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1933 Machado, Aug. 12, to resign and flee. Carlos 1934 (June 17, 1925) convention for the superCespedes became Provisional President,

vision of international trade in arms, amAug. 13: but another army revolt, Sept. 5.

munition and implements of war, including put Ramon Grau San Martin in the presi

aircraft and airships. dency. He resigned on Jan. 15, 1934, and June 28, The U. S. Treasury banned silver the Junta put in Carlos Hevia, who was

exports. succeeded on Jan. 18 by Col. Carlos Men- June 30, In Germany, a plot by Nazi leaders dieta.

and Storm Troop commanders to overAfter conferences at the White House with

throw the regime of Chancellor Adolf HitMaxim M. Litvinoff, USSR Commissar of

ler was discovered. There were many arForeign Affairs, President Roosevelt, on

rests, executions and suicides. Ex-ChanNov. 16. declared renewal of normal diplo

cellor Gen. Kurt van Schleicher, 51, was matic relations between the United States

shot to death resisting arrest. His wife also and Soviet Russia. The rst ambassador,

was killed. Alexander Troyanovsky, presented his cre

July 1, President Roosevelt went on board the dentials on Jan. 7, 1934, at the White

U. S. cruiser Houston, off Annapolis, Md., House.

and started for Hampton Roads, and Ha1934 Clyde Barrow, 28, on Jan. 16, with a machine

waii; landed in Portland, Oregon, on gun, wounded two guards at the Eastham

August 3; and then started back East (Tex.) State Prison Farm, and liberated

through the drought afficted plains states. Raymond Hamilton and four other con

July 17. Strike of Minneapolis truck drivers; victs. On May 23, Barrow and his girl

ended Aug. 21. chum, Bonnie Parker, 23, were shot to July 25, Nazis in Vienna, Austria, seized the death near Arcadia, La., by officers of the

building used by the Cabinet, shot Chanlaw.

cellor Engelbert Dollfuss, 41, to death. The On Jan. 16, Edward G. Bremer, 37, was kid

police and loyal troops soon recaptured the napped for $200,000 in St. Paul, Minn. Chancellory, with some loss of life. He was released on Feb. 7, in Rochester, Aug. 1, In Port Au Prince, the United States Minn.

relinquished control of Haiti. On Jan. 25, at Tucson, Ariz., police captured Aug. 19, The German people approved the

John Dillinger, Charles Makley. Russell consolidation of the offices of President and
Clark and Harry Pierpont, together with

Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor, $36,000 in money, and they were returned

Adolf Hitler, which followed the death of to jail, Dillinger to Crown Point, Ind, and

President von Hindenburg, Aug. 2. the others to Lima, O. Dillinger and a Aug. 21, a band of robbers took $427.950 from Negro felon, Herbert Youngblood, escaped a Rubel armed car on Bay 19th St., Brookfrom the Crown Point Prison on March 3.

lyn. Dillinger was shot to death on July 22, Sept. 1, Strike orders applying to 1,000,000 outside a movie house, Lincoln Ave., Chi

employees in the cotton, silk and wool cago, by U. S. Dept. of Justice agents.

divisions, went into effect at 11:30 P. M., Youngblood was shot to death, Mch. 16, at

issued by the United Textile Workers of Port Huron, Mich.

America. The trouble was greatest in Jan. 31, The U. S. Government reduced the

Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina dollar's gold weight from 25.8 grains to

in the South, and in Maine and Rhode 15.5/21 grains 9/10 fine, making its gold

Island. The National Guard and mobs value 59.06+ per cent of the par fixed by

clashed in several states and over 20 persons the 1900 Act.

were killed. President Roosevelt's personal Feb. 19, U. S. cancelled all air mail contracts.

appeal ended the strike on Sept. 22. pendThe Army carried the air mail for 314

ing further arbitration. months, 'losing a dozen officers in plane Sept. 21, Hurricane winds have swept across accidents.

Honshiu, the central island of Japan. FaIn Austria, Feb. 12-15. an abortive Social

talities totaled 4,232; damage over $90,Democrat uprising in Vienna, Linz and

000,000 other places cost 100 lives, with 300 Oct. 5, In Spain, a revolutionary general wounded

strike was called by Communist and SoFeb. 17, Albert I, 58, King of the Belgians,

cialist leaders in protest against the innoted mountain climber, was killed by fall

clusion by Premier Alejandro Lerroux of ing from a cliff overlooking the River

three Catholic Popular Actionists in his Meuse, east of Namur.

new cabinet. In the province of Catalonia Mch. 6, Dr. Alice L. Wynekoop, 63, was con

an independent free state was proclaimed. victed, in Chicago, of the murder of her

Sanguinary disorders occurred at Madrid, son's wife, Mrs. Rheta Gardner Wynekoop,

Barcelona and other cities and industrial 22, Nov. 21, 1933, and was sentenced, Mch.

centres. All of Spain was put under martial 24, to a 25-yr. prison term.

