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the recitations are the times appointed for the M
examination of the work, and for giving needed
instruction. But as the work of the pupil is, THE TRUE METHOD OF CONDUCTING except in the instances of writing, slate exerRECITATIONS.
cises, and drawings incapable of physical in
spection, rehearsal, telling what he knows, is An experienced school officer once said "Let the only method of getting at what he has
learned. mo see a teacher conduct a recitation, and I will give you the full measure of his capabili
Thus we see the rehearsal is a fundamental ties as an Instructor.” There is much good part of the recitation ; it cannot be got over sense in this remark. Recitations are the
nor set aside without injury. life of the school room, and a teacher unskill
The abuso lies just at this point. Instead of ful in them is defective as an instructor. Few the rehearsal, teachers have fallen into the teachers give sufficient consideration to the way of putting a multitude of questions, and of methods of conducting recitations. The de- judging from the answers to these, the extent fects arising alone under one branch of this of the pupil's knowledge. This process is gab
It makes subject, are, to-day, operating largely to the ject to the following objections : injury of our schools.
the capacity of the teacher a measure of that Recitations have two
of the pupil. parts, one of which is performed by the pupils,
The efficiency of the recitation the other by the teacher; the one here referred will depend upon the ability of the teacher to to, is that performed by the pupils. Their part put questions. If he have not first rate ability of a recitation has become abbreviated, and
in this direction, and few have, tho pupil may what little they do perform, is done all wrong.
never be called upon to exert his full powers. The true meaning of the term recitation, is The rehearsal on the contrary, gives full play a rehearsal of a lesson by the pupils before an
to all the powers of the pupil; he may tell all instructor. This just covers the ground, it he has learned, whether the teacher have knowlmarks the duties of the pupil. In the practice edge or tact to put questions or not. of our schools, however, the thing is reversed, Again, children are apt to study for the rethe teacher does the rehearsing, the pupils do citation. It is one thing to study a lesson so the listening; they answer questions, he talks, as to be able to answer a teacher's questions, and delivers a little lecture on the lesson, called and another to study it so as to be able to exan explanation. There is no such thing as a press intelligently in language what it conreal rehearsal of the lesson by the pupil.
tains. One is studying to satisfy the deBut why do we want the rehearsal; not sim- mands of a teacher, the other is studying to ply because that word happens to occur in the make the contents of the lesson his own, to definition of the term recitation. By no means. enable bim to hold and convey it in language We want it for the very reasons which led to to others; one process makes superficial scholthe adoption of the recitation exercise in ars, the other, thorough, intelligent ones. schools. Experienco taught men these things, Still again, questions as used by most tcachthat the human mind can only be developed by crs are suggestive, they cut out the very path tasking it; that knowledge is most rapidly ac- for the answer, depriving the child of a most quired in the performance of a series of tasks healthful exercise -- that of collecting his arranged to that end; unu that in every sphere thoughts, gathering up his knowledge, arrangthe performance of a tyro must be examined by ing and presenting it in the garb of his own a master-hand, in order that his errors and de- language, as he will have in after life to do ficiencies may be pointed out, and such instruc- when teachers and schools are things of rection given as his wants demand.
ollection. These principles may be seen in the instance
Here is one grand reason why there are so of the Mechanic and his Apprentice. They few good talkers, go few men good at conver: are fully recognized in the arrangement of sation among the people. They have nevei school exercises. The lessons are the tasks, been trained in schools to talk, to tell whal
they know; they have always been kept at an- can be made to dig out for himself; require swering questions.
him to make the effort vigorously first, help Hence let the teacher, as the first and most him only when he halts from real-inability. important part of the recitation, require from The method of conducting a recitation here the pupils a full and definite statement of their pointed out, renders it an exercise of skill, both knowledge of the lesson. Let it be in their on the part of the pupil and teacher, requiring own language as nearly as possible, but pre- special preparation from both. It will ever be cise and orderly. Let the teacher put no found effective in disciplining mind and in questions, other than in the way of a sugges- making good scholars.
WAYSIDE. tion to each pupil as to the portion of the lesson he is to rehearse. Require from the
ON LYING TO THE BOYS. pupil perfect preparation of the lesson, and promptness in the recitation. Then if there be
I hope that I may take it for granted, that aany mind-any intelligence in the class, the teacher will be sure to call it out and stimulate no boy who reads this, or hears it read, ever
has told a lie. But I know that all of you are Et to action.
tempted, sometimes, to say what is not quite We would by no means be understood to en-true; and I wish to put you on your guard tirely ignore the use of questions in a recita- against the temptation now, before it gets its tion. But let them be reserved by the teacher first advantage of you. So let me say sometill after he shall have given the class ample thing to the boy who is tempted to tell his first opportunity to state their knowledge of the
lie. lesson, then use questions to give animation,
Perhaps you have done something which to draw out things omitted in their statements,
you are afraid to have known. You were and to produce repetition of principles and of
playing and your ball struck the window and facts.
