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for ever, hundreds of harmless people, - it may unhinge even the intellects, as in its fall! III * 1 573 luni

Bs We call them. I knew, full well, the son Lord Camelford, however, will see of one of the most eminent English none of these cloud-capt events which poets; and I am confident of what my perhaps await us. If the avalanche cover friend would not let me say, during his him, it must fall on the Swiss grave he life-time, in my account of Dr. Young, has chosen, in the canton of Berne, on among “Johnson's Lives,” in 1779—Iam the margin of lake Saint-Pierre, not far confident that, with different care taken from the real awful Alps. Poor fel- of his youth, and with such care as such low! He was certainly strange, and a poet ought to have given to the only almost more than strange ; as you and I child of her whom he wrote the “Nightagreed at Cuxhaven: but I sincerely Thoughts” to lament, the world would wish that all men of large fortune had have seen not only one individual the part of his strangeness. His directing less in the class of those who are miserhis relations to deposit his remains in able, but one the more in the rank of the grave he points out in Switzerland; those who reflect honour

upon at the foot of the middlemost of three nature. Frederick Young, the repretrees, far from all the haunts of men, sentative of our great poet and of the where he had often meditated on the Lichfield family, and the heir of all his mutability of human affairs and on the father's talents, died of a broken heart, ingratitude of mankind; what a melan- or by his own too-culpable han becholy, and perhaps instructing, contrast cause he who begot him neglected his does it not form with a young man of youth and his education, and quitted twenty-nine spending more than four the nursery of his wife and his own parthousand pounds of his income, every lour, in order to make excursions to year, in a personal contest with Misfor. Parnassus. Poets and authors will detune; in making his wretched fellow- fend their cause, by accusing their accreatures happy, notwithstanding all cuser of want of feeling; but I abstained that she could do to the contrary! His from saying this, which it has always principal delight was extricating young been my intention to add to my “ Life officers, in the navy or army, from the of Young” for twenty-five years, while clutches of misery, and enabling them a single individual of the family surto get on in their profession.

vived; and I absolutely disclaim all You perhaps have seen the English enmity, which is impossible, to the papers which speak of his manly death, memory of a poet whose works I rcin consequence of a duel, the beginning vere. Gentlemen, if you choose to of March, with Captain Best, of the marry, and to enter into new duties, more navy, an old and intimate frier.d? He numerous than you are aware of, you lived till the next day, and seems to are bound to fulfil them. No number have chiefly employed his time in ob- of laurel-crowns will ever conceal from viating any unpleasant consequences to the eyes of posterity, neglect, much less his antagonist for killing him. I once ill-usage, of a wife and children: the knew a fine fellow who fell also in con world has seen but 'three or four epic sequence of a foolish quarrel, by the poems; and even a fifth, superior even hand of a friend, to whom, in a will to those we have, will never make made afterwards, ne left a considerable amends for such conduct. The third legacy, which the other, of course, de- duty of a married poet is to be a good clined. The French account of Lord poet; but the first is to be a good husC.'s conduct and death (which is all I band, and the second to be a good have seen) affected me much. He had father. a noble mind; and he would certainly My poor friend's poetical father, have made a first-rate character, could whose eye overlooked his only child in his intellects have been regulated, and “ glancing from Heaven to carth, from could their energies have been directed earth to Heaven;" this Rembrandt of into a proper channel. It is far from English poesy missed a fine opportunity my intention to censure his father, Mr. of adding to his gallery of human porThomas Pitt, created Lord Camelford traits, in his “Satires. His harmless in 1784; indeed I have heard that he florist worshipping a tulip, is nothing to and others bestowed all proper pains on what Young's strong and natural pencil the late Lord's education : but I appre- might have painted. hend that the contrary conduct in a He might have shewn us the poet, parent may affect inore than the powers who, absorbed, in his super-mundane of the mind, as we are all agreed; that pursuits, Aatters himself that the best New Monthly Mag.–No. 83. VOL. XIV.

