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ceived and unfounded hypotheses, there secretions, sustenance, and growth, of seems no reason why the science of locoir.otive beings, beginning with those metaphysics should not be rendered as of one perception, and ascending to certain as any of those which are not those of many, through the various deStrictly mathematical. The mistakes grees of sensitive secretion and power, which have attended this porsuit have of perception and reason, till we arrive been, the beginning where we ought to at that miracle of nature--MAN! leave off; and the attempting to analyze

The obstacle at which Metaphysicians the counbined and complicated powers of have hitherto stumbled, has been the want intellectual man, whose mental machine of a clear and broad analogy by which to is composed of a variety of involved pow. connect fixed vegetable with moving ers, instead of making our approaches sensitive existences. This, however, is by means of the analogous but less com- made plain by referring to the analogous plicated machinery of the minds of lower means by which each is sustained; and animals. Nature has presented us with then by considering that the source of all a succession of organizations in those the variations in the organization of both, which simply exist, in those which grow; is to be traced to the intention of the in those which grow and live, and Creator, in adapting them to their rein those which grow, live, and feel. To spective and several spheres of exisascertain the nature of these several tence. species, or modes of existence, we ought An animal differs from a vegetable, not to begin with the highest order of in the power of moving from place the highest class, but with the lowest to place. Yet a vegetable would die and ascend to the highest.

were it moved its subsistence depende The method of analysis seems hitherto ing on the secretions performed by to have been employed by metaphysicians, its roots; and animals move about in without their having the advantage of those vigour? True ! --and Nature has protests, which add to the discoveries of the vided accordingly! Animals and vegetachemists; at the same time that, unlike bles have each their roots in the ground the chemists, they have sought to de- with this difference,--that aniinals carry compose the most compounded object of their soil about in the cavity of the their researches, instead of beginning stomach, and their roots act within that with the most simple. Reason too is the cavity instead of being fixed in the test that is employed, but its application earth! The difference therefore beis often fanciful and arbitrary; it is be- twixt vegetables and animals is, that in siles unlike the tests of chemistry, whose the former the receptacle of the roots is operations are denoted by the unsophis. fixed, and in the latter it is carried ticated laws of nature, and lead to une about by the animal in the cavity of the erring results. I prefer, therefore, the stomach!--The roots of animals therefore method of Synthesis, and by the aid of obe are the absorbents and lacteals wluich servation and reason, to compose a mind branch from the stomach; and the stomach beginning at the lowest organization, and itself is filled with appropriate soil by eate adding faculty to faculty, observing and ing, from which soil tire animal routs ex. measuring the phenomena at every stage. tract the pabulum or nutriment, rejecting

Unhappily, therefore, it appears, that, and ejecting the superfluities ! if we would acquire wisdom on these This is a wonderful but most evident subjects, we inust obliterate all the past, analogy-mind hence it appears, that, in and begin again from the foundations of certain important and essential particu. nature. It is but too true, that in these lurs, every animal is a moving vegetable ! inquiries we have, like many gamesters, This is unquestionably true, so far as replayed too forward a game and lost it; gards their physical organization, their or, like some tradesmen, we have over growth, their sustenance, and many other traded our capital and become bankrupts! common particulars; but the universal fit. My plan then of studying nature directs a ness of things to their purposes does not commencement with simple inert matter, require that fixed and locomotive beings its chemical properties, and its mechas should have properties in all respects nical laws; a subsequent attention to the alike. A fixed organization calls for growth of minerals, arising from those none of the perceptions or senses renascertained principles; an investigation dered necessary by change of locality, of the more combined arrangements of but is probably sinilar in its characters vegetable secretion and growth; and, to that of an animal asleep. Vegetables finally, an examination of the analogous therefore are to be considered as organized

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existences, differing in certain essentials which a wise and henevolent Creator from stones and minerals; and aniinals might endow it, would be something like

another species of organization, the following: having a new set of powers nccomino As a moving creature, it would be endated to their spheres of existence! dowed with the power of VOLITION.

