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those majestic sounds that roll along the respect to the proper employment of emheavens, when they come to the word phasis, is found in the tendency to emthunder. It is obvious enough in such phasize too many words. This leads us cases, that their admiration for that so- to consider another quality belonging to norous and expressive word leads them good reading; I mean the opposite of into what might be denominated, in the emphasis. This is the most difficult of language of the boys, "a thundering all acquisitions relating to a good elocumistake."

tion. If you take the first and second We are now prepared to appreciate a verses of the fifteenth chapter of St. rule for determining the place of the Paul's first letter to the Corinthians, and principal emphasis in a sentence.

attempt to keep in proper colloquial tones That word claims the place of highest the unemphatic parts, you will find it a emphasis which can not be taken away task of sufficient difficulty. “Moreover, without destroying the sense.

brethren, I declare unto you the gospel Hence, no word that can be omitted which I preached unto you, which also without greatly injuring the sense, has ye have received and wherein ye stand.any claim to emphasis. Apply these By which also ye are saved if ye keep in rules to those passages before cited. “I memory what I preached unto you, unless persecuted the church.” If "of God" ye have believed in vain." The first be omitted, the sense is not impaired. It word that is worthy of the least emphayou leave out church, and say, I persecu- sis is gospel. For this word the reader ted God, that is not the sense of the ought to reserve himself. All that goes writer. If you omit shining, and say

before must be kept in the most collotwo men in garments, the true idea is lost. quial possible undertone. The next emIf you utter the word shining, though phatic word is "received ;"which I the omission of garments renders the have preached unto you and which also sentence grammatically incomplete, the ye have"—is all so well understood as to sense remains.

demand nothing above the plainest monIn distributing the emphasis, it is to be otone. “Stand” is the next emphatic observed that there is always one word word. “Saved" requires more emphaof principal emphasis, and all others are sis, and the whole sentence falls off in a to be kept down, in comparison with it. lighter stress upon “vain.” Thus, in the couplet from Street, "stormNow it is not difficult to perceive that and "sun" are nearly equal; “eagle” the emphatic words are “gospel," "redemands more force, and the word "king"|ceived," "stand,” and “vain,” with a crowns the sentence by a superior em- slight stress upon the word “ memory.” phasis.

But to keep the other parts of the senIn the paragraph cited from Pope, the tence down by such a low pitch and qualemphasis must be all varied to suit the ity of tone as shall show them to be comcomparative importance of the thought paratively unimportant, this is the most expressed by each. But all are held in a difficult work of all that belongs to readsort of abeyance to one word—"rorth" ing as an art. -the word upon which the force of the No other work demands so imperativewhole paragraph turns. See the passage ly the assistance of the living teacher.

Yet, it is clearly enough seen in nature, The great difficulty to be overcome, in lif you watch for it in conversation.

on page 196.

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It is probable that more than four-fifths But these sensibilities are as susceptiof all our utterances would be heard with ble to culture as any other faculty of our difficulty, in conversation, if it were not nature. for the influence of emphatic words. Col- What has been said of keeping down loquial discourse runs along as if over un- unimportant words and members of sendulating ground. Emphasis is a torch- tences, has an application to paragraphs light breaking suddenly out on each high and to an entire discourse, as well. place, and throwing illumination upon

the The most splendid paragraph in a dislower march of comparatively unimpor-course has in it an emphatic point that tant narrative and connective words and stands out and glitters like a diamond in phrases.

its golden settings. That sentence can Nor are these subdued portions unim- not be presented in its relative importportant to emphasis. Emphasis is that ance by mere force and energy and paswhich distinguishes some words as more sion, as indicated in a particular sort of important than the rest of the discourse. utterance. It depends greatly upon what But the effect is produced, not so much goes before—upon a quiet and seemly by a contrast of the emphatic word with preparation for a natural and forcible outthe rest of the discourse as a whole, as gush of voice and feeling. So there is a by the contrast between the emphatic paragraph, or at least a small portion of word and immediately adjacent members a discourse, that rises like a Mount Blanc of the sentence before and after it. The among the Alps, and the whole discourse mass of common readers, of the better ought to be so managed by the voice as class, travel as if upon a high level, for to collect its mightiest energies to give emphasis, erecting hillocks of various effect to such a passage. A skillful wrisizes upon the plain. A natural reader ter places such paragraphs in his peroraundulates in his discourse, now going be- tion, so that a growing warmth from the low the level, and now rising above it.- progress of the subject may prepare the Hence two equally emphatic words that feelings and the organs of utterance for follow each other in the most proper and their utmost, just at the time when the effective utterance, are not to be measured point is reached that demands it. by their elevation above the plane of the