broke it, and you do not know.what will be As the final part of a recitation, and a dis- done to you if it is found out that you did it. tinct exercise, if we may so speak, come the ex- No one else was there. If you deny it no one planations of the teacher. This part of the ex- will know it. It will be so easy to say no.ercises of the recitation is especially delegated Why not say it, and so have no more trouble to him to perform, and in it be assumes his about it? Why not? Because that would be true character of instructor. From the rehear- a lie—and it would be worse to tell a lie than sal and the subsequent examination, the teach- to suffer any punishment which will come upon er has learned the errors his pupils may have you if you should tell the truth, honestly as it fallen into, and the difficulties and embarrass-was. If you tell the lio, do you think no one ments they are laboring under. It is for him will know it? I tell you that is a mistake. in this part of the recitation to correct these You will know it. You will know that you errors, to explain the difficulties, to remove the have told a lie. It seems mean to you nowembarrassments, and from his superior know- but it will seem meaner then. It does not seem ledge to distribute light and life, and pleasure such a very great thing now to say that one along their pathway.
word. But when you have said it you will But let the teacher recollect nover to mix up find that it has made you a liar, when you was the rehearsal, the questions, and the explana- a true boy before. And the more you think of tions together. Let each have its separate it, you will think that it was not worth while part and be attended to in its proper time. Let to make yourself a liar just to escape the his explanations, too, be brief. Avoid every punishment which you had deserved for your thing like lecturing-pouring in knowledge on carelessness or your fault. You will wish you the brain ; it is worse than useless. Too much could take the lie back and take the penalty explanation takes from the pupil the necessity now. But you cannot do that, without conof making proper effort, and without effort on fessing that you told a lie; and what can you the part of the pupil nothing substantial is do? You have to shut it up in your own ever gained. Never explain what the pupils breast and it is miserable company-is it not?
And there is this about a lie. You never can
DO IT WELL. get away from it. If it has once passed your lips you can never get the taste of it off your
ANYTHING that ought to be done at all, ought tongue. If you do not get rid of it now in the best way you can, that is, by coming out brave- to be well done. A little well done is better ly with the truth and so killing that first lie, it than much indifferently done. Let every word will cling to you and punish you in one of two
that is spoken in the school-room be correctly
uttered. Let every figure and diagram made ways. Either you will go on and tell other lies and so become an habitual liar, or if you never
upon the blackboard be correctly made. Let
all the movements of classes be orderly. Let tell another lie you will never forget that one,
explanations be ablaze with light. and every time you think of it, as you grow from boyhood into manhood, it will seem to you argument be aglow with truth. Never pettifog
a question in the school-room. If you cannot meaner and meaner. As you come to feel more and more the worth of self respect, how many
solve a problem or demonstrate a proposition, times you will wish, and how much you would
or illustrate a principle, do not make the atgive, if you could say—these lips never utter-tempt. Pupils will never forgive pretensioned a word of falsehood.
they hate shams. Will anything you can gain by any false
Billy Gray, the rich merchant of Boston, hood make up for the loss of the charm of that
once reproved a carpenter for not doing his honor and confidence in which you will be
work well. The carpenter told Billy he knew able to hold yourself and to walk among your
him when he was nothing but a drummer.fellows now and in all your life, if you can
“Well,” said Mr. Gray, "didn't I drum well
eh? Didn't I drum well ?" know, in your own breast, that your word was never false? Besides these lies that are spoken out, there
ITEMS. are a great many lies that come in disguise--a great many that may be told by some action
GEORGE PEABODY, the London Banker, was or by some look-or by some words that are received on the 9th ult., by the people of Dannot exactly untrue, but still they make some vers, Mass., in such a manner as indicated proone think something that is false—and a great found respect for his character, and gratitude many times you can tell a falsehood simply by for his liberality. It will be remembered that saying nothing. Do you think that all these in 1852, Mr. PEABODY gave a large sum for kinds of deception are any better than a lie the purpose of founding a Lyceum in his natold plainly out in words? Just see what you tive town. He believes that “Education is a do when you deceive in any
debt due from the present to future generatell a lie to the other person just as much as if
tions." you spoke with words. The only difference is that you try to make yourself believe that you
A. GOOD IDEA.--At the late meeting of the are not telling a lie-and is not that lying to N. Y. Teachers' Association, the following resyourself as well as to him? And so you tell olution was adopted: two lies instead of one.
Resolved, That under a vote of their respecThe only way to make a brave and true tive districts, trustees should have authority to
select, not exceeding one acre of land for a man is to be determined never to tell, or to do, school-house site, in the same manner as land or to think any, kind of a lie-but always to is now taken for highway purposes. try to know what is true—and to think what is
EDUCATION AND CRIME.-From statistics true-and to say what is true—and to do what is true-and so to be now and always a true
presented to the British Scientific Association, boy and a true man.
at its meeting in August last, it was shown that about seventy per cent of those arrested for
crime could not read. All reports presented J. J. M. Axgear has been appointed Princi- showed a fearful connection between ignorance pal of the Berlin Union School.
drunkenness and crime.
