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United States Maritime Commission U.S.M C.-U. S. Maritime Commission-Rear Admiral Emory S. Land, Chairman, (Term expires 1943). Thomas M. Woodward, Vice Chairman, (1945); Capt. Howard L. Vickery, (1942); Capt. Edward Macauley, (1944); John M. Carmody. Address, Washington, D. C.

The United States Maritime Commission was U. S. Navy had acquired 59 and the U. S. Army created by Public Act 835, Seventy-fourth Con- three. In addition to new ships, the Commission gress, approved June 29, 1936, and amended by also effected the transfer of 66 other merchant Public Act 705, Seventy-fifth Congress, approved

vessels to the Army and Navy or 18 to the former

and 48 to the latter. This made an overall total June 23, 1938. and Public Law 259, Seventh--sixth

of 128 ships acquired by the two defense services Congress, approved Aug. 4, 1939. The act vests in

as of Aug. 15, 1941. the Commission new functions, powers and duties To hold to a minimum, interference with the and, in addition, those of the former United States construction of standard type ships at the regular Shipping Board under the Shipping Act of 1916, established shipyards, the Commission had orthe Merchant Marine Act of 1920, the Merchant ganized and constructed nine new shipyards on Marine Act of 1928, the Intercoastal Shipping Act the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts for building of 1933, and amendments to those acts.

the emergency type ships, while the small coastal The policy declared in the Act is that "It is tankers, coastal cargo ships and harbor tugs were necessary for the national defense and develop-placed with smaller yards located on the Great ment of its foreign and domestic commerce that Lakes and in the State of California. the United States shall have & merchant marine

By Dec. 31, 1941, approximately 78 standard type (a) sufficient to carry its domestic waterborne and 20 emergency type ships had been completed commerce and a substantial portion of the water during the calendar year, and delivered either to borne export and import foreign commerce of the the Navy, Army, private operators or for lease-lend United States, and to provide shipping service on purposes. This compared with 41 completed in all routes essential for maintaining the flow of 1940; and 20 in 1939. The total deliveries for 1939, such domestic and foreign waterborne commerce 1940 and 1941 were approximately 159, of which 139 at all times, (b) capable of serving as a naval were standard type and 20 emergency type. and military auxiliary in time of war or national To provide adequate and efficient personnel for emergency, (e) owned and operated under the

manning all American flag ships, the Commission United States flag by citizens of the United States has two systems of training. One, known as Cadet Insofar as may be practicable, and (d) composed training, is eligible to young men between the ages of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable of 18 and 25, unmarried and American citizens. types of vessels, constructed in the United States They must be psysically fit, high school graduates and manned with a trained and efficient citizen and are required to submit references from responpersonnel. It is hereby declared to be the policy sible citizens as to character. The course of study of the United States to foster the development is 4 years, and prepares the enrollee for becoming and encourage the maintenance of such a mer- either a Deck or Engineer Officer in the American chant marine.'

Merchant Marine. In January, 1938, the Commission started a 500- The other system deals with improvement ship long-range replacement program whereby courses for both licensed and unlicensed seamen overaged cargo and passenger-cargo ships in the with at least one year experience

at sea and also American Merchant Marine would be systematically trains apprentice seamen who after an adequate replaced with new and faster ships of the latest training period are able to obtain certificates for design, including many new safety factors and their ratings. This is known as the United States equipment not heretofore contained in either Maritime Service. foreign or American flag ships. Each ship also By act of Congress and Executive Order of the has special national defense features built into President, the Commission also has been charged its structure.

with the maintenance and repair, and placing in As of Sept. 1, 1941, 283 of these new standard operation of approximately 84' foreign owned type merchant ships were ordered and under con- merchant ships that were requistioned during struction for this particular program, of which 104 June, July and August of 1941. These ships were had been delivered. In addition, there were also laid-up in American ports as the result of the ordered during the first eight months of 1941, 312 outbreak and spread of the European War. emergency type cargo ships; 107 coastal tankers, The Commission also fixes the maximum rates of coastal cargo vessels and harbor tugs; and 115 more charter for all American flag ships in both the of the

same standard type vessels as made up the domestic and foreign trades and through nego long-range program, all of which were units of tiation and cooperation arranges for comparable the National Defense and Lease-Lend aid programs. charter rates for all foreign flag vessels operating

During August, 1941, Congress passed authorizing in the U. S. foreign trade. Through a system of legislation requested by President Roosevelt for ship warrants issued to all American flag vessels, building another 566 merchant ships. This made an and to foreign flag vessels where requested by the overall program of 1,383 ships either contracted owner, it provides for priorities in transportation for or proposed, the great bulk of them to be of strategic materials for National Defense incompleted and delivered by the end of 1943. The cluding the use of shore and other facilities for division of this total is: 283 ships for long-range ships. It also has authority to underwrite any program, and 1,100 ships for National Defense and hull or cargo war risk insurance on American flag Lease-Lend Aid programs.

ships that cannot obtain this in the regular inOf the 283 ships in the long-range program, the surance market on reasonable terms and conditions.

