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a sacred

æra.

founder of the Scottish nations that it north-western part of our island, from was thence transported into Ireland them called Scotland. Whether

We re, amongst other princelie iewells an ceive or reject the tradition that it was regall, monuments” by Simon Brech, brought over by Fergus, there is no who was crowned upon it about 700 doubt that the stone was removed to years before the birth of Christ, and that Scotland at a very early period, and that it was thence carried to Scotland by it was always regarded as king Fergus 330 years before the same monument by the people of that coun

After such adventures it will not try. This opinion appears to be coun, he surprising that the stone should once tenanced by the late ingenious Mr. King, more be removed, and find its way to the who says " it is clear enough that before abbey of Westminster. :

the line of Kennith, that is, before the Such are the legends relating to the year 834, it had been placed simply and Fatal Stone. But its probable history plainly as a stone of great import and is so remarkable, and is carried back to of great notoriety in Argyleshire, and, a period so remote, that the aid of fic on account of the reverence paid to it, tion was scarcely wanting to procure it was removed by Kennith. This king, reverence and regard. Mr. Toland justly having taken it from the castle of Dun, styles this " the antientest respected staffnage, its antient station, placed it in monument in the world, for though the abbey-church of Scone, in the year some others

may

be more antient as to 850: he also inclosed it in a chair of duration, yet thus superstitiously re- wood, on which he caused to be engarded they are not.”

graven the Leonine distich which we The object of our inquiries may un. have already quoted. Here all the Scotdoubtedly be traced to Ireland. It was tish kings were crowned upon it till the most probably one of those stones year 1296, when the victorious Edward I. which the druids or priests of the coun- brought it to England and left it as an try were used to consecrate for particu- offering of conquest at the shrine of the lar sacred or political purposes : ils place Confessor, where it is still preserved., was the hill of Tara, and upon it the By the treaty of Northampton in kings of Ireland for many ages received 1328, which was confirmed by Parliatheir authority. In the Irish language ment, it was agreed that the stone the names given to this stone, signified should be returned to Scotland : and for the fatal stone, or the stone of fortune; this end writs were issued by Edward these it probably obtamed from a power lll., which however were never excwhich it was said to possess of showing cuted. After its arrival in England, the legitimacy of royal descent, which Edward I. caused it to be placed in a it acknowledged by an oracular sound new chair with a step, , richly

, painted when a prince of the true line was and adorned with gilding. In the wardplaced on it: under a pretender it was robe account of that king under the silent. - The Irish have an antient year 1300 are the sums which were then prophecy respecting the stone, implying laid out upon it, amounting to 17.-19.7d, that the possession of it was necessar :--a considerable expense in those days. to the preservation of the regal power. In order to illustrate the dignity of the

In later times this prophecy assumed relique, and to celebrate " the crested the following form:

pride of the First Edward," a tablet " Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti quocunque locatum

was suspended near the chair with the Inveniunt lapidemi, regnare tenentur ibidem." following inscription, or in the Lowland Scotch of Wyntownis * Si quid habent veri vel chronica cana fidesde Cronykil,

Clauditur hac cathedra nobilis ecce lapis *)

Ad caput eximius Jacob quondam patriarcha « But gyf werdys falyhand be,

Quem posuit cernens numina mira poli :
Quhare evyr þat stane yhe segyt se,

Quem tulit er Scotis spolians quasi victor honor is i's Dare sall be Scottis be regnand,

Edoardus Primus, Mars velut armipotens , And lorddys hale oure all pat land.".

Scotorum domitor, noster ralidissimus Hector,

Anglorum decus, et gloria militiæ." In either way the prediction continues to be fulfilled in that branch of the of many other written niemorials with

But this has long since shared the fate family of James I. which now fills the which the abbey abounded. * British throne !!!

The coronation chair is of oak, of an From Ireland the Fatal Stone was conveyed to the settlement which the

* ille Buck, R. III. people of that country had made on the

architectural design, and ornamented on was in banishment at Sens in France, as the back and sides with rows of pointed he was praying in a church by night to arches, the form of which confirms the the blessed Virgin, she suddenly apreported age of this venerable relique. peared to him with a golden eagle and

Some remains are yet to be seen of a small vial of stone or glass, which she the painting and gilding with which it delivered to the archbishop, 'assuring was once adorned. It is in height him of the happiest effects upon those about six feet seren inches, in depth kings who should be anointed with the twenty-four inches, and the width of unction it contained ; and desiring him the seat withinside is twenty-eight to give it to a monk of Poitiers, who inches. At nine inches from the ground would hide it under a large stone in the is a frame to support the stone, upon church of St. Gregory. In this place the surface of which is the seat. The the ampulla, with the eagle, which was block appears to be of reddish sand- probably made to contain it, and an acstone, and at each end a short iron count of the vision written by St. chain is fastened in it; but these are Thomas, were preserved, till in the nearly concealed by the wood-work. The reign of Edward III. they were discotorer of antient art most regret that so vered by revelation to a certain holy beautiful a fabric 'should be exposed to man, who brought the sacred vessel to external injury as well as decay, and the duke of Lancaster, and by him it inust wish, if possible, that the chair was delivered to the Black Prince, who of king Ellward might rather be restored sent it to the Tower, to be safely kept m its original style of decoration, than in a strong chest. Here it was found concealed (as the custom hath been at by his son Richard II., who wished to the time of coronations) by a covering be anointed with it: but he was told by even of the richest material.