law. President Luis Companys and other Mch. 22, U. S. Congress granted Philippine

Catalan rebels were captured after loyal independence, later ratified by the Philip

troops had shelled the public buildings at pine Legislature, effective in 1945 or soon

Barcelona. Warships were sent to the coast thereafter.

cities. Churches and convents were burned April 27, at Buenos Aires, the Argentine,

by anti-Catholics. anti-war pact, previously agreed on at the Oct. 9, King Alexander I (45) of Yugo Slavia Pan-American conference in Montevideo,

and Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou was signed by the United States, Bolivia,

(72) of France, were assassinated in MarColombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El

seilles, where the King had landed from a Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,

warship, and was on the way to a diploNicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. It was

matic conference at Paris. The slayer, signed on Oct. 10, 1933, by Argentina,

Velichko Kerin, alias Peter Kaleman, alias Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and

Valada G. Chernozemsky, born in Bulgaria, Uruguay, in Rio.

was sabred and beaten and stamped to May 10, drought and dust storms in the U. S.

death, but not before he had shot Gen. mid-West are destroying winter wheat.

Alfonse J. Georges and several spectators. Longshoremen and other dock laborers began Oct. 10, In Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Berry V. strikes on the U. S. Pacific and Atlantic

oil coasts, marked by violence and fatalities.

Stoll (Alice Speed) 26,. wife of an

operator, was beaten and taken from her A general strike of union workers was

home by a kidnapper who left a demand started on July 16, in San Francisco, but

for $50,000. On Oct. 16, she was found by quickly fizzled; the dock strikes practically agents of the U. $. Dept. of Justice, near ended by arbitration on July 29.

Scottsburg, Ind. The kidnaper, Thomas H. May 29, The Treaty of Relations between the

Robinson Jr. was caught in California, May United States of America and the Republic

11, 1936 and on May 13 sentenced to imof Cuba was signed, abrogating the Treaty

prisonment for life. of Relations concluded between the United Oct. 22, Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd, 30, was States and Cuba on May 22, 1903. It was

shot to death by U. S. officers near East ratified May 31, by the U. S. Senate and

Liverpool, Ohio. was put into force on June 9.

Nov. 24, In Chicago, the $100,000,000 Insuli May 31, The U. S. Grand Fleet of 81 warships

mail fraud trial ended in & verdict of not and 35,000 officers and men entered New

guilty for Samuel Insull and his 16 co-deYork Harbor for the first time in four

fendants, all former associates in the utiliyears.

ties and financial field. Included among June 14, Germany proclaimed a transfer mor

them were Harold L. Stuart, Charles B. atorium, and suspended cash payments on

Stuart, Stanley Field, Clarence W. Sills, her foreign debts.

and Edward J. Doyle. June 15, The U. S. Senate ratified the Geneva Nov. 27, with a machine gun, George (Baby

1934 Face) Nelson (Lester M. Gillis) so! 1935

the U.S. It had cost $3,694,000,000 since death U. S. Dept. of Justice Agent Herman

May. 1933. E. Hollis, and mortally wounded his as- Dec. 30, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, wife and sociate Samuel P. Cowley, near Chicago.

child, arrived in Liverpool and took up The next day, Nelson's dead body was

residence in Wales. found in Niles Center, wrapped in a 1936 Jan. 1, The U. S. Federal Act creating jobblanket.

insurance went into effect. Dec. 9, First clash between Ethiopian and Jan. 6, The U. S. Supreme Court, 6 to 3 Italian soldiers at or near Wai Wai, on the

(Stone, Brandeis, Cardozo), in an opinion disputed frontier of Italian Somaliland;

read by Justice Roberts, upset the AgriculDec. 15, Italy refused arbitration as to the

tural Adjustment Act, declaring it to be an frontier and demanded reparations and an

invasion of rights of the States to regulate apology; 1935---Jan. 10, fighting resumed,

their local activities. It specifically banned Italy mobilized 70,000 troops; a committee i

the use of processing taxes to regulate crop of conciliation was agreed to; May 13,

production. The minority termed the deciEthiopia protested to the League of Na

sion a “tortured construction of the Contions; Oct. 3, Italian forces invaded Ethi

stitution." On Jan. 13, the Court ordered opia, Adowa bombed; Oct. 4. Adigrat oc

$200,000,000 of impounded processing taxes cupied; Oct. 6, Adowa occupied; Oct. 14,

returned to the suing processors, and, on Aksum, the Holy City, taken; Nov. 6,

Jan. 20, peremptorily ordered the taxes Makale and Gorahia occupied; 1936-March

returned at once. 29, Harar destroyed; April 13, Italian forces Jan. 20, King George V, 70, died at his farm, on North Shore of Lake Tana (Tsana);

Sandringham, England, and was succeeded April 15, Dessie taken; May 1, Emperor

by his eldest son, Prince of Wales, 42, who Haile Selassie and family fled from Addis

took title as Edward VIII. He abdicated Ababa to Jibuti, whence they went on a

on Dec. 11, 1936, and was succeeded by his British cruiser to Palestine; May 5, Premier

brother next in age, the married Duke of Benito Mussolini, in Rome, announced the

York, who became George VI. The exwar over, Ethiopia annexed, and King Vic

ruler resumed his family name as David tor Emmanuel had become Emperor of

Windsor, but soon was created Duke of Ethiopia; so decreed, May 9.

