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Distances on the Highways of Europe (Kilometers)
Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association

Figures show kilometers; a kilometer is 5a of a mile)

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781 565 2050 851

864

662 935 1780 273 1264 939 809 615(1795 1327 781

925 2565/ 429 3781 211 216 1636 485 483 477 28 523 1333 546 565] 925 1663) 944 957 756|11412201 45511383 10101 9531 477|1709 1376 205012565 1663 2575 2588/24192782|3864 2118 3048 2663/2592 2203 3372 3029 851 429 9442575 51 189 645 1771 571 677 126 401

5091 982 492 864) 3781 9572588 51

202 594/1720 584 626 75 3501 5221 931 441 662) 211 756/24191 189 202 418 1840 382 685 275 239) 357 1131) 643 9351 21611141/2782 645 594 418 1398 7011 382 474 244 739 1395 445 1780 1636/2201 3864 1771 1720 1840 1398 1779 1152 1645 1664 2158|2239 1279

273 485 45521181 571 584 382 701 1779 968 657 513 504|1523 1033 1264] 483|13833048 677 626 6851 382|1152 968

5510 511 384/11351 185 939 477|1010/26631 126 75 275 474 1645 6571 551 505 10061 856 366 809 28 953/25931 401 3501 239 244 16641 5131 511 505

551 1361 574 615 523/ 477 2203 509 5221 357 7392158 384|1006504 551 1232) 870 1795/1333/17093372 982 9311131 1395 2239 1523 1135 856 1361(1232 950 1327] 546/13763029 492 441) 643| 44512791033| 185366574 870] 950

Airway Distances Abroad (Statute Miles)

to

Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association London to-Paris, 205; Amsterdam, 230; Rotter- Singapore, Malaya, 8,393; Palembang, Dutch E. dam, 227; Cologne, 326; Brussels, 200; Berlin, 600; Indles, 8,695; Batavia, D. E. I. 8,983; Semarang.

D. E.I., 9,233; Sourabaya, D. E. I.. 9,390: RamStuttgart, 496; Hamburg, 480; Warsaw, 920.

bang, D. E. I., 9,676; Koepang, D. E. I., 10,214; Paris to Basle, 268; Basle to Zurich, 49; Berlin,

Darwin, North Australia, 10,726; Longreach, 552; Danzig, 806.

Queensland, 12,049; Charleville, Q. 12,316; BrisLondon (Australian route)-Paris, 205;

bane, Q., 12,754. Brindisi, Italy, 1,352; Athens, Greece, 1,721; Alex- London to (South Africa route)-Paris, 205; andria, Egypt, 2,308; Gaza, Palestine, 2,584; Rut- Brindisi, 1,362; Athens, 1,721; Alexandria, 2.308 bah, Iraq, 2,947; Baghdad, Iraq, 3,187; Basra, Cairo, Egypt, 2,420; Wadi Halla, Sudan, 3.017; Iraq, 3,465; Koweit, Arabia, 3,540; Bahrein, off Khartoum, Sudan, 3,517; Juba, Sudan, 4.276: Arabia; Sharjah, Oman, 4,140; Gwadar, Baluchis- Entebbe, Uganda, 4,611; Nairobi, Kenya, 4.945 tan, 4,580; Karachi, India, 4,880; Jodhpur, India, Dodoma, Tanganyika, 5,317; Mbeya, Tanganyika, 5,264; Delhi, India, 5,566; Cawnpore, India, 5,809; 5,603; Broken Hill, No. Rhodesia, 6,116; Salisbury, Allahabad, India, 5,919; Calcutta, India, 6,386, So. Rhodesia, 6,416; Bulawayo, So. Rh. Johannes. Akyab, Burma, 6,734; Rangoon, Burma, 7.041; burg, Transvaal, 1,094; Kimberley, Cape Prov.. Bangkok, Siam, 7,405; Alor Star, Malaya, 7,960; 7,366; Cape Town, 6. P., 7,904,