the archbishop that it was enough for In Strutt's Honda Angel-cynnan (vol him to have once received the sacred m. pl. 47.) ward II. in a' chair of state, which is peated ; nor was it used till the acces

is a representation of Eda unction, and that it onght not to be reprobably intended for that which now sion of Henry IV., who was honoured contains the stonc.'

with it at his coronation. Another chair, in imitation of that The vessel which is now used to hold above described, was made for the the consecrated oil retains the form of queen of William III. and kept in the an eagle with the wings expanded, and same place.

standing on a pedestal. The height of With respect to the unction, the fol- the whole is near seven inches, and its lowing curious history is recorded by weight about ten ounces. There is also some antient writers, and certainly de a spoon, into which the oil is poured serves as much credit as the French from the beak of the eagle by the offitradition of the holy vial brought from ciating prelate. The 'spoon, as well as heaven for the consecration of king the eagle, is of gold, chased; and the Clovis *. While St. Thomas à Becket former has four pearls in the broadest

part of the handle. • The legend of the Sainte ampoulle, used

Of the Coronation of Queens, it is to in the consecration of the kings of France

be observed, that although the royul is thus recorded in Hincmar's Life of St.

consort of our kings have generally Remy, ch. 21. “And behold a dove, fairer been graced with “ all the royal makthan snow, suddenly brought down a vial in ings of a queen,” there is the widest his mouth, full of holy oil. All that were difference possible between the coronapresent were delighted with the fragrancy of tion of kings and queens. The former it, and when the archbishop had received it is a political and national act; the latter the dove vanished.” Another historian is only' an honourable ceremony, originatrather more particular in his relation. ing with the King. The following “When he that bore the chrism was absent, considerations will elucidate this docand kept off by the people, lo! suddenly no other, doubdless, than the Holy Spirit apo sion of this coronation never was or

trine: ist, that the observance or omispeared in the visible form of a Jove, who carrying the holy oil in his shining bill, laid could be held to influence the right of it down between the bands of the minister." inheritance of the legitimate issue of a See Menin, p. 15. The same oil which was royal marriage. 2dly, the coronation of thus received is said to have remained ever the King is essential inasmuch as it is since undiminished, as that consecrated by a political act; in that of the Queen, Moses is reported to have lasted till the cap- however, no such character can be tivity, or about 900 years.

discovered :

consent is askt from

no

the people as to the person to be difference between the ancient and the crowned; no conditions are tequired modern mode of performing it. The from her; no oath is administered; no champion was anciently used to ride homage or allegiance is offered. The in the procession as well as in the hall, Queen's Coronation, though perforined and to proclaim his challenge " devant at the same place, and usually on the tout le monde" in both places: the same day with that of the sovereign, former ceremony hath long been disis a subsequent and distinct solemnity; continued. This may also remind us of it proceeds from the King, and is a remarkable circunistance which ocgranted to his consort for the honour curred at the Coronation of Richard II. of the kingly office.

recorded by Walsingham. Sir John The customary appearance of the Lord Dimmock, being armed according to of the Manor of Scrivelsby, as the King's usual custom, came with his attendants Champion at each coronation is mention to the door of the church when the ed in an Inquisitio post mortem bearing date service was concluding; but the lord in the 7th of Edw. III, which speaks of Marshal came to him and said that he the tenure as follows: That the manour should not have appeared so soon, of Scrivelsby is holden by grand ser. “ sed quòd usque ad prandium regis geanty, to wit by the service of finding, differret adventum suum: quapropter on the day of Coronation, an armed monuit ut rediret, et, deposito tanto onere knight, who shall prove by his body, armorum, quiesceret ad illud tempus." if need be, that the King is true and The champion complied with this adrightful heir to the kingdom. No men- monition, and retired ;-the cause of tion is made in it of any thing in the his seeming irregularity is explained by nature of an hereditary office; and the the circumstances above described. condition of the tenure is stated in The form of the challenge is as folterms which are common to many of lows : our ancient sergeanties, the possessors If any person, of what degree soever, of which had the care of finding a high or low, shall deny or gainsay our knight-inveniendi militem-to perform sovereign lord

