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JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
VOLUME 1.–OCTOBER, 1856.- NUMBER VIII.
[Translated from the German.] 5th. As soon as you have thoroughly HOW CAN THE TEACHER BEST MAKE mastered the text-book or manual you
HIS OCCUPATION CONDUCE TO HIS have adopted as a guide, study other OWN PROGRESS IN SELF-IMPROVE- manuals and works which treat of the MENT?
6th. Endeavor to arrange a course of In answer to this question we give the study which shall exactly correspond to following brief rules:
the wants of your particular pupils. 1st. Study the subject you are to teach
7th. Study constantly such general thoroughly, in all its parts and in all its works on the subject of education as you bearings.
can command, pedagogic, didactic, on 2d. Take as a guide in your teaching methods logical and psychological, by some good printed manual, but use it
means of which your mind can ripen into only in proper time and proper manner, clearer views, and discover better methods and never while you are giving instruc- of practising your profession. tion.* 3d. Accustom yourself to a thorough
These rules all spring from the idea and exhaustive preparation for every
that the success of the teacher in his single exercise and every single lesson school results mainly from his intimate you give.
knowledge of the subjects he is to teach, 4th. Enter in a book all the experi
and from the gradual and never-ceasing er.ces, reflections, and noteworthy obser- development of that knowledge, and all vations you have occasion to make during
its accompanying relations in his mind. It is for this reason we require of him
from the beginning the most intimate ac* We suppose this to refer to a class of books quaintance with every subject he is to very common in Germany, but little known teach. In the next place we have counhero, which combine a general treatise on the subject of education, with minute directions for selled him to take printed manuals for his instruction in particular departments. Of these guides, because time, if nothing else, is there is a great variety, often constructed upon usually wanting to most beginners for the very different principles, and laying out very different courses of study.
claboration and publication of his own
guide.* Moreover, it is to be presumeded which shall admit of no change and no that many guides already printed have a improvement? Therefore no book whatgreater value than the unripe products of ever can take the place of the teacher's a beginner. To lay out a practical course own reason and understanding, and every of instruction of very moderate limits, is writer on education must demand of his in no department a very easy work.— reader that he use his work with thoughtOnly the matorest and wisest teachers ful freedom, and make all changes, are truly competent for it. I am there whether of omission, addition, or alterafore by no means of opinion that a young tion, necessary to adapt it to the particuteacher is best able to lay out his own courses of instruction; though I would And gradually to qualify the teacher not have him all his life-long slavishly for the performance of this duty, I rebind himself to a guide. Only let bim quire of him a conscientious preparation choose and follow one in the beginning of every single lesson, attentive observaThe eclecticism which strives to choose tion during its continuance, and a careful the best parts of all that are known, com- registering of his observations aftermonly destroys all unity, and hinders all wards. In such a way the teacher can steady progress. It is far better to fol- att::in to such maturity, that he can low steadily even a one-sided plan, than either dispense with his guide altogether, to have none at all, and only be guided or make one for himself more closely by the supposed temporary wants of one's adapted to his own wants and circumscholars, or even by one's temporary stances. But that he may, during the whims and caprices. I have known lesson, apply his whole attention freely to young teachers who thought they select- his pupils, I require that he make no ed the best parts of many plans, but ge- use of guide or text-book during his renerally nothing came of it.
citations. Teachers should instruct, not I therefore lay great stress upon choos- out of books, but from their own heads. ing out and following some good guide to The truc manual for the scholar is the a course of study. Yet the best guide teacher's own thoughtful brain, which, that can be taken seldom suits in cvery with independent mastery of the subject, particular the special case and particular gives to each pupil just what that pupil school in which it is to be used. Such a needs, milk to one and meat to another. universally applicable course of instruc- The teacher must, if we may be allowed tion has never been made out, and never the comparison, understand the art of can be. Every writer starts from certain cookery. The material from which the given premises, and certain given rela- food is prepared is everywhere the same; tions of the schools and teachers for but the preparation of it to suit the which he writes, and belongs himself to varying appetite and digestive powers of Time, which never stands still, and is in his charge is his duty, and no one else eternal development. Every individual can do it for him. A good guide points too has his peculiarities, and how can it the way to it, or at best fits the relations be expected that a guide can be compos- and circumstances of most common oc
currence, but can never take the place of * This is curiously illustrative of the fact that in Germany, a nation of writers. almost the teacher's own judgment and reflecevery schoolinaster of any note makes and tion. In the better Normal Schools, prints school books and guides of his own.