DISTANCES ON THE HIGHWAYS OF EUROPE (KILOMETERS) (Continued) Source: Foreign Travel Division of American Automobile Association. Figures show kilometers; &

kilometer is 56 of a mile

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Dresden. Dusseldorf Florence Frankfort. Freiburg Geneva. Genoa. Gratz Grenoble The Hague Hamburg Hanover Havre. Innsbruck Interlaken Karlsbad,

716 1207 458 737 1012 1198 646 1157 969 498 502 1242 639 913 257 716 1310 258 560 886 1144 1198 1015 266 467) 302 7581 794 7701 685 1207 1310 1060 774 713 279 774 685 1447 1571 1406/1394) 568 618 1093 4581 258 1060 286 612 886 940 757 524 511 346 7841 521 512 427 737 560 7741 286 326 608 881 471 751 7976321 758) 472 226 635 1012 886 713 612 326 492 1226 145 975 1123 958 708 605 210 899 1198 1144 279 886 608 492 948 406 1281 1397 1232 1191 530 605 1074

646 11981 774) 9401 881 1226 948 1154 1464 1144 1148/1724 5351127 615 1157 1015) 6851 7571 471 145 406 1154 1052 1268 1103 7851 7501 355 1044 969| 266 1447 524 751] 975 1281 1464 1052 794 629 677 1045 899 951 498 467|1571 511) 797 1123 1397 1144 1268) 794 165 11981 94410231 754 502 302|1406 346) 632 958 1232 1148 1103 629 165 1033 824 8581 634 1242 756 1394 784 758 708 1191 1724 785) 677 1198 1033 1100 794 1270 639 794 568 521 472 605 530 535 750 1045 944 824 1100

605) 525 913) 7701 6181 512 226 210 605 11271 355 899 1023 858 794 505 801 257| 6851093427 635) 899/10741 615 1044 951 7541 634/1270) 5251 8011

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Florence.
Frankfort.
Geneva.
Genoa.
The Hague
Hamburg
Havre..
Kiel.

Copenhagen
• Paris
Prague.
Rome.
Trieste
Venice.
Warsaw
Vlenna.

1060 713 279 1447 1571 1394 1666 1790 1197 1060 293 483 277 1702 876 1060

612 886 524) 511 784 606 887 579 505 1353 1139 933 1081 736 713 612 492 975 11231 708/1218/14995031 9401006) 8801 674 1572 1022

279 886) 492 1281 1397 1191 1492 1773 986 1022 511 657 451 1654 1050 1447 524 975 1281 794 677 889 11701 472 1124 1732 1606|1400/1326 1260 1571 511 11231397

1198 95 376 1003) 653 1856|15621356 855 940 1394 784 708 1191) 677 1198 1293/15741 205 1348 1687 1470 1264 1865 1517 1666) 606 1218|1492 889 95/1293 410 1098 748/1951 1657 1451 950 1035 1790 8871499 1773 4701 376 1574 410 1379 808 2083 1646 1634 1010 1095 1197 579 503) 986 472 10031 205 1098 1379 1159 1490 1364 1158 1650 1312 1060 505 940 1022 1124 653 1348 748 808 1159 1353 780 904 632 287 293 1353 1006 511 1732 1856 1687 1951 2083 1490 1353 776/ 570|1913 1169 483 1139 880 657 1606|1562) 1470 1657 1646 1364 7801 776

206 1237 493 277 933 674) 451 1400 1356 1264 1451 1634 1158 904 570 206 13431 599 1702 1081 1572 1654 1326 855 1865 950 1010 1650 632 1913|1237 1343 744 876 7361022 1050 1260 940 1517|10351095 1312 287 1169 493 599 744

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1159 1490 773 1008 2336 507 637 1364 803 1158/1650/1312 553 1730 573 1159 1333 690 389 1105) 744 508 780 1082 904 632 287 549 705 657 1490|1353

791 1023 1681 1162 1251 776 694 570 1913/1169 1397|1281 927 773) 690 791

360 1495 445 418 665 315| 459 1332 677 680 1095 200 1008 389 1023) 360 1135 1474 388 656 675 574 1061 317) 563 735 435 2336 1105 1681 1495 1135 1474 1510 1005 1545 1111|1463 828 1804 400 1557 507 744 1162 445 1474 1474 176 1184 686 830 1301 868 271 1286 245 637 568|1251 418 388 15101 176

