studies, and to a cultivation of those feelings of mutual depondence and good will which ought to characterize those engaged in the great business of education.

Resolved, That the school laws of the State ought to be so amended, as to allow no ohild to enter the Public Schools under six years of age.

Whereas, It has become evident to the friends of education in the State, that unqualified persons are permitted to act as teachers in many of the Public Schools, therefore,

Resolved, Thai this Association does most earnestly entreat the Town Superintendonts of the State to be more thorough in their examination of candidates, and refuso all monies to such districts as employ unqualified teachers.

Resolred, That the reports of the Normal School committee, and the committee to which tho resolutions of the former were coinmittod, be referred to a special committee of three, to be entitled, “ The Committee on the Revision of the School Laws," and that the said committee be instructed to report at the next meeting of the Association.

Resolved, That the Editorial Committee be requested to secure the Lectures and Roports, read before this Convention, for publication in the Journal of Education.

Resolved, That we tender our thanks to the Lake Shore, La Crosse & Milwaukee, and the Racine & Mississippi Railroads, for their politeness in granting free return passes, to members of the Association.

On motion, A. PICKETT, J. B, Pradt and A. A. GRIFFITH, were appointed committee, agreeable to the fourth resolution above reported.

Reports of delegates on the condition of schools in the several counties, were resumed. Mr. PICKARD spoke of the conditon of schools in Grant county; Geo. MCWHORTER gave a statement of the schools in Milwaukee county; Rev. H. FootE made a statement of the schools in the city of Janesville. — J. W. Strong and B. C. ROGERS, spoke for Beloit. Mr. ZOLLER reported Columbia county; A. Pickett, Dodge county ; J. B. Pradt, Sheboygan county; 0. R. Bacon, Manitowoc county; S. Johnson, Washington county; J. Jonnson, Walworth county ; J. G. McMynn, Racine county ; Prof. Conover, Dane county.

After some further general remarks and suggestions, by Messrs. McMinn, CONOVER, PICKETT, SPICER, MONTAGUE, STRONG, PRADT, and others, prayer, was offered by the Rev. Mr. Cooper, and the Doxology sung, when the Association adjourned to meet at Portage City, on the first Wednesday in Au

A. A. GRIFFITH, Secretary. A. C. SPICER, President.

gust, 1858.

We here give a list of the members of the association, present:

