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1812 at that time included Holland, Belgium, - First steamboat, the Virginia, ascended the Hainburg, Bremen, the Rhineland, Italian

Mississippi River as far as Fort Snelling Piedmont, and Spanish Catalonia. His Im

(April 21-May 10; 729 miles). perial Guard contained Dutch grenadiers 1824 Lafayette, who had been an aide to Gen. and Portuguese light horse. There were

Washington in the American Revolution. many Poles with the Little Corporal, under

returned to this country and visited each Marshal Poniatowski. The Rheinbunders

of the 24 states: went back in 1825 to were led by Marshal Wrede.

France. 1813 Fight between the U. S. warship. Chesapeake, 1825 Trade unions allowed in England. and the British warship, Shannon, in Massa

Erie Canal opened, first boat left Buffalo chusetts Bay, 30 miles from Boston, June

Oct. 26, and reached N. Y. City, Nov. 4. 1. After an engagement of 15 minutes the

27 Slavery abolished in N. Y. State, by the Chesapeake surrendered though her com

Legislature, July 4. mander, James Lawrence, had cried "don't

The steamship Curacoa, first European-built give up the ship'' as he was carried below

oceanic vessel to use steam power alone, in deck, fatally wounded. He lost 146 men

April, crossed the Atlantic, from Antwerp killed and wounded.

to Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. The Royal Perry's victory on Lake Erie, Sept. 10: Buf

William, launched in Montreal, April 29, falo, N. Y., burned by Indians, Dec. 29.

1831, left there Aug. 18, 1833, and crossed to The Shawnee Indian chief, Tecumseh, was

Europe in 25 days, using no power but commissioned a Brigadier General in the

steam. British Army at the outbreak of the war of 1828 First passenger railroad in United States (the 1812. He was killed on Oct. 15, 1813, in

Baltimore and Ohio) was begun July 4; the battle with the Americans under Gen.

first 14 miles opened to (horse-drawn, railWilliam Henry Harrison ("Tippecanoe'')

car) traffic on May 24, 1830. on the Thames River in Ontario, Canada. 1830 Revolution in France. Charles X abdicated, Russia, Prussia and Austria united against

Aug. 2, and was succeeded by the Duke of Napoleon: he was beaten at Leipzig, Oct.

Orleans as Louis Philippe I. There were 16-19; Wellington drove the French from

revolutions, too, in Germany (Brunswick Spain.

and Saxony), and Belgium. Holland be1814 Alles entered Paris, March 31; Napoleon

came an independent country. abdicated, April 11; Louis XVIII, restored Mormon church organized by Joseph Smith. to throne, May 3; Congress of Vienna

in Fayette, Seneca County, N. Y., April 6. opened, Nov. 3.

He and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by British burned the White House, Washington,

a mob in Carthage, ill., June 27, 1844. Aug. 24; Battle of Lake Champlain, (Platts - First railway abroad opened, between Liverburg) Macdonough's and Macomb's victory,

pool and Manchester, England, Sept. 15. Sept. 11; treaty of peace between United 1 First train drawn in U. s. by steam locomoStates and Britain signed in Ghent, Bel

tive, Albany to Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 9. gium, Dec. 24.

1832 The South Carolina Legislature (it had de. 1815 Gen. Jackson defeated the British at New

nounced in 1827 the U. S. protective tamil Orleans, Jan. 8. This was the news that

law as an invasion of state rights) called was received of the signing of the peace

9 state convention, which in Nov. 1832, treaty, which was ratified by Congress on

passed an ordinance of nullification line Feb. 17, 1815.

tariff, voiding it in that state, and declarNapoleon returned from Elba to France

ing that if the federal government atMarch 1; the "Hundred Days," March 20.

tempted to enforce the law the state would June 22; Napoleon defeated at Waterloo,

consider itself no longer a member of the June 18: sent to St. Helena, landed Oct. 16

Union. Congress in Feb. 1833, passed a and died there May 5, 1821.

compromise tariff act: whereupon South Holy Alliance, so-called, formed by Russia,

Carolina in State Convention repealed the Austria and Prussia; signed at Paris, Sept.

nullification ordinance. 26; promulgated, at Frankfort, on Feb. 2. 1 33 The British Parliament, Aug. 28, outlawed 1816, and acceded to in 1818 by the rulers

slavery in the Empire as of Aug. 1, 1834. of England and France. One of the results

About 700.000 were liberated at a cost of was the Monroe Doctrine.

£20,000,000. Slavery had been unlawful in 1817 Rush-Bagot treaty signed, April 28-29, limit

the British Isles since June 22, 1772, by a ing naval armaments of the United States

decision of the Court of Kings Bench. and Canada on the Great Lakes.

1835 Fire in New York City, Dec. 16-17, began in a 1819 First American steamboat crossed the At

store at Pearl and Merchant (Hanover) lantic. This was the Savannah, which was

Sts., spread up to Garden St. (Exchange built at' N. Y. City by Francis Ficket and

Pl.), ravaging 17 blocks (52 acres), deengined by Stephen Vail. She was launched

stroying 674 buildings, including the Stock Aug. 22,1818, left Mch. 28, 1819, for Savan

Exchange, Merchants Exchange, Post Of nah; arrived there April 12; left May 22

fice, and the South Dutch Church; loss, for Liverpool; arrived there June 20. The

$20,000,000. steamer went thence to Stockholmn and St. Texas, which for a time had been joined with Petersburgh; left last named Oct. 10; ar

Coahuila as a Mexican State, proclaimed rived at Savannah, Nov. 30. Her captain

its independence, Nov. 13; Garrison of was Moses Rogers of Georgetown, N. C.