902) 6691 802 11251 692 239 1110 218 1364 780 776) 665 656 1005 1184 902 6401 206 1237| 493 1183 6051 791 803 1082 694) 315 675 1545 686 669 640 434 1647 1033 921 11451 451 1158 904 570 459 574 1111 830 8021 206) 434 1343) 599 977 711 595 1650 632 1913 1332 1061 1463 1301|1125 1237 1647 1343 744 1125 1162 1289 1312 287 1169 677 317 828 868) 692 493 1033| 599 744 780 4181 739 553 549 1397 680 563 1804) 271 239 1183 921 977 1125 780 1198 480 1730 705 1281 1085 735 400 12861110 605 1145 711 1162 418 1198 1157 573 657| 9271 200| 435|15571 245/ 218| 791| 451 595 1289 739 480|1157

OTHER TRAVELING DISTANCES IN EUROPE, STATUTE MILES

Source: United States War Department Official Table of Distances Berlin to-Berne, 611; Bremen, 215, Essen, 317; mouth, 246; Portsmouth, 74; Sheffield, 163: SouthKiel, 225; Konigsberg, 366; Leipzig, 100; Magde- ampton, 80, Yarmouth, 122. burg. 88; Munich, 406, Nuremberg, 301; Posen, 158; Madrid to-Barcelona,

425; Bordeaux 538 St. Gall, 575; Saarbrucken, 466; Stuttgart, 438; Boulogne, 1,059; Cadiz, 439; Carthagena, 326: Gib. The Hague, 422; Ulm, 437; Wiesbaden, 360.

raltar, 456; Malaga, 383; Marseilles, 765; Moscow, Istanbul, Turkey to-Adrianople, 198; Batum, 2,764; Oporto, 381; Saragossa, 212; Valencia, 304. 674; Beirut, 976; Brindisi, 847; Gibraltar, 2,099; Paris to--Amiens, 81; Bordeaux, 363; Boulogne, Marseilles, 1,552; Moscow, 2,300; Naples, 1,101; 158: Brest, 387; Brindisi, 1.169; Calais, 185; Odessa, 395; Smyrna, 558.

Chateau-Thierry, 59; Cherbourg, 230; Dijon, 196: London to-Aldershot, 37; Bath, 107; Bishop's Dover, 204; Havre, 142; Kiel, 652; Lille, 156 Rock, 469; Brighton, 51; Bristol, 119; Cambridge, Lyons, 318. 53: Canterbury, 60 Chatham, 34; Dover, 78; Rome to Brindisi, 394; Lausanne, 640: MarFalmouth, 307; Folkestone, 71; Glasgow, 402; seilles, 565; Milan, 404; Naples, 155: Pisa. 207: Liverpool, 200; Manchester, '184; Oxford, 64; Ply- | Spezia, 254; Turin, 413; Venice, 378.

Distances Between Ports in Asia
Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles, water routes

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02270 430 3724 230 334 777 683 1902 161 1596| 1072 1533 2270 0 2121 2138 24661 2052 17951 2904 6061 2165 3812 3293 3678 430 2121 0 3570

96 822 1077 1748 306] 19901 1466 1921 3724 21381 3570 ol 3914 3496 3399 4367 1825 36181 5280] 4756 5167 230 2466 624 3914 0

529

900 541 2092 356 1457 9301 1401 334 2052 96) 3496 529 0 727 981) 1674 211] 1894 1370 1825 777 1795 8221 3399 906 727 01 13381 1578 7171 2202] 1725 2023 683 2904 1077| 4367

981 1338 01 2545 808) 1135 534) 1199 1902 6061 17481 1825 2092 1674 15781 2545 0 1796 3458) 2934 3345

161 2165 3061 3618 356 211 717 808) 1796 0 1722 1198 1653 1596 3812 1990) 5280 1457 1894 2202] 113534581 1722 ol 1153 1093 1072 3293) 14661 4756 930 13701 1725 534) 2934 1198 1153 0 1274 1533 3678] 1921 5167] 1401 1825) 2023) 1199 33451 16531 10931 1274 0

Cape Haltlen

0 803 941 774 1576 727 713 864 1368 1255 373 509 1023 1615 Cartagena

803 0 324 544 1823 1315 1301 707 1702 1639 546) 934 1054/1739 Colon.