Commodity Credit Corporation

CCC-Commodity Credit Corporation. B. Hutson, President. Address, Washington, D. C. The Commodity Credit Corporation was created derived from Series "G" notes and future note under the laws of Delaware (Oct. 17, 1933) and by issues shall be subject to all Federal taxes, now Act of Congress (Jan. 31, 1935), as amended July or hereafter imposed. The notes shall be subject 1, 1941, its functions were extended to June 30. to surtaxes, and estate, inheritance, gift or other 1943, or such earlier date as may be determined excise taxes. whether Federal or State, but shall by the President. The Corporation is primarily a be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imlending institution making loans principally to posed on the principal thereof by any State, producers to finance the carrying and orderly municipality, or local taxing authority. marketing of agricultural commodities.

As of June 30, 1941, total of commodity loans Loans have been made on barley, butter, corn, outstanding was $359.357,412.63. of this amount, cotton, dates, figs, grain sorghums, hops, peanuts. $244,321,640.35 represents loans held by Commodity pecans, prunes, raisins, rye, tobacco, turpentine Credit Corporation and $115,035,772.28 represents and rosin, wheat, and wool and mohair.

loans held by private lending agencies. DisburseThe Corporation has an authorized and paid-in ments as of that date were $1,885,469,962.03 with capital of $100,000,000. Under the Act of March 8, repayments, acquisitions and adjustments on com1938, as amended July 1, 1941, the Corporation is modity loans of $1,641.148,321.68. authorized, with the approval of the Secretary of Under the Reorganization Plan, effiective July the Treasury, to issue and have outstanding at any 1, 1939, the Commodity Credit Corporation was one time, bonds, notes, debentures and other transferred to the Department of Agriculture and similar obligations not to exceed $2,650,000,000. functions as a Bureau of the Department under These obligations are fully and unconditionally the general direction and supervision of the guaranteed by the United States, and the income Secretary of Agriculture. therefrom is exempt from Federal, State, Municipal *Includes amounts charged off and credits for and local taxation (except surtaxes, estate, in- outstanding balances of loans against commodities heritance and gift taxes.) However, the income taken over by CCC.

Tennessee Valley Authority

TVA-Tennessee Valley Authority-David E. Lilienthal, chairman; Dr. Harcourt Morgan and James P. Pope, Directors. Addresses, Wilson Dam, Ala.; Knoxville, Tenn.; Chattanooga, Tenn., and Washington, D. c.

The Tennessee Valley Authority was created by new portable type developed by TVA, constructed in Congressional Act, approved May 18, 1933, and section by factory assembly line methods with all amended August 31, 1935, July 26, 1939, and June utilities installed and trucked to sites for assembly. 23, 1940. Its general purpose is to develop the A private contractor is building TVA demountable Tennessee River system in the interests of navi

houses at Wolf Creek Ordnance Plant in west Ten

nessee. gation, flood control and national defense, and

As of July 31, 1941, TVA had completed six major to generate and sell surplus electricity to avoid the

multi-purpose projects; eight projects, including waste of water power.

the five defense power dams, were under construcThe Tennessee River drainage area starts in the

tion and eight additional generating units were beextreme western end of Virginia, sweeps south- ing installed at downstream plants. The completed westward in a wide arc across western North Caro- dams had provided more than 4,000,000 acre-teet of lina, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, northern useful storage and made available an all-year chan. Alabama and a corner of northeastern Mississippi, nel of six feet from the mouth of the river to Chatswings north again across Tennessee and Kentucky: tanooga. The installed capacity of the system, inand finally ends at Paducah, Kentucky, where the cluding acquired plants, totaled 1,050,000 kiloTennessee River joins the Ohio.

watts, to be increased to nearly 1.600.000 kilowatts Elevations in the Tennessee Valley vary from by the end of 1942 by new construction. about 300 feet above sea level near Paducah to The first dam of TVA's unified system was Wilmore than 6,000 feet on mountain peaks in the son Dam, built by Congress as a World War meaeastern part of the Valley. There is abundant sure and transferred to TVA by legislative action. rainfall. Annual precipitation averages 52 inches Its 1512-mile reservoir submerges Muscle Shoals, and is heaviest in the mountains where 80 inches barrier to navigation for generations. Its power is sometimes recorded. Some 2,500,000 persons plant contains eight generators with a capacity inhabit the Valley's 41,000 square miles and an- of 245,000 horsepower. Storage from upstream other 4,000,000 live in territory under its immediate TVA dams is increasing the prime power (available influence.

