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3. The writing of sentences, dictated by Teacher, containing the more common abbreviations. (Example: John Lucas died on the 10th inst.) 4. The writing of all requests made to the Teacher; also short notes to persons, containing a single wish or request. 5. The correcting or rewriting of sentences incorrectly written. 6 The writing of brief letters; properly dating, directing, addressing and subscribing them.

FOURTII STEP : FOURTH READER SCHOLARS. Sentence-Grouping, or the arranging of sentences so as to make a deseription, or narrative. This may incinde --1. The writing of letters. Pro Great attention should thus early be giren to this subject. 2. The writing of brief narratives or anecdotes, related by the Teacher or some scholar. 3. The writing of brief descriptions, suggested by questions. (See Brookfield's First Book in Composition.) 4. Fhe changing of versos of simple poetry into prose, etc.

So far, the chief object should be to impart the ability to produce a correct manuscript-to thoroughly drill the scholar in the elementary principles of written language.

FIPTII STEP: FIFTH READER SCIOLARS. Composition Proper, or the discussion of themes, in which Invention, Arrangement and Style largely enter. Didactic, persuasive and argumentative writings are included under this head. A more extended analysis of this step is unnecessary. It is fully presented in the common works on English Composition, or Rhetoric.

The above is a mere skeleton or outline of the subject; the skillful Teacher can easily fill it out. The adoption of this, or a better Course of of Composition, securing a complete dirision of lubor, is, in our judgment, greatly needed. Between the different grades of school, early instruction, in this important and useful branch of education, is now sadly neglected. PORTS OUTI.

E. E. WHITE.

THE EDUCATOR VS. THE TEACHER,

The educator draws out latent powers.--The teacher puts in a given task..

The educator considers, the worse the material, the greater skill in working it.--The teacher does his task, and charges the material with the result

The educator knows his subject to be infinite, and is always learning himself to put old things in a new form.—The teacher thinks he knows hig subject, and finds it more irksome every day.

The educator thinks nothing done till the food he gives his pupils je digested and craved for.--The teacher thinks everything done when he has poured out something before them.

The educator encourages. - The teacher furnishes.
VOL. IL

12

The educator has faith in great principles. The teacher is the slave of little vexations.

The educator is a boy amongst boys in heart; in judgment a man.—The teacher has the hardness of a man, with the want of thought of a boy.

The educator in punishing, considers what is best, not what is deserved. The teacher applies a fixed penalty.

The educator deals in exhortation and hope. The teacher in truisms and lamentation,

The educator is animated by a high and true ideal, towards which he is over finding some response, even in apparent failures. --The teacher's ideal is a shallow dream of selfish success, the non-realization of which leaves bim apathetic and querelous in his work, sceptical of goodness, hardened in his own opinions, and closed against improvement.

The crucator, as he believes in his principles and rules, earnestly strives to be the best example of them himself.

Unpunctuality makes authority grating.
Little charges make authority contemptible.
Little interferences make it hateful. ---Clerical Journal.

For the Journal of Education.

PRA Y ER FOR

PUBLIC

SCHOOLS.

Did you ever hear any? The Clergy think prayer in public schools well onough, but prayer for them who can bear? which of them practices! Who understands a moiety of the supplication for "institutions of learning" to have reference to these? Is this oversight, or wilful evasion? Do the reverend gentlemen fear mentioning public schools in a church prayer will be called sectarianism ? Do they fear it may be called “meddling with politics ;” or is there some secret, heavenly propriety for the oversight which the clergy alone perceive? Is it impudence to ask? Is it not as mise to pray a good institution higher as a bad institution lower ?

Prayer for colleges are regular and zealous.-In fact, men of letters have have been coaxed by prizes to write their importance into notice.

While they contain unction, juice, puduluin for colleges, is it possible they are unfit for common schools ?

Are prayers mere red-herrings which cure Englishmen but kill Frenchmen?

Ethically considered, a good day-school and a good Sunday-school are a “distinction without a difference.” Clerically considered, they seem as unlike as a horse chesnut and a chesnut horse. SHEBOYGAX.

D. J. u.

From tho Normal.

SCHEMES

OF

MENTAL

TRAINING.

There are at least four distinct methods of training the mind; all of which should be combined, in order to make a well-stored, systematic, independent, and ready scholar.

ACQUISITION.— The first of these is Acquisition. Many teachers seem to suppose this is all. They urge their pupils, by every incentive in their power, to acquire large quantities of words from books. Grammar, Geography, “Arithmetic rules,” can be recited by whole classes, from one end of the book to the other. Yet scholars may be less logical, less inclined to investigate for themselves, less able to express their own thoughts in their own language, than before the stuffing process commenced.

Acquisition is essential to the full development of the mind, undoubtedly. But let it be the acquisition of ideas, rather than words; of principles, rather than rules; the power to retain truth, and its relations, rather than book enunciations of formulas and dogmas.