9411 324 0 805 1719 1155 1226 969 1616 1576 629 1185 1315/1635 Curacao.

774 544 805 02069 1325 1312 172 1945/1854 668 521 538/2005 Galveston.

15761823 1719/2009 0 886 872 2233 451 514 1428/2057 2560 717 Havana.

727 1315 1155 1325 886 0 106 1488/ 694 593 874 1207|17201 937 Key West

713 1301 1226 1312 872 106 0 1474 658 533 917 1193 1689 1001 La Guayra

864 707 969 172 2233 1488 1474 02129/2016 837 552 408/2174 New Orleans.

1368 1702 16161945 451 694 658 2129 0 263 1304 1848 2376) 919. Pensacola.

1255 16391576 1854 514 593 533 2016 263 0 1238|17362250 957 Port Royal

373 646 629 668 1428 874 917 837 1304 1238 01 805 1152 1367 St. Thomas

509) 934 1185 521 2057 1207 1193 552 1848 1736 805 01 597/2129 Trinidad

1023 1054|1315 538 2560 1720 1689| 408 2376 2250 1152) 597 02494 Vera Cruz.

1615 1739 1635 2005 7171 937|1001121741 919 957|13671212912494 0 Distances Between South American

Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles

Antofagasta, Chlle.

0 374 248) 936 456 1961 1693 258 953 480 1289 1496 821/2299 663 Arica, Chile.

374
0 601

683 808 1709 1441 1127 1306 158 1035 1244 567 2650 1016 Caldera, Chile..

2481 601 011291 226211S/18791 484 723 698 1480 1682 1013 2067) 433 Callao, Peru

936 683 1129 0 1308 1047 778 759 1762 539 372 582 147 3076 1504 Coquimbo, Chile.

4561 808 226 1308 023192051 693 524 901|1655 1853 1193 1869 234 Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 1961 1709/2148 10472319 0 410 1785 27501585 694 484 1176 40372509 Guayaquil, Ecuador

1693 1441 1879 778 2051 410 0 1517 24821297 4261 215 907 3769 2241 Iquique, Chile.

258 1127] 484 759 693 1785 1517 01190 253 111113201 645 2535| 901 Lota, Chile,

953 1306 723 1762 52427302482 1190 01392 2097122841649 1371 309 Mollendo, Peru.

480 158 698 539 901 1565 1297 253 1392 0 891 1100| 423 27341108 Pacasmayo, Peru.

1289 1035 1480 372 1655 694 426 111120971 891 0 232 501 3396/1848 Paita, Peru

1496 1244 1682 582 1853 484 215 13202284|1100 232 0 710 3571/2043 Pisco, Peru

821 567 1013 147 1193|1176 907 645 1649 4231 501 710 0/2969/1390 Magallanes, Chile. 2299 2650 2067 3076 1869 403737692535/1371 2734 3396 3571 2969

011656 Valparaiso, Chile.

663 1016 433 1504 2342509|2241 901 309|1108/1848 2043|1390/1656 0 Panama Canal Distances (Statute Miles)

Source: United States Hydrographic Office Colon to-Baltimore, 2,189; Boston. 2,484: Montevideo, 6,144; Para, 2,659; Pernambuco, 3,774;

Rio de Janeiro, 5,008: Arica, Chile, 2,212; Callao Charleston, S. C., 1,801; Galveston, 1,719; Havana, 1,155; Halifax, 2,668; Jacksonville, 1,768; Key 1,550; Guayaquil, 913; Magallanes, 4,541; Val West, 1,220; Kingston, Jamaica, 634; Mobile, 1,604: Calcutta, 13,989: Colombo,"13,019: Guam. 9,199 New Orleans, 1,616; New York, 2,273: Norfolk, Hong Kong, 10,588; Honolulu, 5,395, Manila 10,764 2,049; Pensacola, 1,576; Philadelphia, 2,241; Bor