Texans at the Alamo plaza, San Antonio The Savannah, divested of the engine sank

besieged 11 days, then butchered and the off the Long Island, N. Y., coast. The en

bodies burned by Mexican troops, Mch. 6, gine was for a time in a London museum.

1836 (among the victims were Davy The Savannah used steam, but only as

Crockett): constitution adopted for the auxiliary power. The log of her 1819 At

Republic of Texas, Mch. 17, 1836; battle of lantic voyage is owned by the U. S. Nation

San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, in which 800 al Museum, in Washington.

under Gen. Sam Houston defeated 3.000 1820 Congress, on Mch. 3. passed Henry Clay's

Mexicans under Gen. Santa Anna, who Missouri Compromise bill, by which slavery

signed two treaties recognizing the indewas allowed in that State, but not else

pendence of Texas with borders reaching where west of the Mississippi River north

to the Rio Grande River. of 36° 30' Latitude (the southern boundary Business panic, hard times in U. S., also in of Missouri). In 1854 Congress repealed the

1857; 1873-7; 1893-4: 1907-8: 1921: 1929. Missouri Compromise bill, and authorized 1 1837 First metal vessels built in the United States the people of Kansas and Nebraska to

were the Chatham and the Lamar, condecide for themselves for or against slavery.

structed in Savannah, Ga., in 1837 and 1838 The Kansas-Nebraska bill, backed by

of iron imported from England. The first Stephen A. Douglas, opened the Territories

vessel built in the U. S. of iron made in to slavery by setting up the principle of

this country was the Valley Forge. squatter sovereignty." (See 1857.)

launched in Pittsburgh, in 1839. 1822 Revolution in Portugal; separation of Brazil 1838 Fire destroyed 1,158 buildings in Charleston, which proclaimed independence on Sept. 7:

S. C., April 27.
Dom Pedro was crowned emperor on Dec.

The Great Western, 236 ft. long, 450 horse1; he abdicated in 1831; succeeded by his

power, 1340 gross tons, left Bristol, Engson; a republic proclaimed in 1888: em

land, on April 8, and arrived in N. Y. City peror banished in 1889 and died in Paris

on April 23. The Sirius, 178 ft. long. 703 in 1891.

tons, left Liverpool on Mch. 28, and 1823 Monroe Doctrine declared. Dec. 2. under

Queenstown on April 4, and reached N. Y. which no European power, it was an

City on April 22. She had used steam only. nounced, could seize territory or set up a

The British Queen arrived in New York government on the American continent. I on July 28, 1839; the President got theron Aug. 17, 1840.

| 1857 years, cost over 100,000 lives, and was suc1839 Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands

ceeded by famines, in one of which, in 1866. were separated by treaties signed by those

in Bengal, 1,500,000 person perished two countries and by Great Britain, France,

The Dred Scott decision of the U. S. Supreme Austria, Prussia, and Russia (at London,

Court, (5 to 2), Mch. 6, denied the legality April 19). To the treaties was annexed a

of the socalled Missouri Compromise, and document declaring Belgium an independ

denied that a negro (in this case the slave, ent and perpetually neutral" state.

Dred Scott) was a citizen. Roger B. Taney, 1840 Penny postage begun in England Jan. 10; on

of Maryland, was the Chief Justice. May 6, that year, the first postage stamp Mountain Meadow Massacre, 120 emigrants was issued. In the United States, the ad

killed by Indians led by Mormons in Utah, hesive stamp came into use in 1847.

Sept. 16. 1841 Upper and Lower Canada united, Feb. 10. 1858 East India Company dissolved, Aug. 2; gov1812 Dorr's Rebellion in Rhode Island, due to an

ernment of India transfered to the British election contest for the governorship.

Crown. Thomas W. Dorr was inaugurated by the 18 59 John Brown's raid on Harpers FerryVa.. suffragists, and Samuel W. King, by the

Oct. 16; his band killed 5, Brown was landholders. Dorr's adherents tried to seize

hanged at Charlestown, W. Va., Dec. 2. the arsenal at Providence. King declared

His purpose was to incite a slave revolt in martial law. Dorr was convicted of treason

Virginia. and sentenced in 1844 to life imprisonment, First petroleum well opened, Titusville, Pa., but was released in 1847.

by Edward L. Drake, Aug. 27. Croton. Aqueduct opened, June 22.

1860 Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) visited 1813 First telegraph line in U. S., Washington to

the U. S. Baltimore.