A skillful reader, then, will not use his horizon, but by the height of their sum

powers to their utmost in the first part of mits above the bottom of the trough be- his effort. He will expose his sensibilitween the waves. These low and creep- ties to be acted upon by such a quiet ining motions are to the emphatic bound of

fluence, at the first, as to leave room for the voice, what the quiet and strength-rising to the very end. His nature will gathering movements of the lion are to be held in such a reserve, that its action his exulting leap when he seizes upon his shall be as the oak that feels the wind.prey. True, there is plenty of room for Its leaves first rustle in the soft breath of affectation here, and many a tyro has the zephyr, its twigs then bend and whip torn a passion to tatters in a ridiculous the foliage in the breeze, then its boughs aim after effect. Naturalness comes from

toss their giant arms about in the gale, that sensibility which causes the senti- and finally the whole tree sways back and ments and passions to rise and fall under forth, almost sweeping the ground under a just perception of the ideas to be com- the influence of the storm-wind. municated.

When reading is considered in the light tones which the common people associin which it is now regarded as the utter- ate with individual words, and he will ance of a whole discourse, it is a matter find that almost every word has its apof great consequence to learn to finish a propriate tone. The boy that speaks to point, and to drop the tone when the his playmates of his kite as aray, away thought is dropped. An artificial reader in the distance, will give a tone to the perceives that an effect has been produc- word away that belongs to the idea coned by rising in force and emphasis till the veyed by it. There is a tone characterpoint has been made. He naturally izing numbers when spoken of as largewishes to continne this effect, and so con- “ Passing rich with for-ty pounds a year.” tinues the quality of utterance that indi- a sum that seemed large to the poor cates the passion just expressed. It is a peasantry. “He was seen of above five great art to throw off' a passion when it is hundred brethren at once.” done with and begin anew.

Such words as bright, and glitter, and It is from neglecting a due attention to shine, admit of a tone of an analogous this point that almost all good readers are addicted to mouthing. A young speak-indeed. Like the metallic lustre of a

quality-a tone that can not be described er admires oratory. He listens to the

butterfly's wing, you can perceive it captivating eloquence of an orator like

when presented, but it vanishes as that Patrick Henry, or Dr. John M. Mason, or Henry Clay. He is entranced by one of criticism. It is not necessary, to be sure,

insect-brightness does under the touch of their impassioned paragraphs. He thinks for the learner to talk always loud when he will imitate them. He will apply it to

he speaks of thunder, nor in a whisper his whole discourse. This is mouthing. when he speaks of noiseless dew-falls. — If he will read naturally and well, he

But observation and culture will lead to must forego this vain ambition to exhibit

constant and valuable attainment in this himself, and only cultivate his sensibilities and powers of utterance, and break respect. It is said of Dr. John M. Ma

son that when reading the passage “If forth in strains of passion only where

ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, passion compels him to do so. When

ye shall remove mountains," there was that passion has expressed itself, he must

something in his tones that made a grain throw it off'; he inust begin again.

of mustard seed seem exceedingly small, There is one more quality essential to and the mountain very large; and when good reading—the adaptation of sound to he compared Napoleon to "a Bengal tiger

No one can fail to observe that crashing in his jaws the bones of nathere is a large class of words in which tions,” such was the painting employed the sound is naturally associated with the in the adaptations of sound to sense, that ideas intended to be conveyed. Such are the auditors seemed to see a monster, the words crash, rattle, slip, smooth, and to hear the crackling of bones. rough, etc.

In conclusion, we can only say, that Now it will be found on careful inspec- the great desideratum, in respect to readtion, that a far larger share of words posing, is that it should be installed in its sess these adaptations than is commonly proper place among the most attractive supposed. If any man wishes to study and useful arts. At present it is really reading as an art, let him compare the no part of education. Boys are taught

sense,

268

WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

to pass fluently along in the utterance of sive in their operations, unless they are English sentences. They declaim a few supported by a strong sense of justice.times in college. A few instances of The most scrupulous integrity, liberality, false emphasis are corrected. They are fair dealing, and honor, consistent with taught how to modulate the voice in ask- doing unto others on all occasions, as they ing a question. Some have had possibly would be done unto, ought to be early what would amount to the training of a and forcibly inculcated, by example as professor in a drill of ten separate hours well as precept. So far from indulging a in a course of four years'study. If young smile at any instance of selfish dexterity, misses are sent to a dancing-school to ac- they should see that we view it with disquite a trifling and comparatively useless, approbation. if not dangerous accomplishment, they must go two or three quarters, perhaps as

IS IT COME? many years, that they may move gracesully and smile bewitchingly from behind a