Melbourne, 9.130; Shanghai, 9,853; Singapore deaux, 5,295; Gibraltar, 4,989; Glasgow, 5,208; 12,097; Wellington, 7,491; Yokohama, 8,846; Los Hamburg. 5,838; Havre, 5,313; Liverpool, 5,237; Angeles, 3.354; Seattle, 4,630; San Francisco, Plymouth, Eng., 5,130; Buenos Alres, 6,276 3,737; Vancouver, 4,643.

Help in Case of Drowning and Other Accidents

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross Drowning, Electric Shock, Gas, Smoke and the arm pit or groin and twisting till the flow of Other Suffocations

blood is stopped. Loosen every 15 minutes. Allow to 1. Lay patient on his belly, one arm extended remain loose if bleeding has stopped, but watch directly overhead, the other arm bent at elbow and closely and retighten if bleeding commences again. with the face turned outward and resting on hand Bleeding from a vein comes in a steady flow. It can or forearm, so nose and mouth are free.

be controlled by applying a clean compressor 2. Kneel, straddling patient's thighs with your dressing over the wound, bandaging snugly and knees place such a distance from the hip bones then applying pressure with

the hand directly over so as to apply pressure direct from shoulders to the dressing if necessary. Elevating the part aids heel of hands. Þlace palms of hands on small of Open Wounds-On scratches and slight wounds back, with fingers resting on ribs, the little finger apply half strength iodine. Dirty or greasy wounds just touching

lowest rib, with thumb and fingers in should first be cleansed with high-grade benzine, natural position, and tips of fingers out of sight. Open wounds should be covered with gauze and

3. With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, bandage. so that the weight of your body is gradually brought Never wash or touch a wound with fingers. Do to bear upon the patient. The shoulder should be not touch that part of the gauze that comes in directly over the heel of the hand at the end of the contact

with the wound. Never use cobwebs, toforward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This bacco, waste or oil. operation should take about two seconds.

Burns-All burns may be treated with tannic 4. Now immediately swing backward, so as to acid burn jelly, or fresh tannic acid 5% solution. remove the pressure completely.

or picric acid gauze moistened with clean water, 5. After two seconds swing forward again. Thus or with a paste or solution of baking soda on clean repeat deliberately twelve to fifteen times a minute, gauze. Slight burns, when the skin is not broken, the double movement of compression and release, a may be treated with a good burn ointment, precomplete respiration in four or five seconds.

ferably one containing tannic acid. Most severe 6. Continue artificial respiration without inter- burns call for shock treatment. ruption until natural breathing is restored, if Fracture (Broken Bones)-Handle carefully to necessary, four hours or longer, or until a phy- prevent sharp ends cutting through flesh. Apply sician declares the patient is dead.

narrow boards, heavy pasteboard, umbrellas, canes, 7. As soon as this artificial respiration has been fence railings, or any rigid appliances, as splints started and while it is being continued, an assistant for the fractured limbs to permit the patient to be should loosen any tight clothing about the patient's moved without pain or danger. Splints must be neck, chest, or waist. Keep the patient warm. Do padded when applied next to skin, and be long not give any liquids whatever by mouth until the enough to reach beyond the joints above and be patient is fully conscious.

low fracture. Firm traction should be applied to 8. To avoid strain on the heart when the patient end of limb while splints are fastened in place. revives, he should be kept lying down and not Transportation-Three persons аге necessary allowed to stand or sit up. If the doctor has not to place an injured person properly on a stretcher. arrived by the time the patient has revived, he one to lift head and shoulders, another the hips. should be given some stimulant, such as one tea- and a third the legs. The stretcher should be spoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a small placed alongside injured, and helpers should kneel glass of water or a hot drink of coffee or tea, etc. on one knee on the side of patient away from