First Pouy-express between Sacramento. 1845 U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis opened,

Calif., and St. Joseph, Mo., 1,980 miles Oct. 10.

apart, started from each place at 5 p.m.. 1846 War was declared by the United States

April 3; there were 80 riders, and 420 against Mexico on May 13, and by Mexico

horses, and they were changed every 10 against the United States on May 23.

miles. There were 190 relay stations. The Peace was ratified by the U.S. Senate in

service ended in October, 1861, when the Feb., 1848, and by the Mexican Senate on

telegraph line was completed. May 24, 1848. By the 1848 pact the Rio

South Carolina seceded from the Union, Dec. Grande was fixed as the boundary: Irish

20. A state convention as far back as 1852 potato famine.

had declared the right of the state to 1848 Louis Philippe dethroned in France: second

secede. Republic set up. Feb. 26. In Austria, Fer- | 1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs. by Czar dinand I abdicated, Dec. 2, in favor of his

Alexander II; he was assassinated, Mch. 13. nephew, Franz Josef; in Hungary, freedom

1881. Slavery had been unlawful in Russia was declared under Kossuth: revolts in

since 1642; in the hereditary states of the Ireland, Lombardy, Venice, Denmark, and

German Emperor, since 1781; in Denmark Schleswig-Holstein

since 1766; in Prussia, since 1702. Gold discovered in California, Jan. 24.

Southern Confederacy formed, Feb. 4; elected 1849 Astor Place riots in N. Y. City against Mac

Jefferson Davis President. Feb. 9: inauguready, English actor, 34 killed, May 10. The

rated, Feb. 18, in Montgomery, Ala. (and outbreak was in retaliation for the treat

again in Richmond, Va., Feb. 22, 1862). ment of Edwin Forrest, American actor, in

Fort Sumter fired on, April 12, after disLondon, in 1845.

cretionary power wired to Gen. Beauregard The Roman National Assembly, Feb. 8. di

on April 11, from Montgomery; the fort vested the Pope of all temporal power and

surrendered on April 14; Lincoln called proclaimed a republic; French troops cap

for volunteers, April 15; Queen Victoria's tured the city and restored the keys to

proclamation of neutrality, May 13: Battle him, July 4; his temporal power was re

of Bull Run, July 21: McClellan given comestablished, 'July 15. It was in this year

mand of Union Army, Nov. 1; Mason and that Pope Pius IX proposed that the doc

Slidell affair, Nov. 8. trine of the immaculate conception of the 1862 Grant captured Forts Henry and Donelson, Blessed Virgin Mary be adopted as an

Feb. 6 and 16; the Confederate ironclad. article of Catholic belief. In 1854 (Dec. 8

Virginia (rebuilt from the 40-gun steam it was announced in a Papal Bull XS SO

frigate, Merrimac) destroyed. Mch. 8, at adopted.

Hampton Roads, the Union frigates Cum1850 Jenny Lind's first concert in U. S., at Castle

berland and Congress; on Mch.' 9 the Garden, N. Y., Sept. 11; Lola Montez

Virginia fought the Union ironclad, Mondanced there in 1852, at the centenary of

itor, built by John Ericsson; Farragut the stage in N. Y. City.

captured New Orleans, April 25; McClelFugitive slave law and Henry Clay's other

lan's Peninsula Campaign, March-August: "compromise'' resolutions passed by Con

Battle of Antietam, Sept. 17: Fredericks gress, last one in Sept.

burg. Dec. 13. 1851 Gold discovered in Australia, Feb. 12.

Preliminary proclamation, Sept. 22, by PresiFire destroyed 2.500 buildings in San Fran

dent Lincoln announcing that on Jan. 1. cisco, May 3-5; also 500 buildings there

1863, slaves would be declared free in terriJune 22.

tóry then in rebellion. Slavery in the DisN. Y. Central Railroad, N. Y. City to Albany,

trict of Columbia was abolished by Congress opened Oct. 8. First International Exhibition, London (Crys

International Exposition in London, opened tal Palace).

May 1. 1853 World's Fair opened in Crystal Palace, N. Y.

1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Jan. City, July 14. The building was destroyed

1. In this proclamation he declared iree by fire Oct. 5, 1858. There was that year a

forever the slaves in Ark., Tex., La., (cerWorld's Fair in Dublin.

tain parishes excepted): Miss., Ala., Fla., Know Nothing secret political movement be

Ga., S. Car., N. Car., and Va. (W. Va. and gun, at N Y. City, opposed to Roman

other portions excepted). About 3,120,000 Catholics: broke up in 1860.

slaves were thus freed: 830.000 slaves in Commodore Matthew c. Perry, U. S. N., met

the excepted parts were not freed under the Lord of Toda on Kurihama Beach,

the proclamation. July 14, and gave him President Fillmore's

Lincoln's address at Gettysburg. Nov. 19: letter to the Emperor, which resulted, on

it was impromptu, from notes; later he Mch. 8, 1854, in a treaty of peace and amity

wrote out the address, from his notes, and that gave American ships (whaling, the

made several copies, or versions. It appears China trade, etc.) access to Japanese ports,

elsewhere in the Almanac. (See, Lincoln, and opened commercial relations between

index.) the United States and Japan.