Windsor. He gave up the throne he said 1935 The Saar Territory, taken from Germany by

because he could not marry the "woman I the Versailles World War Treaty, voted,

love" Mrs. Wallis Warfield, of Baltimore. Jan. 13, to return to German ownership,

Maryland, who, on Oct. 27, had gotten & on March 1.

divorce at Ipswich, England, from Ernest Feb. 12, The $4,000,000 U. 8. navy dirigible,

A. Simpson, an insurance agent. The decree balloon, Macon, sank in the Pacific several

became absolute on May 3, 1937. On June 3, miles off Point Sur, Calif.; 2 lost.

1937, at Monts, France, the couple were Feb. 18, The U. S. Supreme Court, 5 to 4,

married. held that Congress was within its power in Feb. 16, In Spain the Socialists and anarchists abrogating the gold clause in private con

won the department elections. There were tracts, but had gone too far in doing so in

general Jail deliveries. Soon thereafter regovernment obligations.

bellion began, in Morocco, and spread to Mch. 12, The brief revolution in Greece ended.

Spain, under" Gen. Francisco Franco. when ex-Premier Elentherios Venizelos fled Feb. 17. In Paraguay a revolution deposed with his wife, from Canea to the Italian

President Eusebio Ayala. island of Rhodes. Venizelos, 71, died, Mch. Mch. 2, The U. S. renounced its guarantee of 18, in exile, at Paris.

the independence of Panama. April 5, The $4,880,000,000 works relief bill - Mch 7, German troops began to reoccupy the was passed by both branches of Congress.

demilitarized Rhineland zone. The House approved by 317_to 70. The Floods continued in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Senate adopted it 66 to 13. The bill was

and West Virginia. signed by the President on April 8.

Mch. 25. The U. S.. Britain and France April 11-14, Stresa Conference for peace rati

signed in London, a naval arms limitation fied by Britain, France, and Italy. the

treaty to go in effect on Jan. 1, 1937 and participants.

to stay in force until Dec. 31, 1942. May 6, The U. $. Supreme Court upset the -- April 7, In Spain the Parliament deposed Railroad Pension Act.

President N. A. Zamora. May 18, Near Moscow, the airplane Maxim June 4, In France the first Socialist governGorky, the world's largest land plane,

ment took office, under Leon Blum. crashed, killing 48, every soul aboard. The June 17, In Canada their New Deal Acts were pilot of another plane, which collided with

declared invalid. the Gorky in midair was killed.

June 27, The Great Lakes Exposition opened June 14, Bolivia-Paraguay war in the Chaco

in Cleveland, O. ceased, by truce, officially over, Oct. 28. July 13, In Madrid, Jose Calvo Sotelo, 47, a Aug. 9, President Roosevelt signed the Social

monarchist leader in the Cortes (ParliaSecurity bill.

ment) was removed from his home by Aug. 15, Will Rogers, 56, comedian, and Wiley

Assault Guards for questioning as to the Post, 36, aviator, were instantly killed when

assassination of Lieut. Jose Castillo of their Post's rebuilt airplane fell 60 feet in a fog

organization. Sotelo next appeared in the 15 miles from Point Barrow. Alaska.

East Cemetery as a corpse. Death was due Aug 29—The Queen of the Belgians, 29,

to bullet and bayonet wounds. (Princess Astrid of Sweden) was killed by July 17, Revolt against Spain's Republican skull fracture when an automobile in which

Government begins in Morocco and spreads she and the King were riding, left the road

to Spain, included much of army and airskirting Lake Lucerne, in Switzerland, near

force and half of navy: July 18, Jose Giral the city of Lucerne, hit two trees and

became Loyalist premier; July 19, Loyalists careened into the water.

defeated Insurgents in Madrid. Insurgents Sept. 2, Storms killed 300 along the Florida

control cities of Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Keys, including 200 war vets on relief at

Cordoba, and Grenada; July 24, Insurgents construction camps.

set up own government and, Aug. 16 take Sept. 15—Jews in Germany lost citizenship

Badajoz; Aug. 27 begin aerial bombing of with political rights.