9. Resuscitation should be carried on at the stretcher, lifting him in unison, first to their nearest possible point to where the patient received bended knees, then lay on stretcher. his injuries. He should not be moved from this Eye Injuries-Loose particles may be removed point until he is breathing normally of his own from the eyelid with a clean handkerchief, or a bit volition and then moved only in a lying position of clean cotton rolled on a toothpick or 'a match Should it be necessary to move the patient before stick. If not easily removed in this way, make no he is breathing normally, resuscitation should be further attempt. Particles embedded in the lid or carried on during the time that he is being moved. eye ball should be left to the surgeon. Never violate

10. A brief return of natural respiration is not a this rule, blindness may result. In case of serious certain indication for stopping the resuscitation. eye injury, cover with clean cloth compress wrung Sometimes the patient, aiter temporary recovery out in ice cold water; send patient to hospital. of respiration, stops breathing. Do not leave Sunstroke-Sweating stops, followed by sudden patient alone.

rise in temperature. Skin is dry, flushed and 11. In carrying out resuscitation it may be neces- very hot, pulse strong and rapid. Frequently unsary to change the operator. This change must be conscious. Cool quickly with cold bath or spray. made without losing the rhythm of respiration. Elevate the head. Ice bags or cold applications

Caution-The removal of a victim of electric to head. No stimulants. shock from the electric contact is highly dangerous. Heat Exhaustion-Collapse with pale face, Phone the power company to shut off the current, clammy sweat, weak rapid pulse. Treat the or get an experienced electrician to make the same as Shock rescue if possible. Do not touch the wire or the Fainting-Place patient on back with head low. body or clothing of the victim. Absolutely dry even raising the feet 1f convenient. Loosen any boards may be used to push the wire away, but be tight clothing and get plenty of ventilation. Smellcareful as it may come back at you. Keep your ing salts. ammonia on a handkerchief, or a little hands at least two feet away from the wire or the cold water in the face are often helpful. Do not victim. An oxygen inhalator is of value in gas attempt to make the patient drink anything while poisoning cases. Mechanical respiration devices in unconscious. Hot black coffee or aromatic spirits untrained hands may cause grave damage.

of ammonia-1 teaspoonful well diluted with Shock-Present in all serious injuries and greatly water may be given after consciousness returns. increased by severe bleeding and pain. Pale face. Fits-Do not attempt to hold patient down. cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, shallow Place any small object between teeth to prevent breathing Lay patient on back, head low, feet biting tongue. Prevent patient from injuring sell. elevated 18 inches, loosen clothing about neck, and let sleep after attack. chest, and abdomen. Keep warm with blankets and Lightning--This is a form of electrocution. The hot water bottles, hot bricks or heated stones, being treatment is the same as for electric shock. careful not to burn the person. If he can swallow, Stings of Venomous Insects, Etc.-Apply weak give him hot strong coffee, hot milk or hot water, ammonia, oil, salt water, or iodine. half tea spoon aromatic spirits of ammonia in Frost Bite. Treatment-Rubbing with snow is water. Never pour liquid down the throat of an especially bad; frozen tissues are bruised and torn unconscious person.

and gangrene is very apt to result. Gently cover Hemorrhage-Bleeding from arteries comes in the frozen part with the hand or other body surspurts and is brighter red in color than bleeding face until the part has thawed and circulation is from veins. If from large arteries it is always very re-established. If a hand is frozen hold next to the serious and demands immediate action. Pressure skin in the arm pit or between the thighs. The with fingers or hand will usually control it. The frozen part may be thawed very gradually in cold points for pressure are (1) just in front of ear for water or cool air. If this cannot be done, cover the bleeding from temple. (2) Inner side of arm about part with extra clothing until thawed. half way from shoulder to elbow for bleeding from Snake Bite-Tie ligature or cord around the arm hand or arm. (3) In the groin against pelvis bone or leg a short distance above the bite. Make a for bleeding from foot, thigh or leg. (4) On neck, cross-cut clear through the skin over each fang fingers forward just touching, windpipe, thumb mark. Apply suction with mouth or any other conaround back of neck for cut throat. (5) Behind venient means continuously for at least half-hour. collarbone at side of neck, pressing downward on Keep patient lying down, quiet and give treatment first rib, for bleeding in shoulder or arm pit. If previously described for shock. Get doctor. necessary a tourniquet can be made by tying a Dog BiteWash wound with running water, handkerchief or bandage a hand's breadth below apply tincture of iodine, bandage, take to doctor