Nature, or the processes of the om To distinguish other boilies and secure nipotent Creator viewed in his works, its own identity from destruction, it may thus be distinctly traced from the would be provided with the perception elements of bodies which generate their of FEELING, divisible into the peculiar solidity and extension through vegeta. perceptions derived from the organization bles which grow out of those mechanisms, of the senses.* and indicate new varieties of power As a means of preservation, it would to animals which again subsist on those be supplied with the irritation of aunvegetables, and exhibit similar organiza. GER. tions, combined with new powers or per That it might satisfy the irritation of ceptions, adapted and essential to their hunger, it is provided with an innate motions and well-being.

capacity of Eating, or appropriating nuThe aniinal senses are, in truth, merely triment. a consequence of locomotion, and cons That it may distinguish the qualities of trived for that special purpose; and this its food, it is provided with a faculty is evident by cousidering their uses to

for TASTING. the animal, and by observing their various That it might distinguish what is noxpowers as possessed by different animals. Jous without contact, it is endowed with Natural Ilistory does little more than a faculty for SMELLING. record those phenomena.

We begin That its experience might not be with simple perception in the lIyriatid wasted, and as a further and necessary and other species; and ascend to species means of sustaining its existence, it would distinguished for the perfection of each be provided with memory, analagous to sense, finding every gradation of pouver, which is the power of association. As well in the organs themselves as in That experience might be applicable the faculties of secreting ideas and ap to classes of danger or gratification, and propriating experience for future use. not be limited, to particulars, it would be

The powers or senses evident in vege- provided with the faculty of ABSTRACtables and trees are, the principle of TION. growth, the power of propagation, and That abstraction might be useful, it the capacity of appropriating nutriment would be provided with the capacity to their sustenance all mechanical and of applying its abstractions by the power insensitive-forming a species of existe of REASONING from ANALOGY, which ence like that of an animal asleep, whose would include foresight, mechanical functions proceed without That it might multiply its species, it consciousness. Its state of existence re- would be endowed with a modification quires no further powers, and no others of feeling, exciting the passioni of SEXUAL are evinced, or are perceptible.

The same powers exist also in animals, That it might preserve its species, it with those additions which are

would require to be endowell with the quired by their forms and modes of sentiment of PARENTAL AFFECTION, and existence; and this broad and beat. with the arts vecessary to the preservatiful analogy will further assist our

tion of its young. inquiries in regard to the mental pheno That it may be able to distinguish the mena of animals, by enabling us to rea. approach of danger, it requires to be son, à priori, on the powers, senses, in- provided with a faculty for IIEARING, stincts, or capabilities, which ought to or feeling vibrations of air, and its be inherent, or to be generated by ex powers of discord and barmony. perience, in locomotive organizations, to enable them to fulfil the purposes of their

* Pleasure and pain may be considered as being, and to qualify them to sus distinct from the sense of mere feeling; and tain their moveable existence.

the sense of health and sickness may be deemed bles us to correct analysis by synthesis, independent of every other sense; perhaps and to ascend from the simple to the also the sense of personal identity, consciouscomplex.

ness, and self-love, are susceptible of sepa. Ilthen we were to suppose the faculty ration; as heat and cold may be separable of LOCOMOTION to be conferred on a tr-e froin ordinary feeling; and so with the vaOr vegetable, the inherent powers, wi.h rious passions,




It ena.

That it may be able to discriminate states of existence, And, in general, ille objects at a distance, it is provided with perfection of the powers is in proportion a faculty for seeing, or feeling rays of io the degree of exercise or exertion belight, and with perceptions of beauty stowed on them. and deformity.

It is as absurd to suppose, or require, And, that it may be qualified to commu. that there shouid be but one or two) nicate its experience to its species, by a degrees and varieties of intelleci, in the ' kind of general or external abstraction, animal creation, as that all animals it is provided with the powers of vuice should be of one shape, colour, or and GESTURE.

stature. The replenishing of nature reDoubtless many other inherent capabi- quires various habits, with minds firmed lities, intuitive powers, orinnate faculties, to correspond with those habits. Man is may be assigned to locomotive beings, ari- at the head of this locomotive world sing from other secretions,or some of those his senses are as numerous and perfect named may be only_negations or va as those of any animal-his powers of riations of others. The perfection of appropriating experience are more acute, my scheme is less insisted on than its his abstractions more forcible, his comprinciple ; and that perfection must be binations more various, and his reason ihe result of all the investigations which more subtle; while revelation tells hiin I have proposed; it forms, in truth, the that he possesses an immortal soul deswhole object of metaphysical research. tined for a more intellectual state of

Tlie ESSENTIAL QUALITIES of loco. existence; and be inay thence be characmotive beinys of the highest order, appear terized as possessing the peculiar power therefore to consist of,

of contemplating and worshipping bis 1. Their physical powers.