Madrid; Sept. 4 they take Irun; Sept. 12 Oct. 21, Storm killed 2,000 in Haiti.

they take San Sebastian, and Toledo Sept. Oct. 23, Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegen

28; Oct. 1, Cen. Francisco Franco proheimer, 33, and 3 companions-Otto Ber

claimed head it Nationalist (Insurgent) man, Abe Frank, and Bernard Rosen

Government, Oct. 21, siege of Madrid by krantz, were fatally shot in a tavern in

Insurgents begun; Nov. 6 Loyalist governNewark, N. J.

ment moves from Madrid to Valencia. Nov. 14, A proclamation certifying the free. Aug. 23, Convicted at Moscow of plotting to dom of the Philippine Islands and the elec

kill Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders tion of officials chosen by ballot in the

the following were sentenced to death: Islands on Sept. 17 was signed by President

Gregory Inovieff, Leon Kameneft, T. Roosevelt a few minutes after noon. In

Smirnoff, A. Evdokimoff, T. Bakaefl, 8. Manila, occurred the inaugural ceremonies

Mirachkovsky, V. Olberg. K. Bermanfor President Manuel Quezon.

Yure, Fritz David, Moses Lurrie, N. Yurie. Nov. 18, Economic sanctions against Italy

T. Reingold, R. Pickel, V. Tervoganian, P. went into effect. supported by 52 nation

Dreitzler, E. Holzmann. They were shot members of the League of Nations, and by

on Aug 25, it was announced. one non-member, Egypt. The sanctions Oct. 14, In Brussels, King Leopold, in a stateended on July 15, 1936.

ment to a Cabinet council, announced BelNov. 29, Federal dole (direct relief) ended in

glum had severed her military alliances and

1936 was resuming her pre-war neutrality.

Oct. 30, Waterfront activity in all American

ports of the Pacific Coast came to a halt as 39,000 maritime workers went on strike at midnight, and picket lines were established. More than 100 ships were tied up in Pacific ports, 47 of them in San Francisco. The strike spread to New York and other Eastern and Gulf Ports. Nov. 6. In London, a protocol laying down

rules for the conduct of submarines was signed on behalf of all signatories of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. No submarines may sink or disable a merchant vessel' unless all the passengers and crew first are placed in "a place of safety." Dec. 1. In Buenos Aires, President Roosevelt

in a speech at the opening of the InterAmerican Conference for the Maintenance of Peace called upon the nations of the New World to unite to help the Old World avert War. The conference, on Dec. 16, adopted the collective security convention, the nonintervention protocol, and the resolution calling upon republics that have not already done so to ratify existing peace treaties. On Dec. 19, the body adopted a neutrality convention that obligates all the American countries to take a common joint attitude as neutrals in case of an outbreak of hostilities among any two of them. The gathering ended on Dec. 23, as the Foreign Ministers of Paraguay and Bolivia pledged that their countries woul settle the Chaco

dispute by pacific means. Dec. 12, In China, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek

was kidnapped at Sian by Gen. Chang
Hsueh-Liang, and was held prisoner until

Dec. 25.
Dec. 21. The Cuban House of Representa-

tives impeached President Miguel M. Gom-
ez, and he was tried and removed from
office for trying to coerce the Congress as

to legislation. Dec. 27. Charles Mattson, 10, was kidnapped

from his home in Tacoma, Wash., was held awhile for ransom, then was murdered. The body was found, near Everett, Wash., Jan.

11, 1937. Dec. 30. In Flint, Mich., backed by the John

L. Lewis Committee for Industrial Organization, (C.IO.), the United Automobile Workers of America started its campaign to include the nation's automobile industry within its ranks. It struck at the center of General Motors operations and

halted activities in three of its unit plants. 1937 Jan. 1. In Spain, the Insurgent shelling of

Madrid, was continued at intervals; Feb. 8, Insurgents took Malaga. The Insurgent headquarters were (military) at Burgos, and (diplomatic) at Salamanca; Bilbao, on June 19; Santander, on Aug. 25; Gijon, on Oct. 21. Warships of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, on Mch. 13, began to police the coasts of Spain under the 27nation neutrality agreement. Gen. Franco, on April 19, set up a one-party State, dissolving the Fascist and Carlist organizations. The Insurgent battleship, Espana, was sunk, April 30, by airplanes, off Santander; May 17, new Loyalist Government formed under Premier Juan Negrin; many were killed in an Anarchist uprising in Barcelona; Oct. 28, Loyalists shifted government to Barcelona: Nov. 28, Insurgents

proclaimed blockade of all Loyalist ports. Jan. 4. The U. S. Supreme Court unanimously upset the conviction and jail sentence of Dirk de Jonge, Oregon Communist, accused of violating the State's Criminal Syndicalism Law. The Court asserted that the right of peacable assembly was as fundamental as the constitutional guarantees of

freedom of speech and freedom of the press, Jan. 20. In Washington, on the main por

tico of the Capitol, his head bared to rain, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took for the second time the oath as President of

the United States. Jan. 22. Floods in the valleys of the Missis

sippi, Alleghany and Ohio Rivers and their branches bega to bring death homelessness privation, property destruction and trafic tie-ups at Pittsburgh, Portsmouth, o., Huntington, W. Va., Louisville, Cincinnati, and many other places. The flood damage was more severe in Louisville, Paducah, Ky., Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. In Kentucky over 225 persons were drowned; in Illinois, 15; in Missouri, 17; in Tennessee, 10; in Arkansas, 28; and small numbers in Ohio,