Poisons and Their Antidotes

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross The two most important points to be remembered Iodine-Owing to its wide use in the treatment of in any poison case in which the individual is con- scratches, cuts and wounds, it is found in every scious are: (1) dilute; (2) cause vomiting.

household, and as a consequence there are cases These can both be accomplished at the same time where children or adults have taken it acci. by having the patient immediately drink large dentally or otherwise. quantities of soap suds, soda in water, salt water, Treatment-After vomiting has been induced. or even plain water. These are all more nauseating give starch or flour mixed with water to about 11 given lukewarm.

the thickness butterm The secret of success is to give enough. Start Lead—Sugar of lead, lead paint, white lead. with three or four glasses. If this does not produce Symptoms--Throat dry, metallic taste with results in a few minutes, give some more. Tickling much thirst; colic in abdomen; cramps in legs; the back of the throat with the finger is also a cold sweat; sometimes paralysis of legs and convaluable aid in encouraging vomiting.

vulsions. Services of a physician should always be secured Treatment-After thoroughly emptying the as soon as possible.

stomach, may give 12 oz. Epsom Salts in water. Alcohol-In any form-rum, gin, whisky, proof Stimulants if needed, and soothing liquids. spirits, etc.; also wood or 'methyl alcohol. Mercury-Corrosive sublimate, antiseptic tablets

Symptoms-Giddiness, swaying of body, in- or other mercury salts. ability to stand. Face flushed, eyes red. Later, Symptoms-Corrosive sublimate when taken is skin clammy, weak pulse, maybe convulsions and Very irritating and frequently turns the mouth, unconsciousness,

lips and tongue white. Mouth is sometimes Treatment-Hot coffee or aromatic spirits of swollen and there is a metallic taste. Other ammonia-1!2 teaspoonful well diluted with symptoms are pain in abdomen, nausea, vomiting water. Do not exhaust by making walk. Wrap mucus and blood, bloody purging, cold, clammy warmly and put to bed. In extreme cases, skin, great prostration and convulsions. breathing may stop and it will be necessary to Treatment--After vomiting has been repeatedly give artificial respiration by the prone pressure

induced, give white of egg, whole beaten eggs. method.

milk, or eggs beaten in milk. Arsenic-Found in rat poison, vermin killer, Paris Nitrate of silver-Lunar caustic. green.

Symptoms-Pain in mouth and stomach Symptoms-Severe pains in stomach; purging; Mouth first colored white, then black. Vomit vomiting: severe cramps in legs; dryness of first white then black. throat; cold sweats; profound shock.

Treatment-Salt water is the best emetic in Treatment-Be sure that vomiting is repeated

this case,

If not readily available, give other until stomach is thoroughly washed out. Castor emetics. Then soothing drinks, as milk or milk oil, stimulants of coffee or aromatic spirits of and eggs. Stimulants if necessary. ammonia if needed. Keep warm.

Opium-Laudanum, morphine, codeine, heroin, Carbolic Acid or Phenol-Symptoms-A very

paregoric: some soothing syrups

and cough powerful corrosive poison. Mouth, lips, throat

mixtures. and often the face burned. Vomiting often pro

Symptoms-Drowsiness, finally unconsciousduced. In severe cases unconsciousness comes on ness. Pulse full at first, then weak. Breathing early and soon death.

full and slow at first, gradually slower and Treatment--Immediate and repeated washing

shallower. Pinpoint pupils. Face flushed then of the stomach. Soothing liquids, as eggs and

purple. milk or milk alone. Stimulants usually needed

Treatment-May have difficulty getting emetic at once. Burns of the lips, mouth and throat

to work. Plenty of strong coffee. Try to arouse may be treated by immediate application of

by speaking loudly and threatening, but do not alcohol to stop further burning.

exhaust by compelling to walk, etc. Stimulants Carbon Monoxide-Principal dangernas from exs Phosphorus-In many rat poisons and vermin

and artificial respiration if breathing stops. haust gasses from automobiles and leaky gas

killers; often with arsenic. pipes. Also found in leaky furnaces and stoves, gas stoves without flue connections, in burning

Symptoms-Severe pain in stomach; vomiting.