Hooker defeated at Chancellorsville, May 2-4; 1855 International Fair in Paris

Lee defeated at Gettysburg, July 1-3; Grant First Atlantic cable was laid between Cape

captures Vicksburg, July 4; Battles of Breton, N. S., and Newfoundland. The

Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20; Lookout Mouncable was completed to Ireland in 1857 and

tain, Nov. 24; Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25. the first messages were sent between N. Y. Draft riots in N. Y. City, July 13-16; 1,000 City and Europe on Aug. 5, 1858.

killed, including Negroes, who were hung by Sebastopol falls; Crimean War (England and

mobs; property damage, $2,000,000. It was France against Russia) ends, Sept. 8.

asserted that the Republican officials in 1857 The great mutiny in India; broke out May 10.

charge of the draft had stuffed the lists It spread all over the country, lasted several

with names of Democrats.

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1864 Grant made Commander-in-Chief, March 12; | 1870 Lateran palaces and the Villa of Castel Battles of the Wilderness, May 5-6; of Spot

Gandolfo and a yearly allowance of 3,225,sylvania, May 8-21; Cedar Creek, Oct. 19;

000 lire, or then about $645,000, for their Sherman's March to Atlanta, May-July: he

upkeep. The money was not claimed. captured Savannah, Dec. 21; U.S.S. Kear- | 1871 The German Empire re-established, Jan. 18; sarge sank the raider Alabama, June 19.

Paris captured, Jan. 28; treaty of Frank1865 The 1st Artillery fired last shot of Civil War,

fort ended Franco-Prussian War, May 10. and Confederate Gen. Lee surrendered at

The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-11; 18,000 Appomattox, April 9.

bldgs. destroyed; est, loss, $196,000,000. Lincoln shot by J. Wilkes Booth, in Washing

The flames started in Mrs. O'Leary's barn, ton, April 14; died, April 15; Booth was

at 137 de Koven St., either from sponshot to death in the pursuit, on April 26,

taneous combustion of hay, or from a kick in or at the door of a barn, which, it is

of a cow, upsetting & lantem. said, had been set on fire by one of the

Pestigo fire, in Wisconsin, after 3 months pursuers, near Port Royal, Va. Those

drought, one of the greatest forest conflahanged for complicity were Mrs. Mary E.

grations in U. S. history. Six counties were Surratt, David E. Herold, George A. At

burned over, over 1,000 lives were lost. zerodt and Lewis Payne (Powell), on July

thousands crippled, 3,000 beggared. 7; Michael O'Laughlin, Samuel Arnold, 2 Col. Jas. Fisk Jr., King of Wall Street," shot and Dr. Samuel A. Mudd were sentenced

at N. Y. by Edw. S. Stokes, Jan. 6: he died to life imprisonment; Edward Spangler, to

two days later; Stokes got 4 years in prison. 6 years in prison. Arnold, Mudd and Spang

Jesse Pomeroy, at 13, began his crime career ler were pardoned in 1869. John H. Sur

by tying and torturing children in Boston ratt, son of Mrs. Mary E., fled to Europe

suburbs: in 1874 he mutilated and killed a but was brought back, and tried in 1867.

boy of 4 and a girl of 9; in 1876 he was The jury disagreed. He was reindicted, but

sentenced to be hanged; sentence commuted never tried. Stories or rumors crop out

to life in prison, at Bridgewater, Mass., from year to year that Booth escaped from

where he died, Sept. 29, 1932. the Garrett barn and died free, his pur

The great fire in Boston, Noy. 9; 776 buildings suers having shot another of the one or

destroyed. two men who, according to the rumors 1873 Panic in N. Y. began with bank failures on were hiding with Booth. The government

Sept. 20: Stock Exchange closed on that order was to get Booth alive, if possible.

day and reopened on Sept. 30.
The barn was fired and Booth was shot International Fair at Vienna.
in disobedience of orders. Booth's body,

1874 Charley Ross, 4, kidnapped from home in identified by a number of persons, was

Germantown, Pa., then a suburb of Philaburied under the floor of the prison, in

delphia, July 1. A Superior Court jury in Washington; several years later the body

Phoenix, Ariz., decided, May 8. 1939, that was dug up and given to relatives who

Gustav Blair, a carpenter of that place, is, interred it in a cemetery in Baltimore.

in reality, Charley (Charles Brewster) Ross, Slavery abolished in the U. S. by adoption,

and is entitled to use the name. He testified by over three-fourths of the states, of the

that the Ross family had refused to rec13th amendment to the Constitution, pro

ognize him. claimed as in effect, Dec 18.

"Boss" W. M. Tweed at N. Y., convicted of 1866 Fenians invaded Canada, near Buffalo, N. Y.,

fraud, Nov. 19, and sentenced 12 years in May 31; they were repulsed, and reentered

prison; in June, 1875, the court released the United States, June 2; about 1,000

him from Blackwells Island prison on a Fenians from the Ú. S. attacked St. Arm

technicality; he was committed to Ludlow and, Quebec Province, and were routed.

St. Jail in a civil suit; escaped, Dec. 4, June 9. Ku Klux Klan movement begun in the

1875, and went to Cuba, then to Spain,

brought back to N. Y. City in Nov., 1876: South against negro voters, "carpet bag

he died in Ludlow St. Jail, April 12, 1878. gers' from the north; nominally dis

— banded in 1869, but night-raids continued

The Tichborne claimant, indicted as Thomas

Castro, otherwise Arthur Orton, convicted for several years. The movement was re

in London of perjury in swearing he was vived in 1920, and spread to the north,

Sir Roger Tichborne, was sentenced, Feb. east and west, at first against negro voters, later mainly against Roman Catholics in

28, to 14 years in prison; released in 1884.

