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in speaking of a Russian traveller, says, while in other spots the black oxyd inay. that he would have boldly asserted that predominate. Argillaceous earth a roasting goose graduates into the spit. found in the most primitive substances; Thus some theorists have conceived that and theory can scarcely be expected to liine becomes flint, or flint graduates into deterinine whether the fertile clay, whicis line, from the inere mixture of the par. forms so prodigious and important a ricies near the line of their junction. portion of the surface of this globe, and The most proper and undoubted gradua. furnishes aliment to animals and vegetions occur only among the kindred tables, arises from a decomposition et rocks; and are generally a inere variation fected, during myriads of ages, by the of the mode or structure; as the passage superincumbent waters; or by a mere froin granite to gneiss, or froin grauite deposition from the original mass and to graniric porpliyry. If the granite he constitution of the waters themselves. surcharged with siderite, and its particles On the decomposition of rocks, the become very sınall, it may pass into the ob-ervations of a skilful clienist must be real basale of the ancients ; but can particularly exact and interesting, for never become a basaltin interspersed which reason those of Mr. Kirwan are with chysolice or zeolite; and if the ba- extracted; more especially as they saltin occur with granite, it must be abound with examples which are essential sierely adherent. keralite may, by inn. to the nature of the present work. It biting iron from the atmospheric air, may also be prelaced, that the decomor whatever cause, become jasper. Wer. posed rocks have never hitherto been ner has observed, that wacken passes ireated in any professed work of mineinto clay on one hand, and basaltin on ralogy, so that ile novelty of the subject the other; which last again passes into calls for every aid of illustration, basalton or grunstein. Many other une The decomposition of rocks is not only doubted transitions may be obserred; a curious subject in itself, but of the bot it will suffice to enuinerate some of greatest iinportance to the arts, parlia the most remarkable, leaving the others cularly architecture and sculpture. Many to time and accurate observation, noble edifices have soon become dis

figured, because the architect did not Domain XI.--Decomposed. know the easy decomposition of the inaThe decomposition of rocks furins a terials. Thus at Trianon the pillars are striking feature in genlogy, as a great already decayed, because the argillaceous part of the productive soil, and inany of nature of the marble of Campan will not The substances used in important manne hear exposure in the open air, where is factories, may be considered as chietly soon exfoliates. At Oxford it bas been derived froin ihis circumstance. Several observed that some of the public buildof the most useful clays are reputed by ings are injured, because the builders s'ime to be merely decompositions of had not studied the nature of the stone, felspar; the mixture of sand being a de- which requires to be laid in its original conposition of quartz. Bergman found position in the quarry, that the tirse the loam near London, to contain only compression may still exist, as otherwise 13 of argil; the remaining 87 being à it will imbibe ihe moisture, and thus redish grey mand, as fine as flour. What split or crumble in frosty weather. is called inould, consists chiefly of rege- Sculptors are singularly anxious that the table and animal remains. The fall of stone which they use should not be subJeaves in a forest creates a fine black ject to this defect; and their example mould.

should be followed by architects, as the In various parts of England, and other duration of their works and reputatinn countries, the loam is of a red colour, depends entirciy on this branch of knowand proceeds in what may be called ledge. It would appear that the ancients, kelis or zones (for strata can only be who always mingled the useful with the superimposed on each other) for a great ornamental, had particularly investigated distance, but with various interruptions, this subject, even in very early times; This red tinge can scarcely arise from the for the Euyprians, in tveir eternal modecomposed felspar of red primeral gra. numents, had already learned to preter nite, as some have supposed; for in that granite and porphyry, the two inost du. case the hardest nodules of the granite rable substances in nature; and which would probably still be found, as in the have the additional advantage that they red sand-stone; but inay merely proceed afford no temptation for destruction, befroin the admixture of red oxyd of iron, cause they cannot, like marble, le copo 4

verted

dle ages.