the year round) at Wilson, Six additional units of To control the waters of the Tennessee and its 25,200 kw. each have been authorized and will be tributaries requires two lines of action by the in operation in 1942, and early 1943, bringing total Authority. The first is the construction of a system installed capacity at Wilson to 335,200 kw. of publicly-owned dams on the principal tribu- The first TVA-built dam is Norris, whose gates taries and on the Tennessee itself. Unified operation were closed March 4, 1936. At normal level the of these storage and main river dams will reduce reservoir holds 2,047,000 acre-feet of water and destructive floods, maintain a channel suitable for covers 34,200 acres. Total storage is 2,567.000 nine-foot navigation, level off seasonal fluctuations acre-feet, of which about 2,000,000 acre-feet is of the river, develop a valuable by-product in the flood storage capacity. form of hydroelectric power, and secure an econo- Norris Dam, essentially a storage project, is 25 my from multi-purpose planning and operation miles northwest of Knoxville on the Clinch 'River. which would be impossible with developments hav- The total cost of the dam, power plant, switchyard ing but a single purpose.

and reservoir was $30.900.000. The powerhouse The second line of action on the problem carries contains two 66.000-horsepower turbines and two the Authority beyond the publicity-owned 'streams 50,400-kw. generators. to privately-owned land, the source of run-off TVA in 1936 also placed in operation a main river Control here requires the cooperation of individual project, Wheeler Dam, at the head of Wilson landowners in the development and popularizing | reservoir. It forms a lake 74 miles long. When of improved land management and agricultural filled to its capacity of 1,150,000

acre-feet the lake practices, creating thereby increased retention of covers 68,300 acres. There are four 45.000-horserainfall in the soil to supplement artificial river power turbines and four 32,400-kw. generators. And control

space has been left for two additional units. Total In 1940 and 1941, TVA assumed a major role in estimated cost, including 4 units, is $35.400.000, the national defense, acting with emergency speed Pickwick Landing Dam, 53 miles below Wilson in the fields of electric power for industry. manu- Dam, was completed in 1938. Its reservoir has a facture of munitions, and housing for defense in- total storage capacity of 1,091,000 acre-feet and dustrial workers. TVA's million kilowatts of when holding this amount of water will cover capacity aided substantially in meeting a south

46.800 acres. The initial power installation coneastern power emergency resulting from a rapidly sists of two 48,000-horsepower turbines and two growing defense load accompanied by a severe 36,000 kw. generators; two additional units are drouth. The TVA particularly took the leading part to be installed and provision has been made for in keeping the Alcoa, Tenn., plant of the Aluminum

possible installation of two more units. Total esti. Company of America, one of the largest in the

mated cost including four units is $35,700,000. country, in full operation, by supplying 140,000 to

Guntersville Dam, providing a lake 82 miles 150.000 kilowatts of emergency power.

long from the head of Wheeler reservoir to Hales To supply aditional power, Congress on July

Bar Dam, was placed in operation in 1939. The 31, 1940, authorized TVA to construct Cherokee

pool covers 70,700 acres when the reservoir is filled Dam on the Holston River and a new steam plant

to its controlled total capacity of 1,018.700 acre-feet. which, with additional downstream installations,

Initial power installation consists of three 34.000will add 360.000 kilowatts of capacity. First unit

horsepower units, with space for an additional of the steam plant was scheduled for operation

unit. The dam cost $31,640,000. early in 1942.

Seven miles upstream from Chattanooga, ChickOn July 17, 1941. Congress authorized a four

amauga Dam was placed in operation in 1940. Three dam development on the Hiwassee River system to

36.000-horsepower generating units have been inadd 212,000 kilowatts of capacity to the system, Work commenced immediately, two storage dams stalled, with space provided for one additionai to be completed in eight months and two power

unit. The dam cost about $35,000,000.

Hiwassee Dam, TVA's second storage reservoir, dams in 18. In addition, construction schedules on

also was placed in operation in 1940. The dam, on Watts Bar, Fort Loudoun, and Kentucky Dams

the Hiwassee River in North Carolina, has a reshave been moved forward from eight months to a

ervoir volume of 438,000 acre-feet. full yeur to provide power at earlier dates.