1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia; opened politics, - Second Atlantic cable laid; completed, July

on May 19; closed on Nov. 10. 27, 1867. First (1857-8) had been outlasted.

Battle of Little Big Horn in Montana, in Fire destroyed 2,500 buildings in

Sioux Indian war; massacre of Gen. Geo. Quebec,

A. Custer and 276 soldiers of the 7th Canada, Oct. 13. 1867 Alaska purchased from Russia, March 30.

Cavalry, by redskins under Sitting Bull,

June 25. - The Dominion of Canada established, July 1,

Wild Bill Hickok killed a man named McCall, 1867-68 Abolition of the Shogunate and restoration of the Mikado in Japan; feudalism abolished

at the Pony Express stable, Rock Creek, in 1871: Constitution promulgated in 1889.

Kan., in June; McCall's brother, Jack,

walked up behind Hickok, on Aug. 5, at 1868 President Andrew Johnson impeached, tried and acquitted, March-May.

Deadwood, S. D., and shot him dead. A - Earthquake in Peru and Ecuador, 25.000

vigilance committee acquitted McCall, but

the U.S. Court at Yankton, S. D., found killed, Aug. 13-15

him guilty of murder and he was hanged. 1869 Financial "Black Friday" in New York, Sept.

Brooklyn Theatre fire, Dec. 5: 289 lives lost. 24; caused by gold corner.

A passenger train fell from a bridge into the Golden spike driven at Ogden, Utah, May 10,

ravine, Ashtabula, Ohio; 84 killed, 60 inmarking the junction of Central Pacific and

jured, Dec. 29. Union Pacific and the completion of the

Russia declared war on Turkey, April 24; first transcontinental railway.

peace treaty signed in Mch., 1878. Suez Canal opened, Nov. 17.

Fire swept over 600 acres of City of St. John, 1870 Franco-Prussian War begun, July 19; ended

N. B., June 20; 100 lives lost. at Sedan, on the River Meuse, Sept. 1,

Eleven Molly Maguires were hanged in when Napoleon 111 (Louis Napoleon Bona

Pennsylvania (3 at Mauch Chunk, June 21; parte) surrendered to King William of

5 at Pottsville June 21; 3 at Bloomsburg, Prussia France proclaimed a Republic,

Aug. 9) for murders in coal region. The Sept. 4.

order terrorized the region (1870-1880). Doctrine of papal infallibility adopted by the

Strike on B. and O., Penn., and other railEcumenical Council in Rome, July 18, by

ways, troops; riots; many killed: began vote of 547 to 2. There were 764 prelates

July 1. at the council. The only American objector 8 Congress in Berlin June 13-July 13, deals was Bishop Fitzgerald, of Little Rock, Ark.

with the Turkish question. Bulgaria, MonThe troops of Victor Emmanuel II, under

tenegro, Serbia and Roumania made inGen. Cadorna, took possession of Rome, on

dependent. Sept. 20, in the name of the Kingdom of International Exposition in Paris. Italy: Rome and the rest of the Papal State 1881 Alexander II, Czar of Russia, assassinated in then were annexed by a plebiscite, taken

St. Petersburg, March 13, by Nihilists. on Oct. 2. On May 13, 1871, the Italian

President Garfield shot at Washington, July Parliament, which had meanwhile trans

2; died in Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19. ferred the national capital from Turin to

Ring Theater, Vienna, burned, Dec. 8; 850 Rome, passed the Law of Guerantees, al

perished. lowing to the Pope and his successors for- 1882 Panama Canal begun by the French, Jan. 20; ever the possession of the Vatican, the

the U. S. bought, in 1904 for $10,000,000

Panic it and want from Tincluding

1882 the uncompleted water-way from the de

23, by Alexander Berkman, anarchist, who, Lesseps successors, and the canal was fin

after a term in prison, married Emma ished and opened to traffic on Aug. 15, 1914.

Goldman. - Prof. Robert Koch announced, in Berlin, dis- 1893 America's first gasoline buggy had its pulling covery of the tuberculosis germ; Mch. 24.

test by Charles E. Duryea, April 19, in 1883 Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and

Springfield, Mass. World's Fair (Columbian Italy. (Renewed in 1887, 1891 and 1896.)

Exposition) in Chicago, opened May 1: serBrooklyn Bridge opened, May 24; panic on it,

eral of the buildings were destroyed by May 30; twelve trampled to death.

fire on Jan. 8, 1894. Benito Mussolini born, July 29, in Predappio, Tornadoes kill 3,000 in Charleston, Savannah, near Forli, Italy.

and on coast of Louisiana, Aug. 28, Oct. 2. Earthquakes and eruptions of the volcano, 1894 Chinese-Japanese War began, July 25: Battle Krakatoa, on the Island of Java, followed

of Yalu, Sept. 17; treaty of Shimonosekl. by most of the 45 other volcanoes; 36,000

April 17, 1895, gave Japan Liaotung Peninlives lost Aug. 25-28.

sula, Formosa and the Pescadores, 1884 At Cincinnati, O., after several slayers had Lexow State Senate inquiry as to police corbeen convicted of manslaughter instead of

ruption in N. Y. City; committee, headed murder, mobs stormed and burned the

by Clarence Lexow, began examination of court house; in several days of rioting, be

witnesses on May 21: last session, Dec. 29; ginning on Mch. 28, over 5 were killed. 138

report to Legislature on Jan. 18. 1895. wounded.