Miss C. W. Smith, Troy Centro; Miss S. L. Goodrich, Troy Centre; Miss L. A. Carey, Beloit; Miss E. B. Carey, Beloit; Mias Kate S. Wright, Madison ; Miss E. U. Merritt, Turtle; Miss M. E. Brown, Turtle ; Miss I. Sanford, Racine; Mrs. B. F. Walker, Racine; Miss A. M. Stewart, Janesville; Miss M. E. Loomis, Port Washington ; Miss E. M. Oatman, Port Washington; Miss F. L. Oatman, Port Washington; Miss Miss E. L. Bissell, Hartford; Miss E. L. Smith, Heustesford ; Miss Emily Weage, Ripon; Miss Eliza Washburn, Pewaukee; Miss Alice Perry, Brookfield ; Miss Jennie Merrill, Warren, Pa.; Miss Abbie Merrill, Warren, Pa.; Miss A. M. Stone, Janesville; Miss L. 0. Cowden, Oshkosh ; Miss Mary Stewart, Pewaukee; Miss Harriet R. Olin, Omro ; Miss N. E. Trowbridgo, Milwaukee; Miss Surah Thistlewaite, Merton; Viss S. Nicholson, Hartland ; Miss S. F. Sears, Waukesha : Miss J. Woolsey, Waukesha; Miss S. A. Steel, Waupacca Falls; Mies E. 11. Cram, Waukesha; Miss Sarah Bell, Pewaukee ; Miss Mary C. Osgood, Milwaukee ; Miss Zylpha B. Trowbridge, Greenfield; Miss Sarah A Green, North Prairie; Miss Julia M. Hatch, North Prairie; Miss L. A. Heimsley, Whitewater; Miss R. M. Hamilton, Whitewater; Miss Armida Ayer, Janesçille; Miss Sophia Toby, Waukesha; Miss A. A. Wheeler, Waukesha; Mis: M. C. Nelson, Waukesha; Miss Ella M. Sargeant, Waukesha ; Miss Mary G. Sherman, Wau. kesha ; Lois T. Jones, Alton, N. N.; Mrs. H. S. Zoller, Portage City; Miss Lavina Tead, Milwaukee; Miss Isabella Rogers, Milwaukee; Miss Martha Walkins, Milwaukee; Miss M. H. Baldwin, Milwaukee; Miss Francis Duggan, Milwaukee; Miss Cathrine Cavanaugh, Milwaukee; Miss Mary Osborn, Watertown ; Miss Julia John. son, Brookfield; Miss Kate Kerin, Wauwatosa; Miss Sarah Osborn, Wauwatosa ; Miss Lucella Morgan, Wauwatosa; Miss Eliza Osborn, Wauwatosa; Miss Emma Warren, Wauwatosa ; Miss Feances Degraff, Brookfield; Miss H. A. Wheeler, Sheboygan; Miss L. M. Wheeler, Sheboygan; Miss Eliza Graham, Milwaukee; Miss Elizabeth Deway, Milwaukee; Miss Sarah Church, Milwaukee; Miss L. C. Mattice, Waterloo; Miss Etta Harington, Hartland; Miss Anna P. Hubbard, Beloit; Miss Maria B. Southard, Beloit; Miss Ada M. Moehan, Elkhorn; Miss C. A. Willey, Janesville ; Miss Amanda Herkimer, Jane lle; Miss T. L. Bacon, Milo kee; Miss Mason, Oconomowoc; Mrs. C. A. Sheldon, Racine ; Miss Nancy Comstock, Summit; Miss Abby Fay, Oconomowoc; Mrs. Mary L. Woodruff, Oconomowoc; Miss Colby, Oconomowoc; Miss Mary A. Billings, Whitewater; Miss M. Antoinette Roberts, Whitewater; Miss Maria Holbrook, Whitewater; Miss Alvira Thomas, Whitewater; Miss Lucy Clapp, Whitewater; Miss Frankie Cheney, Whitewater; Miss Ellen Merrill, Waukesha; Miss Emma Marsh, Milwaukee ; Miss Cyntha Brown, Pewaukeo; Miss Mary MoWhorter, Vernon; Miss Mary Comstock, Oconomowoc; Miss Wealthy Colby, Ocon. omowoc; Mr. and Mrs. Spicer, Milton; Mr. and Mrs. A. Pickett, Horioon; Mr. and Mrs. J. G. McMynn, Racine; Prof. and Mrs. J. W. Stearling, Racine; Chancellor John H. Lathrop, Madison; A. J. Craig, Palmyra; I. M. Bingham, Palmyra; A. A. Griffith, Waukesha ; J. H. Magoffin and lady, Clarkesville, Tenn.; Frederick Smith, Waukesha; Ira Kimball, Waukesha; E. F. Spaulding, Francestown, N. H.; Miss C. Brown, Pewaukee; Miss A. Perry, Powaukee; Mrs. Porter, Pewaukee; Frank Sterens, Oconomowoc; W. H. Kardy, Genessce; James H. Stoddard, Milwaukee; Ira A. Williams, Racine; Samuel Lewis, Whitewater; Rev. H. Foote, Janesville; A Constantine Barrey, Sylvania; S. M. White Lisbon ; N. A. Calkins, N. Y.; Prof. S. A. Bean, Waukesha; Prof. Spaulding, Milwaukee; D. J. Holmes, Sheboygan; Isaac Johnson, Wappun; H. B. Coe, Racine; G. W. DeClark, Beaver Dam; Ira Bushnell, Omro; J. M. Frey, Wautoma; R. M. McKee, Elkhorn; Prof. Reed, Madison ; Prof. Churchman, Blind Asylum, Madison; W. C. Allen, Lindon; Rev. J. A. Hart, Genoa ; D. H. Ives, Horicon; Wells Powell, Janesville ; Isaac Botlenley, Eagle ; Mr. Fisk, Beloit; John H. Felch, Somers; A. R. Cornwall, Albion; T. R. Williams, Albion; Rev. J. B. Pradt, Sheboygan; J. J. M. Angier, Berlin; J. B. Turner, Jacksonville, Ill. ; M. Frank, Kenosha ; Rev. H. N. Bishop, Chicago, Ill.; J. L. Pickard, Plattesville; Milton Welch, Oshkosk; G. B. Cooley, Ripon; F. C. Pomeroy, Milwaukee; E. W. Peat, Beloit; James W. Strong, Beloit; Rev. Chas. B. Stout, Waukesha; N. L. Stout, Monroe; I. H. Blodgett, Jacksonville, Ill. ; B. C. Rogers, Beloit; George McWhorter, Milwaukee ; 0. R. Bacon, Manitowoc: John Austin, Ripon ; Rev. J. G. Montfort, Glendale, Ohio; W. H. Rexford, Beloit; A. D. Hendrickinson, Whitewater; M. Montague, Milton ; T. M. Bailey, Two Rivers; J. A. Loomis, Appleton; W. E. Cady, Plymouth; W. 0. Butler, Plymouth; R. C. Parsons, Port Washington; D. Y. Kilgore, Madison ; William Sharp, Port Washington; Prof. Conover, Madison; F. D. Hazeltine, Waukesha.