One 80.000For munitions manufacture, TVA is rehabilitat- horsepower generating unit has been installed and ing and modernizing the ammonium nitrate plant

there is space for an additional unit of the same constructed at Muscle Shoals during the World War size. Cost of the dam was $17.000.000. and maintained in stand-by condition by the Au- Largest of the dams authorized expressly to prothority. The plant will produce 300 tons of am- vide national defense power is Cherokee, under monium nitrate daily. As a part of the work, TVA construction on the Holston River, 52.3 miles above is constructing a modem synthetic ammonia plant, its juncture with the Tennessee. This is a storage supplanting the cyanamide process installed in 1918 project. 175 feet high and 6,700 feet long. Its reserThe cyanamide portion of the old plant is to con- voir, 58.5 miles long, will provide nearly 1.500.000 tinue in use for production of phosphate fertilizers, acre-feet of useful storage. Initial power installaor elemental phosphorus, useful in defense.

tion will be three 41,500-horsepower units, with As agent for FWA, TVA constructed and is man- space for a fourth. The project will cost about aging a 250-house project for defense workers in ni. $34,500,000 trate, aluminum, and electrometallurgical plants at The Hlwassee development consists of Apalachia. Muscle Shoals and assisting in defense housing Ocoee No. 3, Chatuge, and Nottely Dams. The projects at Alcog. Milan, and Humboldt, Tenn. In Apalachia site is below Hiwassee Dam, on the HIthe Muscle Shoals project, 150 houses were of a wassee River. The Dam, a concrete structure 110

feet high, will divert water into a 43,000-foot tun- of 60.000 kilowatts, and leases a 54.000-kilowatt nel, providing 385 feet of head at the 75,000-kilo- steam plant at Memphis, Tennessee. watt powerhouse downstream. Ocoee No. 3 project,

Congress directed the Authority to give prefon the Ocoee River, will provide 300 feet of head

erence in the sale of its surplus electricity to by a 100-foot concrete dam and a 12.000-foot tun

States, counties, municipalities, and co-operative nel. Power installation will be 27.000 kilowatts.

associations. On June 30, 1941, TVA power was Nottely and Chatuge Dams, on streams above Hi

being used by approximately 450,000 customers.

about 335,000 of whom were residential and farm wassee Dam, are to be storage projects without

customers. The power was being distributed by 75 power installations, each being of earth and im- municipalities, including Knoxville, Nashville, pounding 200,000 acre-feet of water. Storage in Memphis and Chattanooga, Tennessee, 38 co-operathe Hiwassee development will make feasible tives and in several districts operated temporarily 106,000 kilowatts of downstream Installations. The by TVA. In addition, TVA sells power to power dams, with downstream installations, will cost companies and industrial plants and uses its elecabout $42,000,000.

tricity for dam building and in the fertilizer plant. Construction is also under way on the Ken- With the exception of customers of the Alcorn tucky Dam, 22.4 miles above the mouth of the County, Mississippi, Electric Power Association, Tennessee River near Gilbertsville, Ky. This, the and the Tupelo, Mississippi, Municipal System, largest of the Authority's projects, will not be where lower rates are in effect, residential and farm completed until 1945. The dam will provide consumers were paying the following basic rates: 4,570,000 acre-feet of controlled flood storage 3c per kw-hr for the first 50 kw-hrs per mo. which will contribute to protection of the lower 2c per kw-hr for the next 150 kw-hrs per mo. Ohio and Mississippi Valleys from flood damage. 1c per kw-hr for the next 200 kw-hrs per mo. Total reservoir capacity will be 6,100,000 acre- 4 inills per kw-hr for the next 1,000 kw-hrs per feet. The reservoir will extend 184 miles up- mo. stream, almost across the State of Tennessee, and 712 mills per kw-hr for all over 1,400 kw-hrs will provide a 9-foot navigation channel to Pick- per mo. wick Landing Dam. It will have five 44,000-horse- The year 1939 saw a rapid expansion of the power units. Total estimated cost is $105,000,000 market for TVA power among preferred customers The Authority commenced construction in 1939

through the acquisition of the electric facilities on Watts Bar Dam, which will back the water of a number of privately owned public utilities, 72.4 miles from the head of the Chickamauga

culminating in the purchase of the system of the reservoir. Initial power installation will consist of

Tennessee Electric Power Company by the Authorfive 42,000-horsepower units. Total estimated cost

ity, 21 municipalities, and 11 co-operative associais $38,400,000.