GENERALIZATION.—The second method of mental training is Generalization. Books are, for the most part, systematically arranged, as the author supposes; though many are wretchedly botched in this particular. The student, however, is not led to see and appreciate this system, or want of system, as the case may be, in the general arrangement of the work, and in the more minute details of the several subjects embraced. His attention is seldom called to the fact, that there is any system in science, any where; and much less, eren by good teachers, generally so called, is the pupil required to systematize a subject for himself. The teacher does not generalize, or systematize; he takes books as he finds them, knowing no more of his advancement in the subject than is indicated by the number of pages he has passed over. Hence the necessity of book-marks for such a teacher. But will he train his pupils any better than himself? Let such a teacher set himself to work, and make out OUTLINES of all the branches in which he is engaged, and fill up those outlines as he proceeds with the subjects, carrying out a logical and symmetrical arrangement to the most minute particular. After having thus systematized the ideas of his Text-Book, and the kindred ideas of other books pertaining to the subject, let him generalize the results of his own observation and experience. Thus, ho learns to make the necessary connection between his books and his life, between dogmas and facts, between verbal images and material objects. He will then have such a Geography, Grammar, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, as he can obtain from no book-store, and to him, as I conceivo, immensely more valuable. But if the teacher ceases to be a parrot, and begins to use his reason, by pursuing such a course, why not train his pupils in the same manner. Such a teacher, such a scholar, thus trained, has a place for every fact, phenomena, experiment and theory. Ilis knowledge, so cared for, is ready for use - con es when called for: he knows, indeed, where to call for it, and when; and how to apply it when it comes. He now acquires with vastly more ease, and incomparably greater profit Having knowledge generalized, one truth is a representative for innumerable other truths. Identities, similarities, differences and contrasts, the mind loves to seek after, and easily retains. These afford increasing satisfaction, and diminish, or dissipate the burden, which otherwise clogs the memory, and paralyzes thought.

Invest Gation. The third method of mental training is Investigation. A teacher or scholar who has been trained in generalizing, will almost necessarily become an original and independent observer, investigator, and thinker. He ceases to answer, when called upon for a reason, a proof, or deinonstration—" It is so in the book.” The ipse dixit of a book, so far from satisfying him, wakes up in his soul a desire to know rather than to remember. He seeks to satisfy that desire by consulting other books, observing nature, or studying the objects themselves, instead of the books which describe them. He observes, he experiments, he reasons, he THINKS. He learns to apply his knowledge to the common and uncommon affuirs of life; to see the truths of science at every turn, in every object, in every association with other minds, in every operation of his own. Truth is thus purified as well as increased; dioss is separated in the furnace of observation and experience; it shines with new and increased brilliancy from the polish acquired by application and use.

COMMUNICATION.—The fourth method of Mental Training is Communication. The scholar may have acquired vast stores of knowledge, and indeed accustomed his mind to systematic activity in acquiring, classifying, and investigating; yet, from want of suitable and sufficient training in the communication of his knowledge to others, be utterly inefficient as a teacher, public speaker or writer.

Communication then should commence with early training. The use of the pen for the expression of thought should be its first use, with all children. The ready and accurate enunciation of one's own thoughts should surely form an indispensable element in the training of Teachers, Lawyers, and Clergymen.

The plans of training scholars in the art and power of communicating their own thoughts in a coherent and impressive manner, are numerous. All these plans should aim at clear and logical thinking. There is no eridence of systematic and correct thought, aside from its form of expression in being communicated to others. Nowhere in all the range of the mental and moral, is the saying of our blessed Lord, “It is more blessed to give than to receive," more pertinent than in this particular of communicating, rather than in being satisfied with acquiring, alone. Of the many plans adopted for securing logical thinking, and irnpressive writing and speaking, I shall notice but a few :

1. QUESTIONS AND Answers. They should never be relied on, to any

great extent; but may be used in connection with other plars, with judgment and skill, as an efficient means of arousing and directing thought, and stimulating its correct and forcible expression. Too often the question-andanswer inethod prevents any improvement in communicating, and exhibits a teacher as poorly trained as liis scholars.

2. Topic-System. The plan of assigning topics to scholars in recitations for them to discuss, requiring preparation on the whole lesson for such discussion, has been adopted with favorable results. It may commence with young scholars, they being prompted and guided in part by questions.

3. REPORTING BY NEANS OF OUTLINES. Aside from the general lesson, a special subject may be assigned to an individual, who is expected to report to the class, with or without the outline on the blackboard. The outline is first furnished by the teacher to the class, who copy it into their note books in systematic order, with other outlines. Any scholar to whom a subject is assigned, is expected to give his report "without notes,” and to deliver it in as connected and interesting a manner as is possible for him, At the conclusion of his report, brief criticism follows, on the spelling, pronunciation, definitions, arrangement, demonstrations, etc., by the schol. ars; the teacher closing with any additional corrections and remarks, desirable.

4. DECLAMATION OF ORIGINAL COMPOSITIONS. Such compositions should be written according to some well defined plan, and elaborated with all the knowledge and skill that the scholar may possess; then memorized according to such system. The delivery, by continuous training in the principles of elocution, in connection with this niethod, will become, in the majority of pupils, as ensy and natural to the speaker, as it is entertaining and instructive to his hearers,

For the Journal of Education.

Τ Ε Α Ο Η Ι Ν α . SUNNY SINE : A convenient, roomy and well-ventilated school-room, with black-boards, globes, maps, etc., etc.; a good stove, and plenty of good dry wood. A goodly number of bright, intelligent scholars, who are willing and anxious to learn. The love of the scholars and the confidence of the parents, and a manifest interest on the part of parents and others in the welfare of the school. These constitute the teacher's saradise. He is conscious that his labor is not in vain. In the bright inquiring glar.ce of the intelligent eye, he feels repaid for his wearing toil.

SHADY SIDE: A little, low, cold, rickety school-room, containing a stove that draws the wrong way, and wood that is a little more than half water. The room crowded with boisterous, unruly, backward and awkward schol

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