SHEBOYGAN Uxion SchooL.—This school Mr. J. C. PICKARD, late of Jacksonville, IV., has been opened under the charge of Mr. D. has opened a school for young ladies at Mad. J. Holmes, as Principal. The people of She-ison. boygan have crected one of the best School
We learn that there is a good state of feelBuildings in the State, and have shown an en-ing in Whitewater towards the Public Schools. lightened liberality in arranging their school, The efforts of the teachers seem to be apprewhich will be as beneficial to the place as it is ciated. creditable to the people. Success to the She
The Public School Building at Horicon will boygan Union School.
be completed about the 1st of January. It will We understand that Mr. W. VAN Ness, so cost about $9,000. long and so widely known in our State, as the
A. A. KENDRICK has lately been appointed efficient Principal of the Fond du Lac Union School, has resigned. We deeply regret this : Principal of one of the Ward Schools of Janes.
ville. Mr. Van Ness has labored long and hard in the cause of education, and there are too few Prof. GEO. R. Perkins, of Albany, N. Y., such men in the State not to make his loss has been appointed Professor of Mathematics felt.
of Iowa University. The people of Fond du Lac have heretofore
Do not forget to read our advertising pages. shown an interest in sustaining their public We advertise the best library books in the Schools, which led us to suppose that Mr. Van country. All the school books advertised by Ness'connection with them would continue for
us are good. a long time to come.
BOOK TABLE. It is said that Mr. John G. KEENAN, of Lansingburgh New York, has solved the problem of the tri-section of an angle. Let us have Surn's JUVENILE DEFINER.-The idea runthe proof.
ning through this work is to classify the words A School, we understand, has been estab- expressive of familiar objects; thus under the lished in Maza Mania, by Mr. Benedict, a
head of “things made of leather," are the graduate of our State University, under very
words shoe, boot, harness, d'e. The plan is favorable auspices. It is the intention of the good. Published by A. S. Barnes & Co., Nero founders to make it of a high order.
York. The new School Building in Kenosha is just
PAULOMATHEAN MAGAZINE.--Published by
the Students of Carroll College, and full of completed. The High School Building has been repaired and refurnished in fine style. -- readable articles. We are glad to chronicle its
advent. Mesers. McKindley, Butler and Stone are hard at work. Success to them.
RAY'S HIGHER ARITHMETIC.- This work
seems to be what its name indicates. It is full, A new school-hou
is to be erected at Pal- and sufficiently lucid. We can commend it as myra. The people of this thriving village are a work of the first class. Published by W. B. not indifferent to their educational interests. Smith & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. We understand that Mr. Brown has been
It gives us great pleasure to call the attenappointed Principal of the Fond du Lac Union tion of our readers to the advertisement of the School, in place of Mr. Van Ness, resigned. American Educational Year Book for 1857. We regret the loss of Mr. Van Ness, but wel- Such a work can be made a valuable handcome Mr. Brown.
book for teachers. When we receive a copy AY OLD SCHOOL.- The “Reformed Dutch
we shall notice it further. Published by RobinSchool," of New York City, recently celebra
son & Richardson, Boston, Mass. ted its two hundred and twenty-third aniver- BELOIT COLLEGE MONTILY.-Crcditable to sary.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
VOLUME 1.-DECEMBER, 1856.-NUMBER X.
From the German of IIerder. (and adorned with it the years of our first TIIE USE OF THE BEAUTIFUL IN awakening into manly life? Did she comEDUCATION.
mit a sin when she clothed so many forms
about us with loveliness, and made the AN ADDRIES TO THE PUPILS OF A GYMNASIUM. first years of life the spring-time also of
human feeling? Is it forbidden to pre[We give here a translation of a discourse by fer the beautiful to the ugly? forbidden, one of the noblest, purest, and most religiousminded of Germany's great thinkers. It will too, in learning and the arts? In these, serve to show the elevated tone in which the the ornaments of human nature, why subject is treated in the only country where as should we not seek the ornament of the yet teaching has renlly taken its rank as one of the liberal arts. We think that no teacher, ornament, the essence of the attraction. however humble his sphere of duty, can read it without profit and improvement. A.]
Nature never errs, and she would least TOUTH is the age of beauty in human of all be a deceiver where she shows her
life, the period when we love and self friendly, and in what of loveliness practise nothing so willing as what seems she lays in the path of our lives. She beautiful. The element of beauty in acted as a wise and benevolent mother literature, science, and art, is the sweet when she surrounded the true and the allurement which attracts us, the Hespe- good in her works with beauty, and made rides fruit which enchants us. The most the first years of our life a garden of useful and valuable teaching needs only pleasant delight. The very novelty of to seem hard, or to wear an earnest and the first objects of our knowledge and melancholy countenance, and yonth fries activity delights us; the lightness with from it as the talk of dry old age; what which our blood flows and our heart is most useless needs only to put on a beats and our thoughts and desires arise light and plcasing micn, and it is sought within us, softly allures us up the hard for, loved, and reverenced.
heights of human life, and charms us into How then? Is this impulse of our na- its bonds. We learn with pleasure, unture, this attraction and inclination for all consciously, and as it were in sport, what that pleasing and beautiful, to be con we hereafter must practise in sadder and temned? Did Nature commit a sin when more earnest years, and harder and more she implanted this tendency in our hearts, troublesome relations; an inviting spring