Lions on Aug. 15. Of the contract price of $78,Fort Loudoun Dam is located at river mile

300,000, the Authority paid $44,949,000 for dams 602.3. Work started in July, 1940. Total storage

and hydro plants, three principal steam plants, and will be 365,500 acre-feet; flood storage 105,000

a number of other small fuel plants, transmission acre-feet. It will provide 9-foot navigation to

lines, and some distribution properties. The reKnoxville, Tenn. Initial power installation will

mainder of the price was paid by municipalities

and co-operatives for distribution properties. The consist of two 44,000 horsepower generating units.

system served about 142,000 customers. Total estimated cost is $29,500,000.

Other large acquisitions of privately owned elecOn Aug. 16, 1939, in connection with the pur

tric properties by TVA in conjunction with local chase of the electric system of the Tennessee Electric Power Company, the Authority acquired

agencies included purchases of Memphis and Knox

ville, Tennessee, electric systems in 1939. Total five major dams and hydro plants. The largest is

purchases up to June 30. 1941, amounted to $116,Hales Bar, on the Tennessee River 33 miles down

977,000, paid by TVA and by local agencies. scream from Chattanooga at the head of the Guntersville pool The reservoir, with 124,800 acre

Congress in June 1940 amended section 13 of

the TVA Act to provide for increased payments feet of storage, extends to Chattanooga. Com

to the states in lieu of taxes and for more equitable menced in 1905, the dam and hydro plant were placed in commercial operation in 1914. Power

distribution of the payments among states and

counties. The amendment provides that in the installation consists of three 7.000-, five 7,700

fiscal year 1941 the Authority shall pay to the two 4,200- and four 4,100-horsepower units.

states in which it sells or owns power property 10 Ocoee No. 1 is on the Ocoee River, 12 miles above

percent of its gross revenues for the preceding the mouth, in Polk County, Tenn. Its reservoir, fiscal year. extending 72 miles upstream, has a storage ca

The Authority received $50,000,000 from the Napacity of 25,800 acre-feet. It has five 7,400-horse

tional Recovery Act of 1933. $25,000,000 from the power generating units. Ocoee No. 2 at the head

Emergency Appropriations Act of 1934, and $36,of the Ocoee No. 1 pool, is used for diversion only

000,000 and $39,900,000 in direct appropriations by and the powerhouse is five miles downstream. It

the Seventy-fourth Congress for the fiscal years has two generating units of 10,000 and 15,000

ending June 30, 1936, and June 30, 1937. The horsepower.

Seventy-fifth Congress appropriated $40,166,270 Blue Ridge Dam, on the Toccoa River in Fannin

for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, and gave County, Georgia, has 197,500 acre-feet of storage TVA the authority to make commitments for an in its 10-mile-long reservoir. It has one 30,000- additional $4,000,000. For the fiscal year ending horsepower generating unit.

June 30, 1939, Congress appropriated $40,000,000 Great Falls Dam, on the Caney Fork River, a for TVA. The sum of $39,003,000 was appropriated tributary of the Cumberland, has a storage of for the year ending June 30, 1940, and $40,000,000 49,400 acre-feet. Its power installation consists for the year ending June 30, 1941. of onc 19,000- and one 22,200-horsepower unit. In July, 1940, Congress appropriated an addi

The new steam plant, authorized with Cherokee tional $25,000,000 to commence a 5,800,000 proDam, is under construction near Watts Bar Dam. gram to provide additional electric power for It will have a total installation of 180,000 kilowatts, national defense, particularly the production of consisting of three 60.000-kilowatt units. The au- aluminum for airplanes. thority operates three steam plants acquired from The Seventy-seventh Congress appropriated $79,the Tennessee Electric Power Company, Hales Bar, 800,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942. In 40,000 kilowatts; Nashville, 48,000 kilowatts; and July 1941, it appropriated an additional $40,000,000 Parksville, 13.000 kilowatts. It also operates Shef- for fiscal year 1942 for the beginning of the Hiwasfield steam plant, constructed at Muscle Shoals see River development. This brings the total apduring the World War, with an installed capacity propriations to $454,869,270.

United States Travel Bureau USTB-United States Travel Bureau, division of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. W. Bruce Machamee, Chief; Jay Wingate, Supervisor, New York Office; J. Lee Bossemeyer, Supervisor, San Francisco Office.

Those desiring travel and recreation information should address the New York Office at 45 Broadway, if resident east of the Mississippi River, and the San Francisco Office, Old Mint Building, if west of the Mississippi.