TO A notice of the Horioon Union School, of which Mr. A. Picker is Principal, is unavoidably omitted in this number,

Obituary.

WALTER VAN Ness died in Nebraska Territory on the 3d of July last, aged 30 years. Mr. Van Ness was, during several years, a Teacher in this State, and his labors as such were attended with much success. He was among the first to urge the organization of a State Teachers' Association, and was assiduous in his efforts for the accomplishment of this object. The great interests of education, especially common schools, chiefly absorbed his attention. Possessed of a generous nature, noble im. pulses, and a gentlemanly bearing, he readily gained the esteem of all who becamo acquainted with him. He has passed away, but his memory will be cherished in many a heart.

WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

VOL. II.

OCTOBER, 1857.

NO. 4.

WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF THE CENTER OF POPULATION,

AND OF INDUSTRIAL POWER IN NORTH AMERICA.

In the rapidly developing greatness of North America, it is interesting to look to the future, and speculate on the most probable points of centralization of its commercial and social power. I leave out the political element, because, in the long run, it will not be very potential, and will wait upon industrial developments. I also omit Mexico, so poor, and so disconnected in her relations to the great body of the continent.

Including with our nation, as forming an important part of its commercial community, the Canadas, and contiguous provinces, the center of population, white and black, is a little west of Pittsburg. The movement of this center is north of west, about in the direction of Chicago. The center of productive power can not be ascertained with any degree of precision. We know it must be a considerable distance east and north of the center of population. That center too, is on its grand march westward. Both, in their regular progress, will reach Lake Michigan. The center of industrial power will touch Lake Erie, and possibly, but not probably, the center of population may move so far northward as to reach Lake Erie also. Their tendency will be to come together; but a considerable time will be required to bring them into near proximity. Will the movement of these centers be arrested before they reach Lake Michigan? I think no one expects it to stop eastward of that lake; few will claim that it will go far beyond it. Is it not, then, as certain as anything in the future can be, that the central power of the continent will move to, and become permanent on, the border of the great lakes? Around these pure waters will gather the densest population, and on their borders will grow up the best towns and cities, As the centers of population and wealth approach and pass Cleveland, that city should swell to large size. Toledo will be still nearer the lines of their movement, and should be more favorably affected by them, as the aggregate power of the continent will, by that time, be greatly increased. As these lines move westward towards Chicago, the influence of their position will VOL. II.

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