, king of Great some particular service. In its first Britain and Ireland, defender of the institution, then, the duty of the lord of faith, &c. son and next heir to our soScrivelsby had this extent, no more: vereign lord

the last king dethe performance of such, a duty, how- ceased, to be right heir to the imperial ever, had too much of honour attached crown of this realm of Great Britain, or to it to allow of its devolving on a de that he ought not to enjoy the same; puty; and the obligation of providing here is his Champion, who saith that à champion for the royal title, in case he lieth, and is a false traitor, being of need, became a right of appearing ready in person to combat with him; as its personal assertor on every new and in this quarrel will adventure his succession,

life against him, on what day soever he Nor is this the only ground for such shall be appointed. an understanding of the tenure before But some events have lately ocus. . From other records we find that curred which appear to involve the very the horse and armour, which are the existence of this ancient service, and to customary perquisites of the service, preclude the possibility of its being were only to be claimed as of right in again repeated. The reader need not case a combat ensued; when this did be informed that an act hath passed the not take place it was at the King's legislature for the abolition of trial by pleasure whether they became the battle in all cases criminal or, civil: claimant's property.

now without inquiring whether the The above particulars are stated with procedure before us partakes more of a view to account for the existence of the quality of an appeal of treason or the noble service of the King's cham- of a writ of right, yet as the mode of pion as we now find it-certainly with conducting it is undoubtedly a wager no intention of detracting from the of battle, must we not, however rehonour and respect which are so justly luctantly, conclude that the service of its due; and before we leave the records the King's champion is become extinct, above referred to, it is necessary to no exception of any kind having been mention, for its further illustration, a made in the recent enactment?

arty busa srecOUNT OF THE Bofocudos, À SAVAGE TRIBE OF BRAZIL. of want 10 ol***

OF the rich and interesting country up the Rio Doce, at the spot where the dying on the East coast of Brazil, bie » Povoacno of Linhares is now built; and ween the táth and 230 degrees of South this post was provided with one piece of >datitude, Europeans have long been dės- cannion to cover the intended new road tátute of any acturate knowledge. Until to Minas.'.'. At first the savages were the emigrations of the Portuguese court, frightened away by it, but when they it was the narrow policy of the Brazilian had gradually become better acquainted government to impede, by every possible with the Europeans and their weapons, obstacle, the researches of travellers in their fears subsided. They once made a c. these regions. A more liberal system is - sudden attack on the station, killed one e now adopted, which not only permits, of the soldiers, and would have overtaken

but encourages and assists the investiga- and massacred the others, who fed, had ptions of adventurous and scientific indi- they not sought their safety in the river,

siduals. To this enlightened policy we and escaped in the boat, which happened sowe the important discoveries of Prince to be just then coming with the relief. Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, who in As the savages could not reach them, the years 1815, 1816, and 1817, explored they filled the cannon with stones, and the Eastern coast of Brazil, and much then retired into their woods. of the interior of the country, which, After this erent, the late minister of until the recent publication of his travels, state, Count de Linhares, formally dewas: wholly unknown, or at least not clared war against then, in a welldescribed. Among the most valuable known proclamation: by his orders, the and curious additions which the Prince military stations already established on has made to our knowledge of natural the Río Doce were reinforced and inhistory, geography, manners, and cus-· creased in number, to secure the settletoms; may be reckoned his communica- ments of the Europeans, and the comtions relating to the various uncivilized munication with Minas up' the river. tribes which inhabit the extensive forests Since that time no mercy has been that separate the East coast from the shewn to the Botocudos: they have

lofty and naked ridge of Middle Brazil been extirpated, wherever they have been in the provinces of Minas Geraës, found, without respect to age or sex; Gogaz, and Pernambuco. These abori- and only now and then, on particular

gival savages have hitherto scarcely been occasions, some very young children known in Europe even by name; but have been spared and brought up. This rude and barbarous as they are, they are war of extermination was prosecured not destitute of vigour, courage, or sa

with the more inveteracy and cruelty, as gacity, and may therefore, in the course it was firmly believed that ihey killed all of events, become enlightened and power- their enemies who fell into their hands, ful. The following account of the Bo- and devoured them. When it was farther tocudos, one of the most powerful and known that in some places, on the Rio warlike of these tribes, is taken from Doce, they had expressed pacific disposithese interesting travels:*

tions in their manner by clapping their The Botocudos rove about in the hands, and had then treacherously killed forests on the banks of the Rio Doce, with their formidable arrows, the Porup to its' source in the Capitania of tuguese who had crossed over to them, Minas Geraës.

confiding in these amicable demonstraThese savages are distinguished by tions, every hope of finding sentiments their custom of eating human flesh, and of humanity among these savages was by their warlike spirit: they have hitherto totally extinguished. But that this opimade an obstinate resistance to the Por- nion, derogatory to the dignity of human "fuguese. If they sometimes appeared at nature, was carried too far, and that the

one place with all the demonstrations of incorrigibility of these people proceeds as 'friendly sentiments, they committed hos much from the manner in which they tilities and excesses at another; and have been treated, as from their native hence there has never been a lasting rudeness, is strikingly, evinced in the good understanding with them. Many beneficial effects which the moderate years ago, a military post of seven sol- and humane conduct of the governor, diers was-stationed eight or ten leagues · Conde dos Arcos, has produced in the

capitania of Bahia, among the Botocudos • Travels in Brazil, by Prince Maximilian residing on the Rio Grande de Belmonte. of Wied-Neuwied. London, 1820.