1937 West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Missis

sippi. Over 500,000 homes and vast areas
of farm lands were flooded. Including
deaths indirectly due, the total was esti-
mated at 900. Over 35 rescue workers were
drowned by sinking, on Jan. 30, of a steel
barge in the Mississippi near New Madrid,

Mo.
In Moscow, a treason trial, Jan. 23-30. re-

sulted in execution of 13 of 17 defendants,
Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) got off with a

10-yr. sentence to prison. In China, Feb. 3, a military revolt in Sian,

capital of Shensi ovince, brought the assassination of Gen. Wang I-Cheh, chief of the forces of the Central government of the Republic. In April, Prince Chichibue, oldest brother of Emperor Hirohito of Japan made with his wife, a good-will visit to the United States, England, and the Continent. In May, the army-supported Japanese Cabinet of Hayashi resigned. Early in July the fighting in China, west of Peiping, was renewed by the Japanese. Tungchow was attacked on July 27; the Japanese on July 29, bombed Tientsin, destroying Nankai University; on Aug. 9, they took formal possession of Peiping: on Aug. 11, they landed marines at Shanghai and shelled Nankow. Thereafter there was almost continuous fighting in Shanghai, where on Aug. 14, Chinese misdi rected bombs killed several hundred civilians, and on Aug. 22, an artillery shell fell in the International Settlement, destroying a department store and killing 400 persons. The Japanese blockade of the East Coast of China began on Aug. 25, COVering 800 miles and was extended in Sept. to cover 2.700 miles. The Dollar Line ship, President Hoover, and other vessels on the Yangtze, were hit by stray Chinese or Japanese shells.

Nanking,

Canton, and many other places in the eastern provinces of China were attacked by Japanese planes. On Oct. 23, Suiyuan Province declared independence from China. On Nov. 8, the Chinese abandoned Shanghai as an administrative point, and the Japanese took control.

Premier Chiang Kai-Shek moved his headquarters to Hankow. On Dec. 12. Japanese shells sank the U. S. gunboat Panay, with loss of 2 lives; and several American oil carriers, (the captain of one died) on the Yangtze River above Nanking. Several British craft were hit by the shells. A number of lives were lost. For these and other "accidental" bombings, the Japanese apologized and assumed financial responsibility. The United States and Britain had made strong protests. On Dec. 14th, the pro-Japanese ad. ministration in Peiping announced it had restored the city's old name, Peking. During the year many lepers were executed by

the Chinese government. Jan. 30. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag that Germany annuls and repudiates the admission implied in her signature of the Versailles Treaty fixing upon her responsibility for the World War, and, from this time onward the German railways and the German Reichsbank are free from the obligations imposed upon them by that treaty and are restored to the complete sovereignty of the Reich. He issued a decree forbidding Germans to accept any Nobel prize in the future and establishing

rival prizes for Germans only. Feb. 11. The General Motors Corporation

signed a strike settlement with its em-
ployees, with increase of 5 cents an hour
in wages. In some of the Michigan strikes
court injunctions were defied. Most of the
big, steel mills signed up. May 30, the
police were attacked by Republic Steel
Corp.'s strikers in South Chicago, they
said, and in the combat 16 workers were
shot and killed. In June & short strike
cut off the electric currents in Michigan's
Saginaw Valley. There were several marine
workers' strikes on the East, South and

West coasts
Mch. 2. Quakes shook Ohio, Michigan, Indi-

ana. West Virginia and Kentucky.
Mch. 18. An explosion of natural gas, which
had been píped-in for heating purposes, de-
stroyed the Consolidated Public School in
New London, Texas, ten minutes before
the teachers and children were to have left

for the day. The dead numbered 293. Mch. 26. In Flemington, N. J., the perjury

the

1937 indictment against Benjamin Heier, re

sulting from testimony he gave for the de. fense at the trial of Bruno Richard Haupt

mann. April 8. The Committee for Industrial Organization closed the General Motors Corporation plant in Oshawa and drew from Mitchell F. Hepburn, Premier of Ontario, formal notice that methods which had "brought the United States almost into a state of anarchy" would not be tolerated

in Ontario. May 6. The dirigible balloon, Hindenburg,

on its first 1937 trip from Germany was destroyed by fire and explosions, at 7:23 P.M., as it was about to tie up at the U. S. Naval Air Station, Lakehurst, N. J.; 36 of the 97 passengers were fatally burned, including the commander, Capt. Ernst

Lehmann,
May 12, George vi and his wife, Elizabeth,
were crowned in Westminster Abbey, Lon-
don, as King and Emperor and Queen and