The United States Travel Bureau was established tion on the recreational and travel attractions of Feb. 4, 1937. Legislation, signed on July 19, 1940, the United States, its Territories, and possessions: authorizes it to serve as a national coordinating publishes brochures on the United States for ciragency for the promotion of travel by the Federal culation abroad; sponsors travel radio programs; Government, State governments, private industry, issues semi-annual Calendar of Events, monthly and service clubs. A Travel Advisory Committee informational bulletin, and research findings on composed of representatives of the foregoing in- economic and sociological significance of travel. terests will assist in formulating a national travel Program is designed to supplement, not to dupliprogram

cate, activities of transportation companies, comThe Bureau supplies free and impartial informa- mercial travel agencies, and similar enterprises.

834 U. S.-Federal Works Agency; Naťl Youth Administration; I. C. C.

Federal Works Agency FWA-Federal Works Agency---Administrator, Gen. Phllip B. Fleming. Address, Washington, D. C.

The Federal Works Agency was created by the Works Administrator was authorized to acquire or first plan for government reorganization submit- construct and manage defense housing projects ted to Congress by the President April 25, 1939, where the President determined an acute shortage under authority of the Reorganization Act of 1939, of housing existed or impended which

would impede and began to function as an agency of the Federal national defense activities. The FWA defense Government on July 1, 1939.

housing program up to Aug. 1. 1941, had made Five organizations, previously operating either 16,107 homes available for occupancy by the famas independent establishments or as parts of de- ilies of workers in defense industries and enlisted partments, were brought together under FWA. personnel and civilian employees of the Army and These organizations were: The Work Projects Ad- Navy. As that date nder the FWA program ministration (WPA), formerly the Works Progress 60,835 homes with an estimated cost of $183.558,319 Administration (with the exception of the National also were under contract. Two new units were Youth Administration); the Public Works Admin- established within FWA under the program, the istration (PWA), formerly the Federal Emergency Division of Defense Housing and the Mutual OwnAdministration of Public Works; the Public Roads ership Defense Housing Division. Administration (PRA), formerly the Bureau of Defense Public Works-Under the provisions of Public Roads in the Department of Agriculture: the Defense Public Works Act the Federal Works the United States Housing Authority (USHA), Agency was assigned operation of the program to formerly in the Interior Department; and the Pub

provide public work facilities necessary to health, lic Buildings Administration (PBA), in which was combined the Branch of Public Buildings, Procure

safety, or welfare in defense areas. An appropria

tion of $150,000,000 was provided and loans and ment Division, Treasury Department, and the grants were authorized for schools, waterworks, Branch of Buildings Management, National Park

water treatment and purification, sewers, sewage, Service, Interior Department. All of the administrations are headed by Commissioners.

garbage and refuse disposal, hospitals, recreational The

and other facilities. United States Housing Authority is headed by an Administrator.

Public Work Reserve-A Public Work Reserve The purpose of consolidating these five units in was established within the Federal Works Agency the Federal Works Agency was: To reduce expen- to build up a backlog of desirable public work ditures; to increase efficiency; to consolidate agen- projects that might be undertaken by local, State cies according to major purposes; to reduce the and Federal agencies after the reduction of denumber of agencies by consolidating those having sense activities. Preliminary surveys of the field similar functions; and to eliminate overlapping indicated the existence of a reserve of needed works and duplication of effort in the government.

and services to the extent of four or five billion New duties and functions, stemming principally from the defense program, have been undertaken

dollars worth a year when defense needs and by the Agency. These include:

economic conditions make their construction or FWA Defense Housing Program-The Federall operation feasible or desirable.

National Youth Administration NYA--National Youth Administration-Aubrey Williams, Administrator, Washington, D. C. The National Youth Administration carries on goods or render services for public agencies while two major activities. Through one NYA enables gaining practical work experience. Such services young persons to continue their school or college are rendered to public agencies only to the extent educations by providing part-time work. Through that their normal budgets cannot adequately prothe other NYA provides jobs on work experience vide for them. Most of these projects are related projects for young persons who are out of school, to the national defense, with many youths being unemployed and in need of jobs.

prepared on NYA work projects for work in naThe National Youth Administration has been a tional defense industries. Particular emphasis is part of the Federal Security Agency since July 1, being placed on the fitting of workers for places 1939, when it was separated from the works in ship building, aviation, machine tools, and other Progress Administration under Reorganization bottleneck industries. Plan No. 1.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940, the During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, an National Youth Administration employed an averaverage of 439, 149 young persons were employed on age of 325,000 youths on the Out-of-School Work the NYA Student Work Program. Of these 318.953 Program each month. were students in 29,073 secondary schools, while In the training of youth for jobs in defense 120.196 were college and graduate students in 1,711 industry the National Youth Administration is cocolleges and graduate schools. Students are se- operating with the United States Office of Educa. lected for employment on the basis of proved need tion and local school systems who provide training and demonstrated scholastic ability and perform in subjects related to the NYA work, and the state useful tasks under the direction of school officials. employment services who together with the Bureau Secondary school students earn between $3 and $6 of Employment Security have the responsibility of a month, college under-graduates between $10 and placing the workers in industry. $20, and graduate students between $10 and $30. For the fiscal year July 1, 1941 through June 30,

The NYA Out-of-School Work Program includes 1942, Congress appropriated $151,684,000 for the a wide variety of projects on which youth produce National Youth Administration.