The following is the poem that attractfan. If music is to be learned, three, ed the attention of the Marquis of Lansfour, or five years under masters, at an downe, and induced him to make a preexpense of one or two thousand dollars, sent of £100 to the authoress, Miss Franis nothing. Drawing and painting are ces Brown. prosecuted for years under accomplished masters. Yet the men that are to grace Is it come? they said, on the banks of the Nile, the bar, the senate chamber, and the pul

Who looked for the world's long-promised pit do not have one quarter's teaching day, under a professor who has mastered his And saw but the strife of Egypt's toil, art. The teachers are not taught. Where

With the desert's sand and the granite gray. is the teacher in our schools that has From the pyramid, temple, and treasured dead, spent ten, five, three years, or even one,

We vainly ask for her wisdom's plan; in preparing himself for teaching reading? They tell us of the tyrant's dread–

Yet there was hope when that day began. A man that should offer to teach a singing school in a country parish with such slen- The Chaldeo came, with his starry lore, der preparation, could cherish no hope of

And built up Babylon's crown and creed; finding employment. He that shall in

And bricks were stamped on the Tigris shore

With signs which our sages can read. troduce reform into our schools, or estab

From Ninus' Temple, and Nimrod's Tower, lish a professorship where public men

The rule of the old East's empire spread may acquire the qualifications of a natu- Unreasoning faith and unquestioned powerral, graceful, effective elocution, will ren- But still, Is it come? the watcher said. der a great service to his generation.

The light of the Persian's worshipped flame, JUSTICE.—An early and deep rooted

The ancient bondago its splendor throw;

And once, on the West, a sunrise came, sense of justice, strict justice, is the prop

When Greece to her Freedom's trust was true; er soil wherein to nourish every moral With dreams to the utmost ages dear, virtue; and there it should be the con- With human gods, and with godlike men, stant care of parents, assiduously to in- No marvel the far off day seemed near, stil its importance into the tender minds To eyes that looked through her laurels then. of their children. The feelings of benev- The Romans conquered, and revelled, too, olence will never be uniform nor exten-! Till honor, and faith, and power were gone;

cause,

And deeper old Europe's darkness grew,

Still the mass, we are obliged to As, wave after wave, the Goth came on.

believe, think seriously and act consciThe gown was learning, the sword was law,

entiously, if not always wisely. This is The people served in the oxen stead;

manifested in the organization of school But even some gleam the watcher saw,

districts, in building school houses, in And evermore, Is it come? they said.

employing school teachers, but more to Poet and Seer that question caught,

our purpose, in the choice of persons to Above the din of life's fears and frets ; It marched with letters, it toiled with thought,

superintend their educational interests.Through schools and creeds which the earth Is a local Superintendent to be chosen? forgets.

If there is one who is known to be an And statesmen trifle, and priests deceive,

active laborer in the cause, he is chosen And traders barter our world away

without reference to what party or sect Yet hearts to that golden promiso cleave, he belongs to, though a candidate for a

And still, at times, Is it come? they say. lower office might be questioned as to The days of the nations bear no traco his political faith. Of all the sunshine so far foretold;

This might appear untrue to one who The cannon speaks in the teacher's place-

has not carefully examined this matter, The age is weary with work and gold,

to one who has only noticed how closely And high hopes wither, and memories wano; On hearths and altars the fires are dead,

drawn are party lines, and that the sucBut that brave faith hath not lived in vain

cessful candidate for this office generally And this is all that our watcher said.

belongs to the successful party. But it

will be found that there are other than For the Journal of Education. party reasons for this; that in too few DISCONNECTION OF SUPERINTEND- instances is one of the candidates known ENCY AND POLITICS. to have the qualifications requisite to en

title him to hold the office in preference The safety of our government depends to his opponent. Yet as often as this is upon

the proper education of the people. the case, the result is sure. Such instanThe importance of this education was ces, though not frequent enough, tell well felt by the Pilgrim fathers. The early for the cause of education generally, but adoption of measures to secure the de- far better for the favored localites which sired result, was the practical working of are thus blessed. These always show that feeling, which has “grown with their appreciation of the good resulting our growth and strengthened with our from such a choice by adhering to their strength,” until every individual has be- course whatever may be the changes othcome, in theory at least, a friend of cdu- crwise. cation.

It would seem that people showing Many, however, are friends only in such interest in the selection of local theory; for, unlike our forefathers, they school officers, would consistently guard fail to show their faith by their works; against an opposite course in the selecor, what is worse, in influencing or con- tion of the officer who is to do more than trolling the actions of others, in hindering any other, in prospering or retarding the the adoption of important measures un- cause of education in the whole State ; der the plea of caution, they show as the one who, waiving the question whethstrange disregard to the success of the er he should be a practical educator,

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