Einpress.
May 21. A Soviet airplane made a landing at

the North Pole and established a permanent
weather and scientific station for regular air
communication between Russia and Amer-
ica by way of the polar region. After fly-
ing over the Pole at 11:10 A.M. the plane
went on 15 miles further where it landed
on a smooth area of an ice floe at 11:35
A.M. It had come 560 miles from Rudolf
Island. The ice floe was 10 feet thick and
kept on drifting. Supply planes followed
later. The plane was piloted by M. V.
Vodopyanoff. With him was Professor
Otto J. Schmidt, head of the Northern

Sea route.
May 24. The International Paris Exposition

of 1937 was opened by President Albert Le

brun, accompanied by Premier Leon Blum, May 28. The official London Gazette an

nounced that the King had granted letters patent to the Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title, style or attribute of Royal Highness, So however that his wife and descendants, if any, shall

not hold said title, style, or attribute." June 3. In Monts, France, the Duke of Windsor married Mrs. Wallis Warfield at the Chateau de Cande. The French civil ceremony was performed by the Mayor of Monts. This was followed by the marriage service of the Church of England, by the Rev. R. Jardine, vicar of St. Paul's, Dar

lington, England. In assembly, in Philadelphia, the Presby

terian Church of America, 65 to 24, rejected an overture calling upon its members to recognize and practice "total abstinence" from intoxicants as the "only

true principle of temperance." June 12. The Pan-American Exposition

opened in Dallas, Tex. A $75,000 jeweled lock at the main gate, symbolic of international friendship, was opened by 21 girls, who inserted keys in the names of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Mexico, Texas

and the United States.
June 20. in Pennsylvania, the Bethlehem

Steel Corporation started evacuation of its
Cambria plant under orders of Governor
Earle, who had declared martial law.
Meantime the C.I.O. had called off the

strike.
July 2. Amelia Earhart Putnam, on an

equatorial air trip around the world, who had left Lae, New Guinea, on July 1. radioed at 3.20 P.M. (E. D. T.) that she was over the Pacific with a half hour's fuel supply and not in sight of land, "position doubtful." That was the last message. U. S. government war ships and airplanes searched in vain for the plane and its two

occupants. Aug, 3. Wreckage of a Pan American-Grace

Airways fying boat, due from Cali, Colombia, with 11 passengers and a crew of 3, was found by a navy plane 20 miles at sea from Cristobal. Among the passengers were Rex Martin and G. O. Caldwell of the Bureau of Air Commerce, and T. J. Wakely jr., of the Nat'l. City Bk.

branch in Santiago, Chile. Aug.

12. President Roosevelt nominated Senator Hugo Black of Alabama, to be As

1937 sociate Justice of the Supreme Court, fulmg

the vacancy caused by the retirement of Justice Van Devanter. The nomination was approved 13 to 4 (King, D., Burke, D., Austin, R., Steiwer, R.) by the Senate judiciary Committee; it was confirmed by

the Senate, 63 to 16, on Aug. 17. Aug. 12. A Řussian airplane under command

of Sigismund Levanevsky, left the MosCow flying field at 10:13 A.M., bound for Alaska, and the U. S. After passing over the Pole it radioed that one of its engines was dead, due to a damaged oil pipe. Sir Hubert Wilkins and other aviators flew over the Arctic regions for days in vain search for the missing plane and its occupants. In Moscow, on Feb. 27, 1939, Mikhall M. Voznesensky, ex-radio operator at the Rudolf Island station, was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for disrupting radio communications by a sit-down strike at the time Levanevsky and companions were on their flight and during the period

of relief expeditions. Aug. 22. Near Cody, Wyo... 14 men were

burned to death and 50 injured when fire fighters were trapped by flames in the Shoshone National Forest. The flames trapped Earl Davis, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads foreman, nine other bureau em

ployees and about 40 CCC members. Sept. 19. More than 125,000 Mormon church

members of the Salt Lake City region ate but one meal in order that the financial equivalent to the other meals might go to

needy brothers and sisters.
Oct. 1. In a radio address broadcast from a

friend's house in Chevy Chase, Md., ex-
Senator Hugo L. Black of Ala. (recently ap-
pointed by President Roosevelt to be an
associate justice of the Supreme Court)
declared that he joined the Ku Klux Klan
about 15 years ago" "later resigned"
and never rejoined." He dropped
Klan he asserted before becoming a Sen-
ator." He denied blas against Negroes,
Jews or Roman Catholics, or against any

race or creed.
Oct. 12. In Beirut, Syria, J. Theodore Mar-

riner, 45, the U.S. Consul General, was shot dead by an Armenian, Mejardich Karayan, who has a family living in the United States, and who told police his molive had been revenge for a vice consul's refusal to grant him a visa. He was ex

ecuted. Oct. 14. In Bartow, Fla., the jury by court

order, acquitted the Tampa policemen (C. A. Brown, Jr., C. W. Carlisle, John Bridges, Arlie Gilliam, kleagle of the Orlando Klan; F W. Switzer and Sam E. Crosby), who were on trial for second-degree murder following the fatal flogging of Joseph Shoemaker when he refused a Ku Klux Klan warning to leave town. The judge ruled that the State had not proved the actual or constructive presence of any of the men

at the scene of the crime. Oct. 17. A 21-passenger United Air Lines

plane, west-bound, which left Cheyenne, Wyo., with 19 persons aboard, at 6:25 P.M. and was due in Salt Lake City at 8:42 P.M., crashed at 10,000 ft. altitude, into Chalk Mt., in the Uinta Range, south of Knight, Wyo. It was 15 miles south of its regular course, in a rain-snow storm.