Bleeding from nose, blooding, purging, conbuildings, etc.

vulsions, Symptoms- Vary considerably depending upon the

Treatment-After vomiting, a half ounce of concentration of the Carbon Monoxide

Epsom Salts in water or magnesia. Stimulants. breathed, but the end result is usually a red

Soothing liquids as milk, but avoid fats and oils. coloration, especially of ears, lips and nails, and

Poison Mushrooms or Toadstools. a stopping of breathing.

Symptoms-Vomiting, purging, watery diarrhea, Treatment-1. Remove patient from atmosphere

Discharges sometimes accompanied by blood. containing carbon monoxide. 2. Start artificial

Pulse slow and strong at first, but later grows respiration immediately by the (Schaeffer) prone

very weak. Saliva and sweat pour out. pressure method if breathing has stopped. 3.

Treatment--Same as food poisoning. Administer oxygen as quickly as possible and in

Strychnine or Nux Vomica-Óften taken accias pure form as is obtainable, preferably from

dentally by small children who find "candy" pills an inhalator. A mixture of oxygen 95% and

or tablets left for some adult member of the carbon dioxide 5% is usually used in these. 4.

family Also strychnine is frequently used on Keep the victim flat, quiet ar warm. 5. After

meat to poison animals and in some vermin ward give plenty of rest.

killers. Food Poisoning (formerly called Ptomaine)

Symptoms-First twitching of the hands and Poisoning by contaminated foods that have be

feet followed by convulsions. Affects all muscles come infected with poisonous organisms. Chicken,

of body. Back is often bowed up by spasms of fish, potatoes, and hash, may be especially muscles. Jaws are locked. Spasms of muscles dangerous.

so great that breathing is prevented and face Symptoms--Nausea, vomiting, purging. Severe

becomes dusky. pain in abdomen, cramps, great prostration and Treatment-After vomiting is induced powdered weakness. Skin cold and clammy. Often an charcoal may be given. Repeat emetic. eruption on the skin.

Veronal-Luminal, etc. Treatment-After emetic give purgative of Symptoms-Patient becomes very drowsy then castor oil or Epsom Salts. If very weak a stimu- falls asleep. In very severe cases the sleep is so lant or hot coffee or 12 teaspoonful of aromatic deep that the patient cannot be aroused. spirits of ammonia well diluted with water.

Treatment-Same as for Opium.

CORROSIVE POISONS Corrosive Acids-(1) Acetic, (2) nitric, (3) hydro- milk, eggs and milk or olive oil. Stimulants are chloric, (4) sulphuric, (5) also weaker acids as usually required and aromatic spirits of amoxalic.

monia is quite suitable here. Symptoms--Very severe burning pain in mouth, Caustic Alkalies--(1) Ammonia strong, ammonia throat and stomach, Wherever the stronger liniment;

(2) lime, quicklime; (3) potash. acids touch the skin or mucous membranes, caustic potash; (4) soda, caustic soda. they are destroyed. Frequently vomiting or Symptoms-Much like corrosive acids. Im. purging. More or less suffocation from swelling mediate severe burning pain in mouth, throat of the throat, great prostration and shock.

and stomach. Vomiting and purging. Treatment-Large quantities of soap suds make Treatment-Induce vomiting by giving large the best emetic in these cases. However, any of quantities of one of the previously mentioned the previously mentioned emetics will do. After emetics, then give soothing liquids and stimuvomiting is induced may give soothing liquids as lants 11 needed.

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