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verses of Virgil, and almost the worst of too much to pay for the possible inBavius, or of Mævius, will always com- struction, or perhaps only the doubtful pensate for his being a good-for-nothing amusement, of part of the public, in or only a middling character, in his con- only one language. jugal and paternal capacities : who con. Either Sophocles or Euripides, at a descends to marry a poor lady, the ob- very advanced age, produced a tragedy ject of his contempi, because she has to the judges who were assembled to never been taught Greek and Latin ; examine into the charge of his having and then commits, every night, more lost his intellects : but, supposing the than adultery, with his litile dirty Muse: Athenian court of justice to understand who, in short, does worse than neglect its duty, in vain would he have offered his own legitimate flesh and blood, heir in evidence the best of all his tragedies, to powers of mind still richer than his had his children accused him of being a father's, and doomed to imitate that bad father, instead of brutally charging father in neglecting his own children, him with having fallen into a second and so on, ad infinitum ; who, forsooth, childhood. “ in his fine frenzy," (as Shakspeare Racine has a name worthy to be mencalls it) does nothing but fondle his tioned with either Sophocles or Eurisickly, “mewling, puling” bastard, when pides; and yet he did not blush to be it is not likely to live, nor worthy to both a husband and a father. Unable live, a week-when it is already dead one day to convince the politeness of a when it never was any thing but still- gentleman-usher how impossible it was born.

that he should attend him, to dine at Young would not have laid aside his the Prince de Condé's, “because he dark and gloomy pencil, even from had been engaged for a week by his sketching satirical portraits, without wife and children to partake of a large piously representing' such a wretch, carp with them ;" and pressed by the while, in his poetical capacity, he hears courtier, with “ the prince's necessary his useless lays finally damned by all his mortification, as the company was to be contemporaries; and while, in his pa- very brilliant ;" the poet sent for the ternal character, he plainly foresees, on fish. “ There, sir! be judge yourself. his death-bed, that his memory will be Did you ever see so fine à carp? Is it cursed by his latest posterity.

possible for me to disappoint the poor My good friend, when you acquit me things, who make a holiday of giving of meaning to insult Young as a man, me this treat, and who would not perunderstand me not to hint that a syllable haps touch a bit without me?” This of this applies to the best of Young's scene deserves to be applauded and stuworks. “Young, I well know, was a died, as much as any in the best of Rapoet, in the full sense of the word : cine's tragedies. Ingenium cui sit, cui mens divinior, atque os

Alas! when the only child of Young Magna sonaturum; des nominis hujus honorem. came home to Welwyn, for the vaca

I do not mean to say that he was not. tion, from Winchester-school, where he in his happiest moments, all that Horace was for two years sento!

was for two years senior boy, it hapdemands : but what then? I do mean pened repeatedly, according to the best to say, that he was bound to be a possible evidence, that his poetical fafather, as well as a poet: I will say, that ther only saw him on the first day and on God, of whom the author of the so Night the last; and that he left him to spend Thoughts” is almost the particular poet. the intermediate time exactly as the boy created Young, and all of us, for still pleased. nobler ends than to make verses. It “These little things are great to little man :" is, indisputably, permitted to us, to com- or rather, the smallest things of this pose and to publish either prose or kind are of the greatest consequence, in poetry, either verses much inferior to giving perhaps a colour to a whole life. Young's, or dull letters of history like This poet's neglected child paid afterthese; provided we exert our talents, as wards' more attention, during two Young always did, to improve, and not or three vacations, to me, a perfect to corrupt our fellow creatures : yet we stranger, to whom he only took a fancy have not the right to be even useful, in in the fives-court at Winchester, when this way, until we have fully answered I was at school there, with the wise every one of those other and nobler Mr. Addington, than, according to the ends of our creation. All the private oldest inhabitants of Welwyn, he expehappiness of at least one whole family, rienced from his own father during his and from generation to generation, is far whole youth. '

Should these hasty reflections, which I Saint Jean d'Acre, which your friend have not borrowed from any language defends so gallantly." I wanted no refor all languages hold out authors, and petition of such requests; and, on the more particularly poets, in a manner 3d of January, his Lordship, at his much too attracting-should these reflec- house in Oxford-street, told my friend tions ever have their use, some fine morn- “ that he did not see how he could being, this part of my letter will be as com- gin the year 1800 better, or more pleapletely epistolary, as if I told you where santly, than by paying the debts of one I dined yesterday, or what sort of wea- who was so worthy a son and a bro. ther we have to-day; as if I sent you ther; and by enabling him to purchase untrue intelligence for where is even a superior commission.” The officer, the dirty spy who can procure true? who has since considerably distinguish

of the new emperor's long prepa- ed himself, may perhaps not be unwillrations, at Boulogne, for his threatened ing that his naine should be known; descent upon England. “ Handsome but, without his permission, I must not is, as handsome does;” saith the pro- mention it. verb. That I hold to be a real live Silly ladies spin out silly books, by letter, or a real any-thing-else, which inventing improbable tales of this sort : is calculated to do real good.