All were killed. Oct. 30. In California, the State Supreme

Court, 5 to i, rejected Thomas J. Mooney's

plea for a writ of habeas corpus. Nov. 3. A resolution condemning the im

pending yisit of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor to the United States with the announced purpose of studying labor conditions was adopted unanimously by the Baltimore Federation of Labor, a unit of the A. F of L. The stated objection was labor hostility to Charles E. Bedaux, laborefficiency expert, sponsor of the tour.

author of a production-speed-up system. Nov. 10. In Brazil, at Rio de Janeiro. Presi

dent Getulio Vargas's Cabinet approved and put into immediate effect a new Consti

tution. Nov. 16. An airplane from Cologne bound for

London hit in a fog, at 2:30 P.M., a factory chimney in descending near Ostend, Belgium; 8 passengers and 3 of the crew were killed. The passengers killed included Dowager and Grand Duchess Eleanore of Hesse bei Rhein, widow of the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig, who died Oct. 9; Grand

1937

Duke George, 31, her son; Grand Duchess
Cecilia, 26; Grand Duke George's wife.
who was the daughter of Prince Andreas of
Greece, Prince Ludwig, 6; and Prince

Alexander
Nov. 24. The 9-power treaty conference, in

Brussels, adjourned indefinitely,
Dec. 10. In a collision of two trains in Scot-

land, bound from Edinburgh for Glasgow,

in a snow storm, 35 passengers were killed. Dec. 11. Italy gave notice of withdrawal

from the League of Nations. The non-Russian commission of inquiry on

Leon Trotsky announced in N. Y. City that it had found him guiltless of the conspiracy, sabotage and other charges against

him by the Stalin regime. In Soviet Russia, the Congress, first under

the new constitution, was chosen by secret

popular vote. Dec. 20, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled, 7 to

2, that the government has no right to di

vulge intercepted phone messages. Dec. 21. The Lincoln Vehicular Tunnel under

the Hudson River between 'N. Y. City and Weehawken, N. J., was opened (one tube)

to traffic. Dec. 23. The Cuban Amnesty bill was signed,

proceedings against ex-President Machado
were dropped, and he was released by the

U. S. Court in N. Y. City.
Dec. 28. As the day ended the Irish Free

State became the State of Eire (Ireland).
Dec. 29. Seven members of the Christopher

Columbus good-will flight to South America died when their plane crashed in the

mountains near Cali, Colombia. Dec. 30. The yacht Aafje was towed to Los

Angeles after her owner, Dwight Faulding, and her navigator, Jack Morgan, had been

slain and cast overboard. 1938 Jan. 5. AU. S. bombing plane vanished off

San Pedro, Calif., with 7 Navy men aboard; cadet flier S.P. Hawkins was lost in the

search, Jan. 9. An Argentine plane crashed in Uru

guay, 9 persons died, including a son of

ex-President Justo of Argentina. Jan. 10. A plane from Seattle, Wash., for

Chicago fell in the mountains of Montana,

northwest of Bozeman; 9lives were lost. Jan. 11. The hydroplane, Samoan Clipper,

from American Samoa for Auckland, New
Zealand, with 7 aboard, vanished near Pago

Pago.
Jan. 16. Insurgent planes from Majorca began

daily bombing of Barcelona; Feb. 1, Loyalist
Cortes, at Montserrat, near Barcelona, got
a message of sympathy from 60 U. S. Sena-
tors; Feb. 22, Insurgents recaptured Teruel;
March 6, Insurgent cruiser, Baleares, sunk
off Cartagena by Loyalist gunboat: March
7, air raids kill 1,000 in Barcelona: In-
surgents take Lerida; April 15, they reach
the sea at Lerida cutting Loyalist Spain in
two; Oct. 10, Italy begins token withdrawal
of 10,000 troops; Dec. 23, Insurgents begin
final campaign against Barcelona, which

falls on Jan. 26, 1939. Jan. 12. The first session of the U. S. S. R.'s

“Red Parliament' the supreme Soviet, elected under the new constitution, opened in the Kremlin Great Palace. Joseph Stalin

was among the delegates. Jan. 13. A commission of the Church of

England has reported that the creation narrative in Genesis is mythological, with

a symbolic rather than a historic value. Jan. 18. Ecuador decreed explusion of alien