Interstate Commerce Commission ICC-Interstate Commerce Commission—Joseph B. Eastman, chairman; Clyde B. Aitchison, Claude R. Porter, William E. Lee, Charles D. Mahaffie, Carroll Miller, Walter M. W. Splawn, John L. Bogers, J. Haden Alldredge, William J. Patter on, and J. Monroe Johnson. (The Commission selects a chairman from its membership). Address, Washington, D. C.

The Interstate Commerce Commission is the by railroads and motor carriers; and to approve oldest of the independent regulatory agencies consolidations and combinations of carriers. For (created Feb. 1887) and is the principal the most part these powers may only be exercised governmental body exercising jurisdiction over after a hearing. The Commission may also make transportation other than that by air. This juris- orders against carriers other than those by motor diction, conferred by the Interstate Commerce vehicle for the payment of damages for certain Act and certain related statutes, extends to public violations of the Interstate Commerce Act. carriers by railroad, water, motor vehicle, and The Commission is required to ascertain and pipe line (other than those for water or gas), report the value of the property of railroad and engaged in interstate or foreign commerce. pipe-line companies. It is empowered to require

Its principal powers are the following: Το the use of block signals, train control devices, and prescribe maximum or minimum transportation certain other safety appliances by railroad comrates and charges; to require the removal of unjust panies, and may establish reasonable requirements discrimination or undue prejudice as between with respect to safety of operation and equipment shippers and communities; to approve construction of motor carriers, including private carriers. of new railroad lines and abandonment of existing may prescribe uniform systems of accounts for the lines; to license common and contract carriers by carriers under its jurisdiction and require them to water or motor vehicle; to approve securities issued file periodic and special statistical reports with it.

Work Projects Administration WPA-Work Projects Administration-Howard 0. Hunter, Commissioner. Address: Washington, D. C.

The major function of the Work Projects Ad- worker is assigned and with the section of the ministration (created in 1935 and incorporated in country and the degree of urbanization (based on the Federal Works Agency on July 1, 1939) is to

the population of the largest municipality within provide useful work on public projects for unem

each county) of the locality in which the worker

is employed. A standard schedule of monthly ployed workers in need of jobs. During the fiscal

earnings has been the basis of wage payments year ending June 30, 1941, WPA activities were

since the WPA program began, but the schedule coordinated with the national defense effort, and in current use reflects changes initiated by the roughly a third of the employment and & fourth ERA Act of 1939. of the funds were devoted to defense projects. Physical accomplishments on WPA projects dur

To facilitate the participation of the WPA in ing the period from the beginning of the program the national defense program, Congress enacted through December 31, 1940, included practically special provisions which authorize the exemption every kind of public facility and service needed of projects certified by the Secretary of War and by communities, as well as many of those essential the Secretary of the Navy as important for military

to the national defense. WPA workers built or and naval purposes from many of the restrictions improved about 565,000 miles of roads and streets; that normally apply to project operations. Defense

a large share of this mileage was on farm-toprojects may be exempted from the requirements market and other roads in rural areas. In conconcerning sponsors' contributions, from

the

nection with the road work, about 69,000 new limitations on hours of work and earnings of

bridges were built, and 42,000 existing bridges project workers, and from the limitations on the

were reconstructed. WPA workers also built about use of Federal funds for non labor costs. In con

200 airplane landing fields and nearly 2,300,000 nection with the non labor exemption, Congress

feet of runways and made extensive improvements authorized the use of $50,000,000 in WPA funds to to hundreds of other airports and many airport pay for supplementary nonlabor costs of certified facilities. Many of the 28,300 new buildings defense projects during the fiscal year 1941.

erected and 72,000 existing buildings renovated The War and Navy Departments through their

through WPA projects are also of value in the certification of projects have determined,

to a

defense of the nation; these include barracks, considerable extent, the scope of WPA defense

mess halls, garages, storage houses, and other activities. In addition, projects which have been

buildings at military and naval reservations. certified for exemption have been given first

About 36.000 schools and other educational build. preference in operation, to speed their completion

ings were also included among the buildings conNevertheless, many other defense projects, which

structed or renovated by WPA workers. did not require certification for successful opera