The traveller who has just quitted the New Monthly Mag.–No. 78. Vol. XIV.

C С

the Rio Doce, is particular ack, and are covered with ancient trees of the 10 Account of the Botocudos, a Savage Tribe of Brazil. of

on above ; furnished with occasion for the most most luxuriant verdure. Each has its important reflections, when after the particular name, and their number is lapse of a few weeks he arrives in the said to increase the farther you ascend: district on the Rio Grande, and there' The water of the Rio Doce, when at it's sees the inhabitants, in consequence of a height, is turbid and yellowish, and is peace concluded three or four years ago, universally asserted by the inhabitants living with these very savages on the to generate fevers. It abounds in fish: most friendly footing, which ensures to even the saw-fish [pristis serra) comes the latter the desired repose, and to the up far above Linhares, and into the foriner security and the greatest advan- lagoa of Juparanan, where it is frequently tages.

caught. 'The Rio Doce runs through a consi From the forests they heard the cries derable extent of country; its banks are of numerous monkeys, particularly the covered with thick forests, which are the barbados, the saüissus, &c. Here it haunt of a great number of different ani was that they first saw in their wild mals. Here are frequently found the anta state the magnificent maccaws (psittacus! or American tapir, two kinds of wild macao, Linn.) which are among the swine, (dicotyles, Cuvier,) the peccary or chief ornaments of the Brazilian forests; caytelu, and the porco a quechada branca they heard their loud screaming voices, (taytetu and tagnicati of Azara), two and saw these splendid birds soaring species of deer (the guazupita and gựazu- above the crowns of the lofty sapucaya vira of Azara), and above seven varieties trees. They recognised them at a disof the cat kind, among which the spotted tance by their long tails, and their glow-'. ounce (yaguarété, Azara) and the black ing red plumage shone with dazzling tiger (ynguarété noir, Azara) are the splendour in the beams of the unelouded largest and most dangerous. But the sun. Perroquets, maracanas, maitaca rude

savage Botocudo, the aboriginal in- cas, tiribas, curicas, camutangas, nanhabitant of this country, is far more for- dayas, and other species of parrots, flew, midable than all those beasts of prey, loudly screaming, in numerous flocks and the terror of these impenetrable from bank to bank; and the large and forests.

stately Muscovy duck (anas moschata, The Prince's party proceeded up this Linn.) alighted on the branch of a ceriver in a long canoe which was rowed cropia, in the margin of the forest on by six soldiers. The party consisted of the bank of the river. The black skimnine persons, all well armed. In order mer (rynchops nigra, Linn.) sat motionto ascend the Rio Doce, when it is at less and with contracted neck upon the its height, four men at least are neces- sand-banks: toucans and the çurucuas sary, who propel the canoe with long (trogon viridis, Linn.) uttered their loud poles (varas). 'As there are every where cries. These wild animals, and the shallow places, which in the dry season savage Botocudos, who are now how' appear as sand-banks, the poles can ever more rare, are the sole inhabitants always reach them, even when the of the banks of this river. There are water is high; and with the most fa- scarcely any settlers : in two places only vourable combination of circumstances a few persons, sufficiently provided with it is possible to reach Linhares in one arms for their defence, have fixed themday, but not till late in the evening. selves. They always carry their guns

The weather was very fine, and when with them, when they go to their plan-' - they had become accustomed to the tations; and those who have no firerocking of the narrow canoe, caused by arms have at least one of the bows called the soldiers walking backwards and for- bodoc, to discharge balls and stones. It wards to push it along, they found the is but occasionally, and in their roving excursion very agreeable. When it was excursions, that the Botocudos appear quite day-light they saw the broad sur- in these parts so far down the river. face of the rapid stream glistening in Towards noon they reached the little the morning sun; the distant banks were island called from its shape Carapuça' so thickly covered with gloomy forests, (Cap.) Here the weary people took that in the whole of the long tract some rest, and they found it absolutely which they passed, there was not a single impossible to reach Linhares this day. open spot which would have afforded To secure their vessel from the rapid

even for a house. Numerous current of the river, they ran up beislands of various sizes and forms rise tween the main and an island, into a

rooin

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