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verted into time: for soine of the noblest some magnesian mixtures, be much in. nionuments of Greece have been used termingled, the stone is apt to become for this purpose by the barbarous Turks; carious. But the magnesian rocks in geand a temple or statue of Diana has neral are little subject to decay; and been turned into cement, for the volup- serpentine, resisting moisture by its unce, tuous apartments of a llaram, It is also tuous nature, forins some of the boldest conceived by antiquaries, that some of summits and promontories. It was, the finest monuments of ancient Rome perhaps, this consideration which iisa perished in this manner during the nid. duced the preference of ollite, or put.

stone, in the construction of the Duke. It must not be forgotten that stoncs of Argyle's noble mansion at Inrerary. apparently hard, are soinetimes more subject to decay than those of a softer Domain XII.-Volcanic. contexture. The pyramids of Egypt The volcanic rocks may be said, with have suffered little degradation, though the German mineralogists, to be of the constructed with a soft calcarevus konite. most inodern forination, as every new The Roman Pharos, at D.ver, reinains eruption of about one hundred and fifry almost entire, though built with a soft volcanoes scattered over the face of the stalacritic tufa, found in abundance on globe, must produce new rocks of this the shores of several rivers ; for example, description. That there are also volThe Tees, in the north England. The cannes at the bottom of the sea, we know, transportation of this stone froin a dis. from the ejection of new islands in the tance, seems to evince that there was seas of Greece; and, in the Atlantic some reason for giving it a preference; near Iceland, and the Azores. It may and as it is coralloid in its structure, it therefore be cousidered as a most rational was perhaps justly conceived that it conclusion, that, as the ocean occupies would emit the moisture with the same two-thirds of this globe, numerous volease as it was received, and hence be canoes may exist at such depths, that little subject to decomposition. The their effecis are wholly unperceivable. conjecture, if such, was certainly verified Dolomieu seems to have dernonstrated by the event. From this, and munierous that the matter, which supplies the proother examples, it inay be inferred that digious eruptions of volcanoes, musi lie the ancient architects observed, with a . ac an immeuse depth beneath the crust most scrutinizing eye, the nature and of the earth. This position may be are the structure of the stone which they gued, 1. from the surprising extent of employed; an important circunstance carthquakes, felt from Lisbon to Scotwhich has not met with due considera- land, a space of 15 degrees, or about tion among the moderns.

1000 Britislı milés.

2. From the proThe same considerations are also of digious quantity of matter ejected in the the greatest importance in private build- course of ages; from the consparatively ings, where stone is abundant and in ge- small craters of Etna, for example, weral request; and the product of any whole mountains, nay territories have nei quarry should be put to several tests, issued; whiclı, if drawn from a space and severely examined, before it be near the surface, the mountain inust brought into use. The example of the long since liave sunk into its own abysses. houses of Malta, mentioned by Mr. 3. From the nature of the lava, which, Kirwan, is a striking lesson of this in some instances, has burst through the kind; and some modern buildings in superincumbent masses of granite, itself Scotland are more decayed than the alle regarded as the fundamental rocko cient. If iron, clay, or even perhaps

(CND OF THE THIRTY-THIRD VOLOME)

GENERAL

GENERAL INDEX

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376
497

264, 436

..

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212

PAGI

TAGS
A BERDEEN, state of the port of 93 Autobaptism, an anecdote

252
....., commercial meeting at 201 Axle-frees, improvement in the con-
Absorption, on cutaneous
S6 struction of

349
Abstinence, remarkable case of 213 Badajoz, account of the taking of
Academy, proceedings of the royal 167 Bagshot Heath, inclosures pa
exhibition of the
485 Baker, T. account of

287
Accidents by drays, on prevalent 240 Ballad, inquiry for Shakespeare's 35
Achilles, on the shield of
408 Banknotes, on forged