-John Y. McKane, Gravesend (Brooklyn) poPanic in N. Y.; failure of Marine Bank and

litical "boss," sentenced to 6 years in prison Grant and Ward, May 5-7.

for election frauds, Feb. 20. Tornadoes ranging from Illinois south to the - Jacob S. Coxey led 20,000 unemployed from Gulf of Mexico, and including Virginia.

the mid-west into Washington, April 29. killed 800, and destroyed 10,000 buildings, Strike of mine workers throughout U. S.. Feb. 9.

followed by that of Pullman Car manufac1885 Gen. Charles G. (“Chinese'') Gordon, British

tory workers and then by order from Eugene governor of the Soudan, was slain, Jan. 26,

V. Debs for general strike of American Ry. by a Mohammedan soldier, who stuck the

union men; trouble centered in Chicago head on & spear, at Omdurman. Several

where, after Federal Court had enjoined thousand whites were massacred by the

strikers, President Cleveland sent Federal Mahdi's troops. Gordon was revenged on

troops, July 2. Many died in conflict, vast Sept. 2. 1898, when the British, under Gen.

property loss. U. S. troops withdrawn, July Kitchener, defeated the Mahdi's army and

19; Gov. Altgeld recalled State militia. ended his rule.

Aug. 7, a day after union called strike off. Rebellion in northwest Canada begun under Capt. Dreyfus, France, degraded, Dec. 23; leadership of Louis David Riel, March 24,

restored to rank, July 12, 1906. he surrendered. May 15, and, after trial and 1895 Cuban Revolution began. Feb. 20; 'Gen. conviction, he was hanged on Nov. 16.

Antonio Maceo, leader of the insurrection. First electric street railway in U, S., in Balti

was killed in action on Dec. 7, 1896. more, opened by Frank J. Sprague. Sept. 1

X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Konrad Roent1886 Haymarket Anarchist riots, Chicago; 7 police

gen, a German physicist, who was awarded killed, 60 wounded, May 4. A jury con

& Nobel prize in 1901. victed anarchists August Spies, Adolf Fis

The Queen of Korea was assassinated in the cher, George Engel, and Albert R. Parsons,

royal palace in Seoul, Oct. 8. She was first and they were hanged on Nov. 11, 1887.

cut down, her clothing was then soaked in Louis Lingg killed himself in jail. Samuel

oil, and the body was burned. The JapaFielden and Michael Schwab got life im

nese minister was recalled to Tokyo and prisonment.

was tried and acquitted, Charleston, S. C., earthquake, Aug. 31: 411896 President Cleveland appointed Venezuela killed: $5,000,000 property loss.

Boundary Commission, Jan. 1; treaty - Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, N. Y

signed, Feb. 2, 1897 Harbor, unveiled on Oct. 28 in presence of Battle at Adowa, Etheopia, began on night of 1,000,000 people.

Feb. 29. The Ethiopians under King Triple Alliance (treaty) of Germany, Austria

Menelik, took the Italians by surprise. The and Italy, Mch. 13. against France and

Italians lost 4.600 white and nearly 3.000 Russia.

native troops killed and wounded and more Flood in Hoang-Ho River, China: 900.000

than 2.500 soldiers were captured. persons perished.

"Greater New York' bill signed, May 11; the - Opera Comique, Paris, burned. May 25: 200

City of Five Boroughs came into corporate lives lost; theater, Exeter, England fire,

existence on Jan. 1, 1898. Sept. 4; 200 died.

1897 The Turkish-Greek War. 1888 Great blizzard in N. Y. City and in eastern Salon on August Andree, Swedish explorer. part of U. S., March 11-14. Roscoe Conk

and two companions, left Dane's Island. ling was a victim of exposure in N. Y..

Spitzbergen, in a balloon, in July 11, for the dying April 18.

North Pole, and were not heard of until 1889 Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness

Aug. 6. 1930, when their remains were found Marie Vetsera were found. slain, in his

on White Island. Their balloon had hunting lodge in Castle Mierling. Jan. 29

grounded after drifting 117 miles. Johnstown, Pa., flood. May 31; 2,209 lives Charity Bazaar fire, Paris; 150 lives lost. lost.

1898 U. S. Battleship Maine blown up in harbor of Adolf Hitler born, April 20, in Braunau, in

Havana, Cuba, Feb. 15; 260 lost: followed Austria

by war between Spain and the United World's Fair, in Paris, May 6-Nov. 6. Elffel

States. Diplomatic relations broken, April Tower Opened (985 ft. high).

21: Cuban blockade declared, April 22: war 1890 First electrocution for crime in N. Y. State.

declared by Spain, April 24, by the United The victim was William Kemmler, whr

States. April 25: Dewey destroyed the murdered Matilda Zieigler on Mch, 29. 1889.

Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May 1: Battles Put to death in chair in Auburn Prison.

of San Juan and El Caney, July 1-3: Battle Aug. 6.

of Santiago de Cuba. Adm. Cervera's - Ellis Island opened as Immigration Depot, and

Spanish fleet destroyed, July 3: Peace proCastle Garden ceased as such, Dec. 31.

tocol signed between the United States and 1891 Park Place disaster, N. Y., 64 killed, Aug. 22

Spain, Aug. 12; Peace treaty signed by by the collapse of upper floor; most victims

American and Spanish delegates at Paris, were in a restaurant.

Dec. 10. the U. S. acquiring the Philippines Henry L. Norcross, of Somerville, Mass.,

and Puerto Rico threw a bomb, with poor aim, at Russell Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary, wife Sage, in financier's office, N. Y. City; he

01 Franz Josef. Assassinated, Sept. 10. by blew himself to pieces, Dec, 4.

an anarchist, at Geneva, Switzerland. 1892 Fire destroyed 28 lives in Hotel Royal, N. Y., Radium discovered by Pierre Curie, Mme. Feb. 6; and 600 at St. John's, N. F., July 8.

Curie and G. Bemont. Confiict between 300 Pinkerton guards and 1899 Treaty with Spain ratified by U. S. Senate, strikers at steel mills, Homestead, near

Feb. 6.
Pittsburgh, Pa.; 7 guards and 11 strikers

Universal Peace Conference in The Hague and spectators shot to death, many wound

called by Czar, May 18. ed, July 6. The strike had been set for July

The South African War began, Oct. 11; Gen. 3. but the mills shut down on July 1: the

Cronje surrendered. Feb. 27; Ladysmith reNational Guard arrived on July 12 and the

lieved, Feb. 28; Pretoria surrendered, June town and mills were put under martial law.

5, 1900; war ended, May 31, 1902. H. C. Frick wounded at Pittsburgh, July

Martha Place, first woman electrocuted in

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1899 N. Y. State, at Sing Sing. Mar. 20.

361 killed. Philippine-American War began, Feb. 4.

Chelsea (Mass.) destroyed by fire; loss over June 12, 1898, Filipinos had declared their

$6,000,000; Mar. 20. independence of Spain, and on Sept. 15. 1908 Earthquakes in Sicily and Calabria killed 1898, a revolutionary assembly in Manila

76,483. Messina partly destroyed. Dec. 28. had "ratified the independence, as rep

Financial panic in the United States. resentatives of the Katipunan League In a fire and panic at the Lake View School built up by Andres Bonifacio, Emilio

at Collinwood, Ohio, near Cleveland, on Aguinaldo, Antonia Luna and Marcelo del

March 4, 174 children and two teachers lost Pilar. Aguinaldo was captured on Mch. 23,

their lives. Rhodes Theater fire, Jan. 4, 1901, and civil government was established

Boyertown, Pa., 169 died. by the United States on May 3, 1901. W. H. 1909 Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel, Taft became the first civil governor, on July

from Calais to Dover (31 miles in 37 min

Ironie 4, 1901, the first Filipino Legislature met

utes) July 25. on Oct. 16. 1907.

Hudson- Fulton celebration, New York, Sept.Windsor Hotel Fire (N. Y.). March 17: 45

Oct.-Nov. lost.

Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Seattle, 1900 Paris Exposition opened. April 15.

Wash. Humbert, King of Italy, assassinated, July 1910 Earthquake killed 1,500 at Cartago, Costa 29, at Monza, by Angelo Bresci.

Rica. Boxer insurrection in China, June; Peking Los Angeles, Calif., "Times" dynamited, Oct. captured by foreign allies, Aug. 14. There

1, 21 killed. were 18,000 marines and sailors--American V. 's. Supreme Court ordered Standard Oil (2,000), Japanese, Russian, British and

combine dissolved, May 15; same decree as French

to American Tobacco Co., May 29. Hoboken docks and ships fire, June 30: 145 The Italian-Turkish War began, Sept. 29. lives lost: $10,000,000 property destroyed.

Triangle waist factory fire, N. Y., 145 killed, Galveston hurricane and tidal wave, Sept. 8:

March 25. 6.000 lives lost.

Flood in Yangtze River, China; 100.000 1901 Northern Pacific Railway stock "corner" and

drowned. panic, May 9.

Leonardo da Vinci's painting. "Mona Lisa" - Pan-American Exposition, (Buffalo, N. Y.).

("La Giaconda"), stolen from the Louvre May 1-Nov. 2.

Gallery, Paris, Aug. 22; recovered in FlorPresident William McKinley shot in Buffalo,

ence, Italy, Dec. 12, 1913, and restored to N. Y., Sept. 6. (died Sept. 14) by Leon

the Louvre. Ccolgosz, an anarchist, who was later put

C. P. Rogers ieft N. Y., Sept. 17, in an aeroto death

plane and made the first transcontinental Marconi signalled letter "S" across Atlantic

flight, landing at Pasadena, Calif., Nov. 4; from England to Poldhu, Newfoundland,

actual flying time, 84 hours, 2 minutes. Dec. 12. First radio message sent in Dec., 1902.

12 China becomes a Republic, Feb. 12: Yuan Shi St. Pierre, Martinique, destroyed by eruption

Kai elected President, Feb. 15. of Mt. Pelee, May 8: about 30,000 lives lost.