Jews, except those in agriculture.
In Ste. Hyacinthe, Quebec, 47 persons died

in a fire at the College of the Sacred Heart. Feb. 1. Collision of U. S. Navy bombing planes killed 11 persons off San Pedro,

Calir.
Feb. 20. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden

resigned from the British Cabinet. He was
at odds with Prime Minister Neville Cham-
berlain and a majority of his colleagues on
how to seek settlements with Italy and
Germany. He took with him into retirement
Viscount Cranborne, Under-Secretary for

Foreign Affairs.
King Carol of Rumania by proclamation abol-

ished parliamentary government and re-
placed it by a Fascist corporative Chamber
and Senate. The King's constitution was
backed Feb. 24 by a popular vote-4,165,193

for; 5,313 against.
Feb. 24. Peter Levine, 12. son of Murray

Levine, vanished_from his home in New
Rochelle, N. Y. Parts of his body drifted

1938 ashore, May 29, on Long Island Sound near

New Rochelle.
Mar. 2. Storms and floods in Southern Cali-

fornia caused 81 deaths, of which 31 were

in the Los Angeles area. Mar. 13. In Austria, after the resignation of

Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg and President Wilhelm Miklas, the new Chancellor, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, proclaimed the political and geographic union of Germany and Austria. This was ratified by a popular vote, excluding Jews, in Austria on April 10. Meantime, Chancellor Adolf Hitler, at the head of German troops, which began to cross the frontier on March 11, had taken Doesession of Austria. The Italian Grand Council, headed by Premier Benito Mussolini.

voted approval. In Moscow, in the treason trials, all of the

21 defendants were found guilty, of whom
18, including, N. Bukharin, A. I. Rykoff,
H. G. Yagoda, N. N. Kreitinsky, G. T
Grinko and A. P. Rosengoltz, were sent-
enced to death and were shot; imprisonment
was meted to C. G. Rakovsky (20 yrs.):
S. A, Bessonor (15 yrs.), and Dr. D. D.

Pletnev (25 yrs.)
In the Kazakhstan Republic 19 "traitors"

were convicted and shot, including ex-
president U. Kolumbetoff and ex-chief
prosecutor S. Yeskarayeff.
Mar. 18. Mexico nationalized the petroleum

industry.
Mar. 21. President Roosevelt removed Arthur

E. Morgan as Chairman of the Tennessee
Valley Authority and put H. A. Morgan in

his place.
March 28. New Reform Government of Re-

public of China set up at Nanking. Apr. 5. The 1938 N. Y. State Constitutional

Convention opened in Albany.
Apr. 11. Richard Whitney, 49, ex-president
of the N. Y. Stock Exchange, and head of
the collapsed bond brokerage firm of Rich-
ard Whitney & Co., Broad St., N. Y. City,
was sentenced to 5 to 10 years in State
Prison, on each of two indictments, to
which he had pleaded guilty, which charged
him with having misused $105,000 of the
trust fund established by his father-in-law,
the late George R. Sheldon, and with the
theft of $109,000 from the fund of the N, Y.
Yacht Club, of which he was treasurer.
The sentences run concurrently. He entered

Sing Sing prison on April 12.
Apr. 25. Britain (The United Kingdom) and

Eire (Ireland) signed an accord under
which Britain gives up naval control (Ad-
miralty, property and rights) of the ports
of Cobh (Queenstown), Bere Haven, and
Lough Swilly; and Eire agrees to pay
£10,000,000 by Nov. 20, 1938, in final settle-
ment of Britain's claim to land annuities,
default of which since 1932 led to the
tariff war that has hurt Irish agriculture.
These tariffs are now thereby abolished;
Eire agrees to continue until 1987 annual
payments covering, damage to property dur-
ing the land troubles, as provided in the
Anglo-Irish agreement of 1925. The Dail

Eireann approved, on April 29. the pact. May 4. The steamship (motorship) Lafayette,

was destroyed by fire at Havre, France.
She had arrived from New York on April
28, was in the drydock for an overhauling,
and was scheduled to leave for New York
There was a strike on one of the company's
other ships, the Champlain, and a sailor
confessed to setting small fires on her on

May 10
May 14. King Solomon's long-vanished sea-

port, where he built and operated ships
and smelted copper, at the northern end
of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, has been
found buried under the sands near Aquaba,
about half a mile from the present shore

line. June 19. In a train wreck, due to a bridge collapse in a flooded creek in Montana,

east of Miles City, 47 persons were killed. July 17. Douglas G. Corrigan, of Los Angeles,

flew from Brooklyn across the Atlantic to

Dublin, without permit or passport. July 26. In N. Y. City, John W. Wards, 26, a former bank clerk, ended an 11-hour stay on an 18-inch ledge and dived headlong to death at 10:38 P.M. from the 17th floor of

the Hotel Gotham, in N. Y. City. July 29. The hydroplane Hawaii Clipper, with

15 aboard, for Manila, vanished when about 565 miles from there: 15 persons were lost.

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