Creator, and of turning his thoughts in2. Tl:eir perception of feeling. ward, and examining bimself and the 3. Their power of volition).

world in which he is placed !* 4. Their organs of sense,—and

COMMON Sense. 5. Their intellectual powers.

All I insist upon is, the principle that To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine. the broad analogy between fixed and loco

SIR, which to discriininate their appropriate powers; and, these being ascertained and and in support of, each of the theories fixed, it then becomes the proper busia of Arches, have some time since ape ness of metaphysical observation and peared in your Magazine, and other pereasoning to determine the kinds and riodical publications, yet I have not been degrees of inherent powers or instincts able to discover any thing satisfactory or bestowed on all species of organised decisive in respect to their comparative beings. Such is truly the use that ought merit, or shewing from whence their to be made of this analogy, and it is, I difference arises, the cause of that differpresume, the only means by which we ence, or why any should arise at all. can ever arrive at certain conclusions,

I have lately seen a small tract upon and be able, by a separate process, to the same subject by a Mr. Gwilt, a inn. correct any analysis of the aggregation don architect, which, although it cou. and subtle amalgamation of various tains many excellent remarks, does not powers in man.

supply this deficiency. Yet, as there is a Appearances and experience seem to passage in the introductory pari that very · prove that some animals possess innate pointedly condemns La Hire's Wedge powers unknown to us, and the notion Theory, and extols that of Mr. Emerson deserves investigation. Doys return to beyond all bounds, I shall transcribe it; their homes, birds, to their nests, and and, by inquiring into its merits, endeawild animals to their dens, by powers, vor to make it instrumental to the above not easily accounted for by the concep, purpose. The passage is as follows: tions of nan. Fishes and insects inży “Such was the state of the progress tohave powers also, to which we are stran. warcis a perfect development of the true gers. On the other hand, man is endowed theory of arches, when our countryınan, with an uncommon share of the powers Mr. Emerson, in 1743, investigated the of abstraction, inemory, &c. &c. called nature of a proper extrados for i he diffepowers of mind. Every species posses rent curres. Casting a new light upon ses also the same powers in different degrees, qualifying them for different * To be resymed and concluded in our nexk. 1


thotive beings

, aff erds peculiar data bho N controversial papers relative to,

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this curious and useful subject, he ex must be left to reason and mechanics to posed the fallacy of La Hire's wedge determine. But I fatter myself that, by theory, and it is now completely ex the use of those, aided by a small portion ploded."

of cominon sense, I shall not only be Such is Mr. Gwilt's view of the two able to shew that the wedge theory is not theories, and his denunciation against exploded, “but that the Emersonian the latter, the truth or falsehood of which must be so."

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Let U 10, 20, &c. to 600, represent so long as it remains a curve only. But, the curve of intrados, containing 60°, when voussoirs of finite length are introand V, I I, &c. to A, the extrados of duced, this equilibrium must fail, for this the loading over it. The vertical disa theory is only adapted to an arch comtance between these curves being de posed of voussoirs indefinitely short, termined by the length of the lines I 10, kept in equilibrio by parallelograms of I 20, &c. which may (as Dr. Hutton and loading indefinitely narrow; and, if we our author both observe,) be obtained are guided by our author and Dr. Hut

sec, 3XU V. from this theorem,

ton's theory of piers, will be supported =110,

by abutments; if not indefinitely thick, I 20, &c. which lines, they admit, are supo,

their thickness will be much more posed to be indefinitely narrow parallelo-: than what is required by the laws of grams, standing close to each other upon

mechanics. indefinitely small equal parts of the arch;

