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as their fundamental law. In Williams v. Bruffy, 96 U. S. 176, 183, it was said by Mr. Justice Field, delivering judgment, Any enactment, from what. ever source originating, to which a state gives the force of law, is a statute of the state, within the meaning of the clause cited, relating to the jurisdiction of this court.' * * * So a by-law or ordinance of a municipal corporation may be such an exercise of legislative power delegated by the legislature to the corporation, as a political subdivision of the state, having all the force of law within the limits of the municipality, that it may properly be considered as a law, within the meaning of this article of the constitution of the United States."

To the same general effect is the opinion of the supreme court rendered in Hamilton Gaslight & Coke Co. v. Hamilton City, 146 U. S. 258, 13 Sup. Ct. 90.

In Wright v. Nagle, 101 U. S. 791, the supreme court, speaking of a legislative grant of franchise, say:

“The legislature may exercise this authority by direct legislation, or through agencies duly established, having power for that purpose. The grant, when made, binds the public, and is, directly or indirectly, the act of the state. The easement is a legislative grant, whether made by the legislature itself, or by any of its properly constituted instrumentalities."

And it does not appear why the same reasoning shall not apply equally in the matter of fixing rates of gas.

The conclusion necessarily follows, under the pleadings in this case, that the ordinance in controversy is, within the meaning of the constitutional provision, the law of the state, for the purposes of the action. If it impairs the obligation of the contract held by the city, it must be declared invalid. And if the rates therein fixed are unreasonable, to such extent as to justify such action, the restraining writ of this court must be issued, because of said ordinance impairing contract obligations to whose enjoyment the plaintiff is entitled.

Passing now to the consideration of the remaining points of attack made herein by plaintiff, and for the present deferring the consideration of the evidence introduced, we may, without detriment to plaintiff in this action, eliminate from our inquiry the second point,—whether the private property of plaintiff is, by the ordinance in question, taken for public use without just compensation. Indeed, we may pass over so much of argument of counsel on either side as relates to this point. For, if the ordinance is violative of the United States constitution as to either of the other two points (depriving plaintiff of its property without due process of law, or denying to plaintiff the equal protection of the laws), the ordinance must be decreed to be invalid in so far as it thus operates. And, without attempting to particularize, it is apparent from argument of counsel that counsel upon either side agree in the position that, unless the evidence shall sustain one or both of the two points named, it would, in this action, fail to sustain that as to the taking of plaintiff's property for public use without just compensation. It is therefore unnecessary to decide, as between conflicting claims herein, whether the constitutional prohibition just stated could be properly applied in the action. Defendant contends that "taking of property without due process of law" is but an equivalent phrase for its “practical confiscation.” In their printed ar

gument, counsel for defendant say, after quoting the provision of the United States constitution, "Nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws" (Amendment 14, § 1):

“We understand the foregoing provisions of the constitution to be violated only when, as applied to the facts in the case, the rate fixed by the council would afford no compensation whatever, or only a nominal compensation upon the actual investment.”

Under the view hereinafter presented of the matters now in hearing, it becomes unnecessary for us to follow the line of argument presented by counsel as establishing the foregoing proposition. The opinions filed by the supreme court have not presented -at least, in express language-the views held by that court on the proposition of counsel just quoted. But, if I correctly apprehend the argument of counsel, an error is committed when counsel seek to measure the jurisdiction of this court in this case by the remarks of the supreme court in regard to the jurisdiction possessed by them in cases brought into that court by writ of error from the highest court of a state. Whatever doubt may have obtained, none now exists, under repeated decisions of the supreme court, that the jurisdiction of that court in the last-described class of cases is solely where the decision of the state court has been based on the constitution, statute, or treaty of the United States, and such decision has sustained the claim that the act or law complained of in the court below was not in violation of the federal constitution, statute, etc. In other words, the supreme court does not sit as a court of errors to review the action of the state court on matters of general judicial action, nor as applied to whether the decision of such state court is correct according to the state constitution or the state statutory enactment. But the sole, exclusive jurisdiction of the federal supreme court, in the class of cases named, is where there is actually involved in the controversy, and the state court has based its decision on, some portion of the United States constitution, statute, or treaty, and that decision has sustained and upheld, as valid and constitutional, the act or statute which had been attacked as unconstitutional. In New Orleans Waterworks Co. v. Louisiana Sugar-Refining Co., 125 U. S. 18, 8 Sup. Ct. 741, the supreme court distinguish and declare how different is their jurisdiction when a case is taken from this court on writ of error. Their appellate jurisdiction on writ of error from this court, if the case is reviewable by law, properly taken to that court, is practically lim. ited only by the assignments of error.