232, 377
Acoustic tunnels, on

252 Bankruptcies announced 67, 369, 277, 371,
Acts of parliament, abstract of
274

474, 57!
Admiralty, suitors money in the 135 Baptism, case of self-

25%
Adventurer, on the author of a Number Barberini vase, on the

509
of the
33 Barruel, accouns of the abbé

35
Afairs, state of public 61, 177, 278, 273, Buch, education society ac

398
470, 368 charitable ball at

497
Agriculçural reports 96, 207, 407, 403, 590,

:--., installation of knights of che

573
395 Buchs, on sea-water
societies, proceedings of 193, Bactisfürd Tye, Suffolk, inclosed

300
292, 294, 39; Bedsteads, improvements in

151
Agriculture, on the stace of
432 Becch, Eliz. account of

493
Air, queries on the
..., 153. Bees, on the preservation of

33, 98, 115
•.., experiments on the

34 Beet-root, on extracting sugar from 59, 204.
Alkalies, decomposition of the
262

365
Allingham, Mr. account of

484 Bell's, Dr. scholarships, regulations con-
Alum in'dyeing, on
546 cerning

309
America, political state of
67, 474 Bellinghim, trial and execution of,

477
ancient description of 143 Benelit societies, on the extension of
American blighi, on the

104
observations on

241
Anecdotes of remarkable persons

35

plan for the improve-
Animal creation, essenrials of the

ment of
food, evils resulting from 13 Berwick, religious petition from

290
Animals, analogy of vegetables and 331

conduct of tax collectors at 185
.. on cruelty to

436 Bethlem hospital, foundation of the new 377
Anne, queen, her private life

135 Bible societies instituted 85, 195, 199, 268,
account of her favorites 246,

299
441 Birmingham, petition from

192
Annuities, on the doctrine of

510
school at

297
Antediluvians, on the longevity of the 5,112

state of

492
Antiquarians, address to the society of 11 Bligh, Mrs. character of

485
Antiquities discovered 59, 60, 91, 165, 185, Blight, on the American
386, 290, 292, 294, 394, 395,488 Bours, regulacions for passage

34
Apjarian society, inquiry concerning the 423 Bulton, extraordinary address from

490
Apple trees, method of preserving 8, 26, Bombay, punishments at

165
105,130 Bon-mui, a curious
cultivation of a new species

Book-makers, infamous practice of
of

261 Books, extraordinary prices of 268,468, 558
Arches, on the equilibrium of
332 analysis of scarce

143
Architecture, lectures un

157

Botanical reports 93, 205, 402, 593
Ardrossan, a fariner's club at

garden at Hull, Account of 162
Aristrus, on the table of

318 Boy, account of a musical
Armfeld, E. account of
19: Bradley, Williani, account of

82
Arms shipped for Spain and Portugal 6 Bread, on the waste of

370
Arts, retrospect of the fine
157 ...., method of making sice

ib.
Asthma, virtues of stramonium in 132, 284, .... on potatoe

465 account of an economical
Attraction, observations on
12o Brecon canal completed

200
.., on chemical
260 Brewse, account of the ancient family of

30
Auctions, 0.3 mocki

439 | Bridge, description of a chain foot

24

338

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26, 104

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....

201

3:1

Bridge,

at

80

104

211

57, 161

1

17

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161, 299

202

PAGE

PAGE
Bridge, advantages of the Southwaik 123 Circle, on the quadrature of the 103
Bridles, improvement in
150 improved reflecting

151
Brighton coach, robbery of the 197 Ciudad Rodrigo, siege and capture of 171
......, inprovements at

320 Clarendon, account of the earl and count-
Bristol, election meetings at
198 ess of:

249
Lancastrian school at
318 Clerical anecdotes

41
petition from

303, 305 Clifton, description of the Madeira house
British municipal government, on the 7.