Mr. Emerson's considering the arch or, as Mr. Gwilt expresses it, indefinitely

and loading as composed of indefinites, short voussoirs. Thus they say, that by may be very proper, so far as to compathis means the curve of intrados is ba- ring weights with wedges; but, having lanced and kept in an equilibrial state; proved their coincidence, as well as the and all this is admitted to be very just, radical identity of both theories, (which MONTHLY Mag, No. 226,


rad. 3.


he could not fail of doing,) there he of UV, and one degree in thickness,) then should have dropped the inquiry, and it is but to deduct the area of a voussoir tested satisfied with the discovery, with. from that of a parallelogram, and dividing out imposing this ideal theory upon us, the remainder by the difference of the and attempting to establish it with all sines adjusted to the extrados of the its show of Auxionary preparation, but voussoir, and the result will be the mean which has since been admitted, even by height of the loading over that voussoir, its advocates, cannot be depended upon according to its place in the arch, and so in practice; for Mr. Gwilt, in page 62, for each of them; and then the line VB, acknowledges, “ while the voussoirs are traced through their extremities, will be considered as indefinitely short, and are the curve of extrados to the loading over field in a lottering equilibrium by the those voussoirs u E, the extrados to the vertical pressure of the loading alone, voussoirs. as the theory requires, the arch would Now, seeing that the curve of extrados Bot be calculated to bear any extraneous to the loading, according to either the weight," and, in the same page, “that Emersonian or wedge tiveories, may be the voussoirs should be as large as may determined without having recourse to be conveniently got;” and Dr. Hutton the Emersonian theorem, (which is all inplies the same, by recommending them they have to boast of,) may it not be to be of an extraordinary length, and to asked, what new light báth Mr. Emerson increase all the way downwards to the cast upon this “ curious and useful subspringing, “the more the better," as he ject;" or can a theorem, raised from fluxio laserves under article Voussoirs, in his ons, to perform what for every practical “ Principles of Bridges.”

purpose can be performed without it, be Ic hath been observed before, that by called a light? Surely not, but ihe rethis theory the arch is kept in equilibrio verse, so far as it regards the practical by indefinitely narrow parallelograms; bridge-builder, who is the most interestbut, notwithstanding their indefinitenessed, and therefore to whose capacity this in a metaphysical sense, they must have light ought to be rendered clear. knite dimensions in a physical one, and It hath before been observed, of the those well defined, as each must act upon Emersonian theory, that, upon introducing 3ts appropriate part of the curve; that is, voussoirs of finite value into it, this if the curve be 60°, with a parallelogram theory must fail; and now this is inade to each degree, the number of parallelo evident by inspection, for from that you grams will likewise be 60, and their will perceive that the loading designated korizontal breadth must be the differ- for the 60th degree, by the first theory, ence of the sines of the angle, that each is by the second partly intercepted by side of those makes with the axis GV, the voussoir at 54°, while those vousupon the intrados, (as at 30 in the soirs, from thence downwards, are withfigure,) and which difference, multiplied out any loading at all by that theory; into the height, will give the area of that even in this case, where the voussoirs parallelogram, and so for eacb; and the are only 4ths of U V; but, if they were to 3am of those areas must be the area of extend to the curve V E, which we may the whole space between the curve of in- suppose to be what Dr. Hutton recom. trados and that of extrados.

mends, the curve of extrados would be This circumstance the Emersonians VXC, and the loading would only reach have not considered as of any conse to 490, and the other 11° be without quence; but, as the area can be obtained any, while the piramidical part III AX, from the vertical, it is obvious the verti- would act as an incumbrance. Upon cal can from the area, and as (according the whole, there is not one force or presto La Hire and Parent) that may be sure, except that of UV, that retains its found by multiplying the difference of the original direction, or can act with a pro. tangents by the depth at U V.

per effect; and all this is caused by adTherefore, when this area is tbus ob- mitting voussoirs as auxiliaries, and not tained, it is only dividing it by the incorporating them in the theory. For, difference of the smes, and you have when they are so incorporated, as is the the vertical without the expression, case in the wedge theory, they may be sec. 3x UV. &c. raised for that pure whether they are indefinitely short, or of

made of any length within bounds; and pose only; and further, to adapt the ex definite dimensions; whetlier they be all trados to an arch composed of voussoirs of equal length, or vary in that respect ; of definite value, (suppose in length schs or the arch put in equilibrio by means of


rad. 3

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