Other project accomplishments in the construciton, have also been undertaken.

tion field included the installation or improvement As a matter of fact, most of the kinds of work

of some 23.000 miles of storm and sanitary sewers

and of nearly 16,000 miles of water mains, and the required in the program to strengthen the national deiense had already been undertaken by the WPA

construction or reconstruction of about 3,000 water in the years prior to the present emergency.

or sewage treatment plants, pumping stations,

and other utility plants. Recreational facilities In addition to its work that is related directly

made available to the public were also numerous, to the national defense, the WPA has continued to operate projects that extend community facili

including 7,400 new or improved parks, 1,500 new

swimming and wading pools, over 9,000 tennis ties and contribute to the physical and cultural welfare of the civilian population. Work on high

courts, and several thousand playgrounds and

athletic fields. ways, roads, and streets has continued to account

WPA workers on community service projects of for the largest number of jobs, but the 471,000

various kinds, during the five-and-a-half-year persons working on such projects at the end of June, 1941, represented less than 36 percent of the 600,000 garments and household articles fo

period through December, 1940, completed 312,

distotal, as compared with nearly 43 percent a year

tribution to needy families and public institutions, earlier. On the other hand, airport projects were

made millions of visits to families in need of providing jobs for 68,000 workers, or about 5

housekeeping assistance and served 575,000,000 percent of the total, as compared with only a

lunches to school children. Through the various little more than 1 percent in June, 1940. Projects arts, educational, and recreational projects, milfor the construction of public buildings accounted

lions of persons were provided with opportunities for about 10 percent, and those for the develop- for entertainment, cultural development, instrucment of water supply and sewer systems for 9

tion, and recreational leadership. percent of the total employment in June, 1941;

During the fiscal year 1941, about $1,326,000,000 these percentages were only slightly different from

in WPA funds was expended in the operation of those applying to the same kinds of work a year

the program. Nearly $1,285,000,000 of this amount earlier.

was used for program activities operated directly Most of the remainder of the WPA workers were by the WPA, and the remaining $41,000,000 was employed on various kinds of community service spent for projects operated by other Federal projects, including sewing projects and many edu- agencies with transferred WPA funds. Nearly cational, recreational, and clerical projects. Nearly $325,000,000 of the WPA funds was spent for 3 percent of the workers, however, were employed defense projects, including those operated by other on projects for the training of workers in manual

Federal agencies. These defense expenditures occupations needed in defense industries. (This represented about a fourth of the total for all type of project was first authorized in the ERA WPA projects. Act for the fiscal year 1941.) About 35,000 WPA As in previous years, the greater part (87 perworkers were in training on such projects at the cent) of the expenditures of WPA funds was made end of June, 1941, and nearly 120,000 had been for the wages of workers. Nonlabor costs acemployed on them during the course of the year. counted for only 9 percent of the total, despite

The number of workers employed on all WPA the increased non labor expenditures for certified projects averaged about 1,700,000 during the 1941 defense projects. Most of the remainder (3.6 perfiscal year. This average is about 17 percent less cent) of the WPA funds was used for administrathan that for the preceding fiscal year and is tive purposes.

A small fraction of one percent lower than that for any other year since the pro- represented the payment of property damage gram began. It is only a little more than half claims. the average for the fiscal year 1939, when opera- Local communities that propose and sponsor tions were at their peak, and some 200,000 below WPA projects, and take an active part in their the 1939 average, the previous low level of WPA operation, also pay & considerable share of the activities.

projects At the end of June, 1941, about 1,368,000 persons

costs. During the 1941 fiscal year,

sponsors spent a total of nearly $548,000,000 in the were employed on projects financed with WPA operation of WPA projects. This amount, which funds. Most of them (nearly 1,328,000) were represented about 31 percent of the total for working on projects operated directly by the WPA. projects operated by the WPA, is more than the The remaining 40,000 were working on projects sponsors contributed in any previous year, despite operated by other Federal agencies but financed the fact that WPA activities in general were on with WPA funds transferred under authority of a lower level in 1941 than ever before. Section 10a of the Emergency Relief Appropriation In the course of the six years since the WPA Act, fiscal year 1941, or similar sections of previous program began, a total of $9,580,602,000 in WPA ERA acts.

funds has been spent for its activities, including Approximately, 96 percent of all WPA project projects operated by other Federal agencies. Proworkers are paid in accordance with a standard ject sponsors during the same period made schedule of monthly wages. This schedule pro- $2,341,265,000 available for project operations vides for monthly wages that vary with the These funds have provided jobs for considerably degree of skill required for the job to which the more than 8.000.000 different persons.

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