54
museum, persons admitted at the 266 | Cloth, specimen of new blue

150
...., on the siatues of the 223, Clough, George, account of
336 Coal trade, depression of the

496
Institution, prizes proposed by 158 Cochineal insect, on the
Browne's gold medals, suljec's for 269 Coinage, historic view of the

164
Buccleugh, account of the duke of 71 Coiners, apprehension of a gang of 391
Buckingham, marchioness of, her death 288 Coins,' account of the first European 251
Buffon, anecdotes of

36 Coincidence, a celestial
Bullelins, on the French

158 Cold suffered hy reptiles and insects 545
Pumby, Mrs. account of

389 Colours, on the Newtonian theory of 525
Bunbury, H W:memoir of

145, 317 Comet, account of the
Buonaparte, his conduct at Acre 448 Comets, on the theory of

129
Buoys for ships, improvements in 150 Commercial reports 92, 203, 310, 460, 592
Jurke, alleged plagiarism of
544 Confessor, remarkable advice of a

252
Purknot apple, on the cultivation of the 266 Connecticut, slate of the province of 165
Busk, Sir W. account of

379 Constellations, on the names of the 240, 315
Cadiz, number of beggars at

243 Consumption, increase of the disease 185
* Calcdonia, dimensions of the

467 Convocation, singular decree of a 251
Cambridge petition against the Catholic Copal varnisli, on preparing

214
claims
393 Copenbagen, vaccination at

364
proceedings of the University Corporate bodies, observations on
of

296, 300, 362, 393, 494 | Corran, extraordinary spinning of 387
Canals, improvements in

.., ón dyeing

$42
Candía, account of water-spouts near 97 Cow, account of a remarkable

385
Canteen, on the word

23 Crauford, General, account of
Carlisle, meteorological journal at

Criminals in England and Wales, returns
384 of

267, 467
Carriages, observations on wheet ..127 Critical Review, remarks on the 504
improvements in
258 | Criticism, on periodical

269
Carter, Niss, correspondence of 533 Cromwell, discovery of MSS. of
Carlhusian convent described

125 Cruelty, remarkable instance of
Casks, machinery for making

..., on sermons against

2436
Castors, improvement in

151 Cumberland, works of George
Catania, injury sustained at

a tour in

531
Catholic perition to the Prince Regent 279 Curates, on he act for the relief of 192
('attle shews, accounts of

283, 284 Cure, an extraordinary
Cavendisli, Col. account of
giCutaneous absorption, on

56
Cazanova, anecdote of
449 Cyder, on the management of

434
Cenis, account of mount

127 Cylinders for the Tlames archway de-
Chalk, metlid oi fixing, in drawings 33,2;8

scribed

269
Chateau de Caprice, description of

..., method of gauging

437
Cheltenham, improvements at
298 | Darkness, an uncommon

89
Chemical attractions, on

26o Davy's, Dr. lectures, analysis of 159, 259
Cherbourg, proceedings of the seciery at 156 Dawson, Dan. trial of

299
Cheirs, Mr. account of
381 | Deaf and Dumb, on the

253
Cheshire salt, manufacture of

388 Deal, improvements in the town of 197
Chesnuts, use of the syrup of
408 | Delamere forest, inclosures of

295
Chester, education society at
85 | Derby, charity school at

389
description of

232
riots in the county of

296
disaster at
29: Desaix, anecdote of

125
Chimneys, method of curing smoky 45 Destitute, account of the refuge for the 30
.., cap for the tops of
553 Devon, salubrity of

215
Chinese dictionaries, on
107 Digitalis, its efficacy in scarlet fever

310
Chocolate, method of making
143 | Dimond, W. W. account of

88
Christian religion, on the morality of Diseases, monthly reports of 59, 202, 304,
the
33, 229

399, 499, 591
Christ church. Oxford, fire at
194 Dissenters, on the policy of

33
Church steepics, on

40
...i, meeting of

573
Dissenters,

II

..., riuts at

90

235

21

165

82

353

....)

PAGE

41

488

468

20

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PAGE
pissenters, decisions concerning the 76, 77, Females, on the reform of

417
90, 167, 186, 187, 191, 195, 493 Female preachers, on
Dividends announced

2 34
68, 170, 278, 372, Fever, observations on typhus..