let us not be backward in recording What I have been saying does not, such a fact, when we witness it with our as I have carefully observed, reflect on own eyes. The Emperor Napoleon himthe family of Lord Camelford ; who self will grant you permission to let this would, I fear, have been little less ori- letter pass, on account of this anecdote ; ginal, though five Fénélons had guarded for I know more than one such of him, his youth and guided his education. I since he became First Consul. do not mean to say any thing indeco- In your present situation, on the rous, but I would humbly, though se- borders of Holstein, you may perhaps riously, submit to Lord Grenville, who meet with some good old English tale, takes all the property in right of his of a different degree of interest; since it lady, the sister of Lord Camelford, whe- is a fact that the Saxons set sail from ther along with Laurent in Norfolk, and precisely the spot where you now are, Boconnoc in Cornwall, and I know not in three or four wretched boats, formed how many thousands a year, they do not of skins, about 1350 years ago; invited strictly inherit part of the late owner's by the Britons to make a descent, in originality; and whether they be not order to defend them against the Picts, bound, if not legally, more forcibly for Lord Melville's Scotish ancestors. certain minds than by any law, to dis- When I was in your neighbourhood, I pose of some trifling portion of his great remember to have seen a very old map property, every year, in the exemplary of Holstein, &c. in which the last town manner in which he annually spent so on the sea-shore was marked, singularly much of it. I can readily believe what at least, Lunden; and where I observed, is said of this conduct of his in the in a hasty view, several names, which newspapers, which do not often flatter we certainly have in Dorset, Devon, the dead, and in this way; for I knew and on the coast. Should you light one instance that time at Cuxhaven, upon Howell's entertaining letters, pubwhen he was five years younger than at lished in Queen Elizabeth's days, as I his death.

did, and was therefore struck, you will You recollect the young English offi- see one or two, which he writes from cer who came with me from Germany, the part of the world where you are and who pleased you and every one so stationed, to my ancestor Sir James much by his good sense, and by his Croft, and in which he says, “ that the want of affectation, not only as a soldier, people have so much the appearance of but in all respects. I mentioned his English, he almost thinks himself at cruel situation to Lord Camelford, that home.” If so, and if you have found a windy day that you left us walking pleasant society among these descendupon the pier-head together, and told ants of those from whom we are deus we should be blown off to Heligo- scended land. His Lordship desired me to draw up all the facts for him to consider; and

(Labitur et labetur in omne rolubilis ævum); * begged I would bring my young friend I do not much lament your remaining to him, when we got to England, add- still abroad. ing, “ we will see how we can force Adieu, my dear Sir! It is more than misfortune to raise the siege of this possible that you may find this epistle

much too long; but I had a good deal to by these letters, you and they will at say, and you remember Swift's excuse, least pore over the historical parts of “'that he had not time to make his let- them hereafter, with no common kind ter shorter." However, I will whisper of pleasure: as I shall make a point of you 'a mighty good method of shorten- recording, in some way or another, every ing any letter, the dullest and the event that happens. May I soon hare longest: read only so much of it as you to speak of your appointment to some like, and skip all the rest. You will not, station worthy of your talents and long in this letter, skip the anecdote of poor services ! and in which I am persuaded Lord C.

you would never act as your late risi. My kind compliments to your good tor, Mr. D., is charged with haring lady, whose merit as a mother I have acted at Munich. Few events would not forgotten; and my best wishes to be recorded by me with more real plezyour amiable daughter, if she have not sure ; for I am, already found a husband worthy of her;

My dear Hand to her husband, if she have found one.

Your sincere friend, Should they see no other end answered

H.C.

LETTERS TO MR. MALTHUS ON SEVERAL SUBJECTS OF POLITICAL ECONOVI,

AND PARTICULARLY ON THE GENERAL STAGNATION OF COMMERCE.

BY M. SAY.

LETTER IV.

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it had previously been observed, that SIR, I expected to have found in the total value of the cotton mouyour “Principles of Political Economy,” factures, as well as the number of bsomething calculated to settle public bourers employed in that pursuit, was opinion on the subject of machinery, singularly increased since the introdueand all those inventions for facilitating tion of the improved methods of manuproduction by which manual labour is facture. An analogous observation had saved, and the quantity of produce is been made with respect to the printing increased without any addition to the press, the machine employed in the costs of production. I was in hopes to multiplication of books, a branch of meet with such definite principles, such produce which now employs (besides exact reasoning, as would ensure general authors) a much greater number of inconviction ; such, in short, as your Essays dustrious persons, than formerly when on Population have accustomed us to ex- books were copied by hand, and propect; but the present work is not the duces a sum far exceeding what it proEssays on Population.