- War in Balkans, against Turkey, by Mon- Park Ave. Hotel fire, N. Y. City, Feb. 2; 21

tenegro, Bulgaria, Servia and Greece. Oct. lives lost.

8-Dec. 3. Pennsylvania coal strike of 145,000 anthracite

Equitable Life building burned, Jan. 9, N. Y. miners. May 12. Settled by President

City; 6 perished.
Roosevelt's commission, Oct. 15-23.

Steamship Titanic wrecked on maiden trip, Fire destroyed 456 buildings in Paterson, N.

from Southampton for New York, by iceJ., Feb.; and 115 people at a church, Birm

berg off Newfoundland coast, April 14-15; ingham, Ala., Sept. 20.

1.517 lost of whom 103 were women and Cuban Republic inaugurated, American occu

53 were children. Passengers and crew pation, under Gen. Leonard Wood, ended

had totaled 2,207. The ship was 8822 ft. May 20: rights and franehises of France in

long, and cost $7,500,000 Panama Canal bought by U. S., June 28.

Rev. Clarence V. T. Richeson, Baptist minisFirst International Arbitration Court opened

ter, Boston, electrocuted in Mass. State in The Hague, Holland, in October.

Prison, May 21, for murder of Miss Avis 1903 Kishineff (Russia) massacre of Jews, April

Linnel, 18, of Hyannis. She was about to 19-20; 47 slain, several hundred wounded.

become a mother. Her death was due to 700 houses destroyed, 600 stores looted.

poison. - King Alexander of Serbia, and Queen Draga.

Herman Rosenthal, gambler, assassinated at assassinated by army officers, in Belgrade,

N. Y. City, July 16. Police Lieut. Charles June 11.

Becker, "Gyp the Blood" Horowitz, "Lefty Panama Revolution, Nov. 3; republic recog

Louie" Rosenberg, "Whitey Lewis" Seidennized by U. S., Nov. 13.

shner, and Dago Frank" Cirofici were conFirst successful mechanical aeroplane flight

victed of the murder and executed at Sing by the Wright Brothers, Dec. 17, from Kill

Sing--Becker on July 30, 1915; the others Devil Hill, on the North Carolina seacoast.

on April 13, 1914. 4 miles south of Kitty Hawk.

1913 Ohio and Indiana floods, March 25-27; 732 Fire killed 602 in Iroquois Theatre, Chicago,

lives lost. In Brazos, Tex., floods, 500 died. Dec. 30. Most of the victims were trampled

Peace Palace at the Hague dedicated. to death.

- President F. I. Madero of Mexico, and Vice 1904 The great fire in Baltimore. Feb. 7; 2,500

President Sudrez, assassinated. Feb. 23. buildings destroyed.

King George of Greece assassinated March The Russo-Japanese War began, Feb. 6. Port

18. Arthur surrendered to Japanese on Jan. 2. Mine explosion, Oct. 14, Cardiff, Wales: 400 1905. Peace treaty signed in Portsmouth,

killed. N, H., Sept. 5, 1905.

1914 World War began in Europe. Archduke - St. Louis Exposition (Louisiana Purchase)

Francis of Austria and wife assassinated in opened, May 1.

Sarajevo, Bosnia, June 28 (St. Vitus Day) - The United States occupied Panama Canal

by Gavrillo Princip, & Serb student: Austria Zone.

declared war on Serbia, July 28; Germany

invaded France at Cirey, Russian troops Subway opened, New York, Oct. 27.

invaded Germany, Aug. 2; Germans en1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Port

tered Liege, Aug 7; British Expeditionary land, Oregon.

Force landed in France, Aug. 16; Germans The Duma, first Russian national parliament,

occupied Brussels, Aug. 20: Japan declared was organized.

war on Germany, Aug. 23: Austria declared 1906 San Francisco earthquake and conflagration:

war on Japan, Aug. 25; Louvain bombarded 500 lives were lost; property loss, $350,

and damaged, Aug. 25: Germans under von 000,000; April 18-19. On April 17, earth

Hindenburg Ludendorf. Hoffman and quakes in Formosa had killed many thou

Francois, defeated Russiansunder Samsands; and on Aug. 16, quakes tore down the

sonov, at Tannenberg. in East Prussia. City of Valparaiso, Chile, 1.500 lives lost.

Aug. 26-31. Samsonov killed himself. One $100,000,000 property damage.

of the Russian armies, under Rennen1907 Earthquake killed 1,400, Kingston, Jamaica,

kampf, fled. Battle of the Marne, Sept. 6Jan. 14. In that month the Italian Vol.

10. Germans occupied Antwerp, Oct. 9: De canoes, Etna and Vesuvius, were destruc

Wet's rebellion in South Africa, Oct. 28: tively active, also the Volcano of Mauna

Japanese capture Tsingtau, Nov. 7; First Loa, Hawaii.

Battle of Ypres, Nov. 9; German cruiser Jamestown (Va.). Exposition opened, April Emden destroyed at Cocos Island, Nov. 10.

- United States marines landed at Vera Cruz, - Fire in coal mine Dec. 6, Monongah, W. Va.; 1 Mex. April 21.

26.

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