therefore, teachers are accustomed from
the beginning to teach from their own therefore, the zeal of a young teacher heads, and not from text-books; the con- proceeds chiefly from the satisfaction he trary is not and ought not to be permitted. finds in completing his knowledge of a It is a slavish dependence in a teacher, subject not yet wholly mastered, and not when he everywhere needs a book. He from love of teaching itself, it may with cannot then give his undivided attention certainty be expected that this zeal will to his pupils; and cramped in the strait-gradually cool. The true zeal which will waistcoat of a manual, free mental acti- not disappear must spring from love of vity becomes impossible. Away, then, teaching itself, from interest in the dewith books from the hands of teachers in velopment of youthful minds. And then recitation time. At home let them study it will be a matter of comparative indifthem carefully, but before their scholars ference to the teacher what it is that is let them labor with free and independent given him to teach. But yet, that he spirit. Of course the rule cannot apply may retain a fresh interest in material to all recitations, but let it be enforced which he has always before him,—for wherever possible, and for all lessons, what earnest man does not feel the need without exception, let there be required of enlarging his views and refreshing his of the teacher a complete mastery of the spirit amidst the constant recurrence of whole subject-matter. It is to accomplish the same objects, and a life-long occupathis, that we give the rule that after hav. tion with the same particulars ? let him ing mastered the particular manual he study constantly the writings of other has chosen, he should consult other men upon the subjects which he teaches. works which treat of the same subject,
If refreshment is not to be found in noand that he should seek constantly to at- velty of material, then let him seek it in tain to a higher degree of theoretical in- multiplicity of views and variety of treatsight and of practical skill, by the study
ment. It is just this that characterizes of the best books which treat of his
the accomplished teacher, that he under
profession. If the teacher by constant re
stands how to treat the same subject in petition of his manual has made it en- the greatest variety of ways; and herein tirely his own, he will no longer need a
lies an advantage of public schools over special preparation in it for every lesson;
all private teaching, that it teaches how but the need of extending his views and to consider the same subject from differrefreshing his spirit never ceases.
The ent points of view, and after the peculiar last necessity rather increases with years,
manner of a great variety of differing and from the difficulty of satisfying the
minds, want, we must explain the frequent fact
Finally, the teacher must constantly that so many teachers gradually lose strive for an increase of his didactic intheir early zeal, and finally, perhaps, sink sight and capability. The essence of culinto a dull routine. It lies in the nature ture lies far more in generality and of earnest spirits to teach with extraor- breadth of view, than in the mass of dinary zeal those subjects which they knowledge.* Therefore let every one bave not yet fully mastered. But as soon * We would not be understood to mean that as they have succeeded in this, their in- the essence of culture lies in a knowledge of clination ceases and their zeal grows cold. general laws and abstract rules without also a
knowledge of concrete particulars; for the first The charm of novelty disappears, and 'rest upon the second, and are bollow and their spirit of inquiry is satisfied. If, empty without them. First and foremost must
study, besides the writings upon single safe, good place in the country, costs departments, works also which are occu- about fifteen dollars. Fact the Second : pied with the investigation and develop- To arrest a boy for a criminal offence, ment of the general subject of education. keep him in the Tombs, try him, confine Of special influence in the culture of the him a year in the House of Refuge, and teacher is an intimate acquaintance with apprentice him afterward, costs about psychology and logic. For psychology, two hundred dollars! Is it not true, that or rather anthropology, is the fundamen- an ounce of prevention is worth a pound tal science of pedagogy, without which of cure? Bear in mind, also, that conthe latter can find no permanent founda- finement in the House of Refuge is a distion. But logic discloses the organiza- grace; the boy may do well in aster life, tion of the knowing faculty, whose de- but he has a secret lodged in his heart velopment is the chief business of the which he carries with him in fear to his teacher. We do not mean by logic the grave.-N. I. Phenix. mere mastery of the abstract formulas of dry compendiums, but a living compre
EDUCATE THE WHOLE MAN.—Everyhension of the forms of the thinking body should have his head, heart and spirit, and a living intuition of the func- hand educated. By the proper educations of the intellect in all the phenome- tion of his hand, he will be enabled to na of its activity. If the teacher com- supply his wants, to add to his comfort, bine in this way the thorough mastery of and to assist those around him. The single departments with the study of the highest object is of great value-everygeneral subject, he will attain at last to thing that hinders us is comparatively that ripeness of culture which will make worthless
. When wisdom reigns in the him a master of his profession.— Mass. head, and love in the heart, the man is Teacher.