202
476, 572

on digitalis in scarlet
Docks, impolicy of converting the Thames

310

Filtering jars, account of ancient
into

..3
Financial schemes of Law

149
, new, at Rotherhithe

"284 Fineagle's mnemonics, on
Dog's tongue, its virtue against rats 467 Fires, remarkable . 165, 189, 194, 393, 396,
Doncaster, charity at

494
Dorchester, charity schools at.
396 on preventing

130
Dough, new mode of kneading 258 Fire-arms, improvement in the barrels
Dover, charitable institution at

301
of

459
Dram shops in the metropolis, number

instrument for the generation of

553
of
270 Fish oil, methods of purifying

425
Drays, on accidents from

240 Fisher, Marianne, extraordinary account
Drowning, means of preventing 23, 430

of
Drugs, on substitutes for various 156 Flaxman's, Mr. lectures, account of 157
Dublin, account of the philosophical so Flies, how to preserve pictures from

5&
ciety at

465 Food, evils arising from animal
Duncan, Hon. J. account of

399
utility of aniinal

240
Durham, prevalence of consumption at 185 ---, on the extravagant price of 439
Dying, on the mordants used in 547 Forest, discovery of a marine

365
Earth, on the changes of the
118 Forgery, observations on

232
on the theory of the
411 Fossil horn, discovery of a

267
East India company, their negociation Foundations, on laying

257
with government
204 Fox club, meeting of the

178
on the renewal of Fox glove, its efficacy

310
their charter
303, 304, 305 Franshain, memoir of

24
trade, statement of the 391, 393, Freethinker, a singular

40
400, 406, 497 French prisoner, hard case of a

133
monopoly vindicated

529 furniture, description of 545
Ecclesiastical courts, reform of
55 Frog eating, observation on

253
Eclipse, observation of the lunar

210

discharged from the stomach 468
Edgeworth, Mr. complaint of

124 Frozen ocean, discoveries in the
Edinburgh, decision respecting tithes at 91 Funeral society, plan of a

10
Institute, account of the 111, 164 Gaddis, D. extraordinary age of

498
...., observatory in the university Gaelic society, report of the

160
of
398 Galvani, on the discoveries of

262
--..., remarkable history of the Galvanic plates, observations on

34, 213
448 Gambit, remarks on the

420
Education, on the new mode of 289 Game certificates, account of

197
-, account of the oriental sys Gansaws, meaning of

27
tem of
269 Gauges, on rain

409
......., an improvement in

468 Gautier, M. inventor of the telegraph
on classical
520 Gas from coal and wood

365
Egg, description of a remarkable 132 Genius, account of a singular

80
Egypt, account of the French work on I Genlis, Madame, anecdotes of

37
Electors, maxims for

100 Geological observations

118, 411, 513
Electricity, observations on
261 George I, anecdote of

40
Elasinian mysteries, on the

III. anecdote of his coronation 145
Elizabeth, on a ring of Queen
545 Gibbon, anecdote of

449
Ely bank, solvency of the

299 Glamorganshire, population of
value of the see of

587 Glasgow, funeral society at
England, on the naval power of 109

proceedings of the chamber of
., account of a tour in the north

commerce of

201
of

531

meeting of manufacturers of
Epidendron, observations on the . 34, 99. Glenie, Mr. on the quadrature of the
Epitaph, a ridiculous

41
circle

103
Erasmus, on Henke's life of
251 Globes, alteration of the celestial

315
Eskimaux, remarkable account of an 310 Gloucester, benevolent society at
Evaporation, method of accelerating.

new commission for the
Eudiometer, observations on the

34
Ewes, fecundity of 194, 301, 302, 487 Glynn, Dr. anecdotes of

99
Eyre, Dr. account of

396 Gold, price of
Farmer's club, account of the 201 Gordon, Duchess of, account of the 369
MONTHLY MAG. No: 229.

4 R

Gospel,

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