duced when hooks were more expensive You seem to admit (for after reading than they now are. But this very subyour demonstrations, I am sometimes stantial advantage is only one amongst reduced to the necessity of using this many which nations have derived from form of expression) only one advantage the use of machines. It only refers to in the use of machinery and improved certain articles of produce, the conmethods of production ; namely, that of sumption of which was capable of sufmultiplying produce to such a degree, ficient extension to counterbalance the that even when its price is diminished, diminution of price; but there is anthe total value of the quantity produced other advantage in the introduction of still exceeds the value of the quantity 'machinery ; an advantage common to produced before the introduction of the every economical and expeditivé proimprovements. * The advantage which cess"; an advantage which would be you particularize is incontestable, and felt, even where the consumption of

* “ When a machine is invented which, by saving manual labour, reduces the cost price of manufactures, the ordinary effect is such an augmentation of demand, that the total value of the mass of commodities thus produced, exceeds by far the total value of the quantity of the same manufactures which was previously produced, and the number of workmen employed in its fabrication is rather increased than diminished."-Malikus's Principles of Polit. Econ. p. 402.

“ But it must be allowed, that the principal advantage arising from the substitution of machines for manual labour, depends on the extension which may take place in the market, and the consequent encouragement to the consumption of the article ; and that without these, the advantage of the invention is nearly lost."-p. 412.

the article produced was not susceptible It is this which establishes the difference of any increase ; an advantage which between ourselves and the savages of ought to be more strictly appreciated in the South Seas, who have hatchets of the principles of political economy. You Aint, and sewing-needles made of fishwill excuse my returning to some ele- bones. Writers on political economy mentary notions for the purpose of are not now allowed to recommend the clearly explaining myself on this point. prohibition of such means as chance or

Machines and tools are both produc- genius may furnish us with, for the extions which, as soon as they are pro- press purpose of reserving more labour duced, become capital, and are employed for our workmen. An author so inin the production of other articles. The fatuated, would soon find all his own only difference which exists between reasoning employed to prove that we machines and tools is, that the former ought to retrograde, instead of advancing are complex tools, and the latter are in the career of civilization, and to resimple machines. As there are neither linquish, successively, all the discoveries tools nor machines which create power, we have made, and render our arts more they must be considered as means by imperfect for the purpose of multiplying which we transmit an action, a vivid our toils, and reducing the number of force of which we have the power of our enjoyments. disposing to an object intended to be Undoubtedly there are inconveniences modified by that force. Thus a hand- inseparable from the transition from one hammer is a tool by means whereof we order of things to another, even from an employ the muscular force of a man, imperfect order to one which is better. sometimes to beat out a leaf of gold; What wise man would wish to abolish, and the hammers of a great forge are all at once, the imposts which oppress likewise tools by means whereof we em- industry, and the customs and duties ploy a fall of water in fattening iron bars. which impede the intercourse of na

The employment of a power gra- tions, prejudicial as they are to general tuitously furnished by nature, does not prosperity? On these subjects the duty create any essential difference between of well-informed persons consists, not a machine and a tool. Weight mul- in suggesting motives for preventing and tiplied by quickness, which makes the proscribing every species of change,

of a goldbeater's hammer, is no under pretext of the inconveniences less a physical power of nature, than the which may arise from innovation ; but weight of the water which falls from a in fairly appreciating those inconvenimountain.

ences; in pointing out the practicable What is the whole of our industry means of averting or mitigating them, but the employment of the laws of in order to facilitate the adoption of a nature? It is by obeying nature, says desirable amelioration. Bacon, that we learn to command her The inconvenience resulting from the What difference do you perceive be use of machinery is a shifting of income, tween knitting-needles and a stocking- which, when sudden, is always more or frame, but that the latter is a tool more less distressing to that class whose recomplex and more efficient than the venues are diminished. The introducneedles, but, like them, applying, to tion of machines diminishes (sometimes, greater or less advantage, the properties but not always) the income of the classes of metal, and the power of the lever, to who derive their subsistence from their fabricate the vestments with which we corporeal and manual faculties, and cover our feet and legs?

augments the revenues of those whose The question is, therefore, reduced to resources consist in their intellectual this :-- Is it advantageous for man to faculties and their capitals. In other take into his hands a tool more power- terms, machines which abridge labour, ful, capable of doing a much greater being, in general, more complex, dequantity of work, or of doing it much mand more considerable capitals. The better, in preference to another tool of person who uses them is, therefore, a gross and imperfect construction, obliged to purchase more of what we with which he must work more slowly, call the productive services of capital, and with greater toil, and less effectually requires less of what we call the producI should be doing injustice to your good tive services of labourers. At the same sense and that of our readers, were I to time, as the general and particular doubt of the universal answer.

management of machinery demands exThe perfection of our tools is con- tensive combinations and more sedulous nected with the perfection of our species. attention, mechanical production re

power

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