Counsel for defendant insist that this court may not pass, in this cause, on the question of the reasonableness of the rates fixed in the ordinance in controversy; that, since the citizenship of the parties is not diverse, this court has not herein the general power, as a court of equity, with which it would be clothed if the parties hereto were of diverse citizenship. I do not regard it necessary to follow this argument to its full length. For manifestly, if a controversy here in is pending as to which one construction of this constitution will

sustain, while a different construction will defeat, the action, then a constitutional question is presented, which confers on this court jurisdiction herein, without regard to citizenship of the parties. This point was considered at some length on the decision herein rendered, sustaining the jurisdiction of the court as against the demur rer of defendant attacking the same. Now, when jurisdiction has thus attached in this court, then any matters which affect the constitutional questions presented are properly before the court for consideration. Charges are here directly presented by the plaintiff

, that, by the ordinance in controversy, plaintiff is deprived of its property without due process of law, and is denied the equal protection of the laws. The words of Chief Justice Marshall are here pertinent:

"The judiciary cannot, as the legislature may, avoid a measure because it approaches the confines of the constitution. We cannot pass it by because it is doubtful. With whatever doubts, with whatever difficulties, a case may be attended, we must decide it, if it be brought before us. We have no more right to decline the exercise of the jurisdiction wbich is given than to usurp that which is not given. The one or the other would be treason to the constitution.” Cohens v. Virginia, 6 Wheat. 264.

Let us gather a few of the expressions of the courts as to what is included in the terms "depriving without due process of law,” and "denying equal protection of the laws."

In Chicago, M. & St. P. Ry. Co. v. Minnesota, 134 U. S. 458, 10 Sup. Ct. 462, 702, Justice Blatchford, delivering the opinion, says:

“The question of the reasonableness of a rate of charge for transportation by a railroad company, involving as it does the element of reasonableness, both as regards the company and as regards the public, is eminently a question for judicial investigation, requiring due process of law for its determination. If the company is deprived of the power of charging reasonable rates for the use of its property, and such deprivation takes place in the absence of an investi. gation by judicial machinery, it is deprived of the lawful use of its property, and thus, in substance and effect, of the property itself, without due process of law, and in violation of the constitution of the United States; and in so far as it is thus deprived, while other persons are permitted to receive reasonable profits upon their invested capital, the company is deprived of the equal protection of the law."

Justice Miller, concurring: “(3) Neither the legislature, nor a commission acting under authority of the legislature, can establish arbitrarily, and without regard to justice and right, a tariff of rates for such transportation which is so unreasonable as to practically destroy the value of the property of persons engaged in the carrying business, on the one hand, nor so exorbitant and extravagant as to be in utter disregard of the right of the public for the use of such transportation, on the other."

In Stone v. Trust Co., 116 U. S. 307, 347, 6 Sup. Ct. 334, 388, 1191, Chief Justice Waite, delivering the opinion, says:

"From what has thus been said, it is not to be inferred that this power of limitation or regulation is itself without limit. This power to regulate is not a power to destroy, and limitation is not the equivalent of confiscation. Under pretense of regulating fares and profits, the state cannot require a railroad corporation to carry persons or property without reward. Neither can it do that which in law amounts to a taking of private property for public use without just compensation, or without due process of law."

In Railway Co. v. Gill, 156 U. S. 657, 15 Sup. Ct. 484, Justice Shiras, delivering the opinion, says:

"This court has declared in several cases that there is a remedy in the courts for relief against the legislature establishing a tariff of rates which is so unreasonable as to practically destroy the value of the property of companies engaged in the carrying business, and that especially may the courts of the United States treat such a question as a judicial one, and hold such acts of legislation to be in conflict with the constitution of the United States, as depriving the companies of their property without due process of law, and as depriving them of the equal protection of the laws."

In Ames v. Railway Co., 64 Fed. 176, Justice Brewer says: "The idea of reasonableness is justice, and that which is unjust cannot be reasonable; and, when the strong arm of the legislature is laid upon property invested in railroad transportation, it must be so laid as to do justice to such investors. There can be no justice in that which works to such investors a practical destruction of their property thus invested. It must be borne in mind that property put into railroad transportation is put there permanently. It cannot be withdrawn at the pleasure of the investors. Railroads are not like stages or steamboats, which, if furnishing no profit at one place, and under one prescribed rate of transportation, can be taken elsewhere, and put to use at other places and under other circumstances. The railroad must stay, and, as a permanent investment, its value to its owner may not be destroyed. The protection of the property implies the protection of its value.”