ever ready to do good; order and peace Tue “OUNCE OF PREVENTION,"_Two reign around him, and sin and sorrow are facts, stated by Mr. C. L. Brace, at the almost unknown. late anniversary of the Children's Aid Society, claim universal notice at the hands DECISION AND TRUTII.—Whatever you of the press. Fact the first :- To take a think proper to grant a child, let it be little beggar boy out of the streets, keep granted at the first word, without enhim a year at an industrial school, sup- treaty or prayer; and above all without plying him with a dinner daily, and making any conditions. Grant with clothes occasionally, and then get him a pleasure, but let your refusal be irrevo
cable; let no importunity shake your come the knowledge of individual facts, but we must not rest satisfied with them, but strive to resolution, let the positive “no,” when rise to a knowledge of the general laws that once pronounced, be a wall of brass, underlio them. “ The moro minute he is, the better he will succeed,” says an experienced which a child, after he has tried his French pedagogue of the elementary teacher ; strength against it once, shall never more and it is true of all teachers. The abstract endeavor to shake. University method is the ruin of teachers who pass from college halls into the schoolroom.They try to teach from above downward, instead of deroloping from below upward and INDOLENCE leaves the door of the soul ontward. By general views, therefore, we un- unlocked, and thieves and robbers go in derstand anything rather than empty abstractions and artificial systems.
and spoil it of its treasures.
HOW TO BUY A HOUSE.
"My tailor's bill was sixty-five dollars."
"I have it here." “I tell you, my dear, it is utterly im
“Hats, Boots, and possible! Save three hundred dollars a
have them all." year out of my salary? You don't un
“ You have indeed!" derstand it,” said Charles Converse to
“When you had any new thing, you his young wife. know I always asked
you gave "Perhaps I do not,” replied Mrs. Con
for it." verse, “but my opinion is very decided."
“I know you did, but I will bet five "Women don't understand these things.
dollars I can name a dozen things that You think my salary of eight hundred
you have not got down." dollars a year a fortune."
“Done!” said the lady, with a laugh, “No such thing, Charles.” "But eight hundred dollars, let me tell
as she took from her drawer a five-dollar bill
, and placed it on the table. you, wont buy all the world.”
Charles Converse covered the money. “I had no idea that it would; yet, if
Capital idea for you to bet against you only had the habit of saving what
me with my money !” said he good-huyou spend for things that you can get
moredly. along without, you would be able to build
"If I lose, I will do without that new a house in a few years."
barege I am to have." " Build a house ?"
“Nay, my dear, I don't want you to “Yes, build a house, Charles."
do that." "Well, that's a good one!"
"But go on." The young man laughed heartily at the
“Pew-rent, six dollars," said the husidea-too chimerical, too absurd, to be
promptly. harbored for a moment.
“Here it is," answered she, pointing to “How much do you suppose it cost us the entry in the book. Try again." to live last year?"
"Season ticket on the railroad, twenty." “Why, eight hundred dollars, of course.
“I have it." It took all my salary; there is none of it
Sawing the wood." left."
“ Entered.” The young wife smiled mischievously
Charles reflected a moment; the case as she took from her work-table drawer a began to look desperate. small account book.
“New linings for the cooking-stove." “You did not know that I kept account “Here-two dollars." of all these things, did you ?”
“Cleaning the clock." “No, but how much is it?" And
“One dollar-here it is." Charles was a little disturbed by the cool
Mr. Converse began to look hopeless. way in which his wife proceeded to argue "My taxes." the question.
"Well, I have not got that." "Four hundred and ninety-two dol- But that was the only thing he could lars," answered Mrs. Converse. mention of these necessary expenses that
“Oh, but, my dear, you have not got was not found to be regularly entered on half of it down."
his wife's book. Still, Mr. Converse was “Yes, I have everything."