In Reagan v. Trust Co., 154 U. S. 397, 14 Sup. Ct. 1047, Justice Brewer, delivering opinion, says:

"The courts are not authorized to revise or change the body of rates imposed by a legislature or commission. They do not determine whether one rate is preferable to another, or what, under all circumstances, would be fair and reasonable as between the carriers and the shippers. They do not engage in any mere administrative work. But still there can be no doubt of their power and duty to inquire whether a body of rates prescribed by a legislature or a commission is unjust and unreasonable, and such as to make a practical destruction to right of property, and, if found so to be, to restrain its operation.”

And on page 399, 154 U. S., page 1047, 14 Sup. Ct., the same justice, in delivering the unanimous opinion of the court, says:

"The equal protection of the laws, which, by the fourteenth amendment, no state can deny to the individual, forbids legislation, in whatever form it may be enacted, by which the property of one individual is, without compensation, wrested from him for the benefit of another, or of the public. This, as has been often observed, is a government of law, and not a government of men; and it must never be forgotten that, under such a government, with its constitutional limitations and guaranties, the forms of law and the machinery of government; with all their reach and power, must, in their actual workings, stop on the hither side of the unnecessary and uncompensated taking or destruction of any private property legally acquired and legally held.”

In Railway Co. v. Dey, 35 Fed. 879, Judge Brewer declared: "The rule to be laid down is this: That where the proposed rates will give some compensation, however small, to the owner of the * * * property, the courts have no power to interfere. Appeal must then be made to the legislature [in the pending case to the city council) and the people. But, where the rates prescribed will not pay some compensation to the owners, then it is the duty of the court to interfere, and protect the companies from such rates. Compensation implies three things: Payment of cost of service, interest on bonds, and then some dividend."

He closes this branch of his discussion in these words, as applicable to the payment of interest on bonds:

“While, by reducing the rates, the value of the stockholder's property may be reduced, in that less dividends are possible,-and that power of the legis lature over property is conceded, yet if the rates are so reduced that no divi. dends are possible, and especially if they are such that the interest on the mortgage debt is not earned, then the enforcement of the rates means either conBiscation, or compelling, in the language of the supreme court, the corporation to carry persons or property without reward."

But still the question remains whether the matters presented show the ordinance in question impairs the obligation of the contract, de. prives plaintiff of property without due process of law, or denies to plaintiff the equal protection of the laws, so that at this point in the case a preliminary injunction should issue. In the question just stated are included so many factors, the application of the general principles embraced therein so strongly differ, as the peculiar cir cumstances and conditions of the cases differ; there is absent any special, unfailing test or standard of measurement; in short, each case presented is so largely, and almost wholly, of its own peculiar kind, and the constitution, congress, and the courts have all failed to minutely and specifically define these constitutional provisions, that a court may well approach the matter with great reluctance. The ordinance in controversy is prima facie reasonable, in the rates imposed. On plaintiff is the burden of proving the contrary. Un. less, when the case is finally submitted on the merits, the plaintiff shall have satisfied the court, by a fair preponderance of the proof, that the rates by the ordinance so fixed, or some of them, are not reasonable, and are so unreasonable as to justify the court in staying its operation, the decree must be for defendant, and the court must refuse to interfere with the enforcement of the ordinance.

We are not, at this point in the case, to determine what decree shall pass on the merits. The action now to be taken may be in harmony with, or contrary to, the final action; that is, should a preliminary injunction now issue, yet the final decree the decision on the merits of the case, after evidence has been fully introduced on both sidesmay dissolve this injunction, and find for defendant, that the ordinance is valid and enforceable. While, if the application now pending for a writ of injunction be denied, yet the final decision on the merits may decree the ordinance invalid, as to rates therein fixed, and its enforcement to be stayed. The extraordinary process of the court—which, if issued, is to stay, until decree herein, the enforcement of the ordinance-may not lightly issue. The court is bound to assume, until the contrary be proven, that the council of the de. fendant city have acted with due regard to the rights of the plaintiff, and have established reasonable rates. The proof introduced on the application now to be decided has not been full or satisfactory in many points, or the case might now be submitted for final decision. It is not the practice, nor is it expected, that the proof submitted on the application for a preliminary writ shall fulfill all the requirements of the proof to sustain the decree and the permanent writ. If, on the showing now made, the case presented is such that, were the same convincing judgment present at the final hearing, the writ would be decreed, and the preliminary writ is found necessary for plaintiff's protection meanwhile, such writ may

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