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29 calculations by Dr. Oswald Gerhart, emeri

their leaders was Peter the Hermit, a tus professor at the Konigstadt Realgym

preacher. nasium, Berlin, who concludes also, that 1191 Teutonic Order, Military Knights, established the Savior was 30 years old at the time of

in the Holy Land to take care of the sick his death. This was in the reign of the

and wounded in the Third Crusade. On Roman Emperor Tiberius, Designation by

their return to Germany they subdued and Pope Pius XI of 1933 as a Holy Year con

Christianized by Papal authority the people tinued the Roman Catholic Church in its

of Prussia. ancient belief that the Crucifixion was on 1206 Genghis Khan, founder of Mogul (Tartar) Friday, April 3, 33 A.D.,

Empire, begins his rule, conquers China, 43 The Roman Emperor, Claudius, husband of

1215: Central Asia, 1221; under his son Messalina, took with him to Britain many

Ogdal, the Tartars swept over Hungary, elephants, camels, and African black men,

Poland, Silesia, and Moravia. with which his generals defeated the Bri 1215 King John of England granted Magna Carta tons at the Battle of Brentwood, between

(June 19-July 15?) to the Barons. He did London and Colchester. The blacks were

not sign the document which did not grant used to slash with sharp knives the legs

trial by jury in the modern sense. Runnyof the horses of the British chariots.

mede Meadow, on the South side of the 61 Queen Boadicea and her English army cap

Thames and Charter Island, in the river, tured and burned London and put 70,000

on one of the other of which the charter to the sword: in the same year she was de

was signed, were given to Britain by Lady feated by the Romans, under Paulinus,

Fairhaven, daughter of the late H. H. who massacred 80,000; she poisoned herself

Rogers, a New York capitalist. She bought to death,

them in 1929. 64 Burning of Rome: first persecution of Chris- | 1233 The Inquisition established in Spain by Pope tians, under Emperor Nero. Among the

Gregory IX: revived there in 1480, when martyrs, it is said, were the Apostles Peter

185,000 Jews fled, leaving in Spain 50,000 and Paul. The persecutions were renewed

Jews who had become baptized as Roman under Domitian, in 95; and were continued

Catholics; inquisition suppressed by Naat intervals until and under Diocletian,

poleon in Spain in 1808: restored in 1814; 303-313.

the Holy Once abolished in 1834. The 70 Jerusalem destroyed by Titus.

Inquisition soon after its establishment. 79 Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed by erup

included sorcery (witchcraft) within its tion of Mt. Vesuvius.

jurisdiction and classed it with heresy. 313 Constantine converted to Christianity: bap- 1259-92 Reign of Mongol Emperor, Kublai Khan, tized in 337, on his deathbed; Christianity

at Pekin China. discarded by his successor, Julian, in 361, | 1282 "Sicilian Vespers," massacre of thousands of but restored by Jovian in 363,

French Mch. 30, at Palermo, Italy. 323 Council Nicaea; Nicene creed formulated. 1295 First regular English Parliament, composed 330 Roman capital moved to Byzantium, hence

of the clergy, barons, and knights, presided forth known as Constantinople.

over by the King, Edward I. 400 This was formerly the generally accepted date 1348 Outbreak of the Black Death" plague in for the beginning of the so-called Dark Ages,

Europe. or Middle Ages, which were supposed to 1360 Birth of Richard Whittington, who died in close at 1500 A.D.

1423; after having been thrice Lord Mayor 410 Sacking of Rome by Alaric, the Goth; by

of London. The story of "Whittington and Genseric, in 455; city taken by Odoacer, in

his cat' persists to this day. 476; by the Goths, in 546; by Narses, in 553. | 1381 Wat Tyler's rebellion, England. 476 End of the Western Roman Empire. The 1415 John Huss burned at stake at Constance, in City of Rome was destroyed, not by the

Baden, July 6 or 7; his friend, Jerome of Goths but by an earthquake, according to

Prague, was burned' there on May 30, 1416. antiquarians who base their conclusions 1 Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans, was burned on an examination of the remains of the

at the stake, May 30, at Rouen, in France, Trajan Forum Row on row of immense

at the age of nineteen. She had been granite columns were found lying on their

found guilty of sorcery and heresy, The sides in perfect alignment.

prosecutor was the Bishop of Beauvais. 570 Mohammed born, at Mecca; fied to Medina

backed by the University of Paris. At the (the Hejira) in 622; poisoned to death by a

head of royal French soldiery she had Jewess, it is said, in 632.

driven the English troops, in 1429, from 624-32 Saracen conquest of Arabia; of Persia,

the City of Orleans, but they captured her 632-651; of Syria, 634-637; of Egypt, 640

in 1430. 646: the Saracens (Arab Mohammedans) 1453 Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Emcrossed the Mediterranean into Spain in

pire, taken by the Turks May 29, and made 711 and founded the Moorish Kingdom

capital of the Ottoman Empire. there in 756; last of the Moors driven from 1476 William Caxton inaugurated English printing power in 1492, with the fall of the King

in England, near Westminster Abbey, Londom of Granada. In 1518 the Moors

don. In 1474, in Bruges, Belgium, with founded the piratical states of Algiers and

Colard Mansion, he had issued his Recuyell Tunis, in North Africa.

of the Historyes of Troye, the first book 930 Vikings established first Parliament in Ice

printed in English. His Dictes and Sayings land.

of the Philosophers, published in 1977. is 940 Library of Alexandria, Egypt (700,000 volumes

said to have been the first book actually or rolls), burned by order of Caliph Omar.

printed in England For 6 months they were fed as fuel to the 1481 The African slave trade was begun, by Portupublic baths.

guese, and by 1777 over 9,000,000 Negroet 982 Erik (The Red) Thorvaldson, father of Lief

had been carried to other continents. Ericson (Eriksson) is said to have dis- 1484 Bull issued by Pope Innocent VIII condemncovered the east coast of Greenland.

ing witchcraft, which he said was preva1000 Lief Ericson, of Iceland, sailed with his

lent in South Germany. There were other Norse men to what is supposed to have

papal bulls or briefs in 1500, 1521, and 1533. been the New England coast.

Up to 1698 about 100,000 so-called witches 1014 Brian Boru (Boroimhe), Irish King and his

were executed, mostly by burning, in Gertroops defeated the Danish invaders, at

many. Clontart. He and his son and grandson | 1492 Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo) were slain in battle.

discovered America Oct. 12 when he sighted 1020 Jews banished from England by Canute; they

an island (Guanahani) in the Bahamas returned in 1066; banished again, in 1290;

supposed to have been (Watlings Island) Cromwell admitted them, in 1650.

San Salvador. But according to Prof. Luis 1066 Battle of Hastings, conquest of England by

Ulloa, Director of the Peruvian National William of Normandy. Harold II slain, Oct.

Library, at Lima, Columbus first visited

America on a voyage with Danish corsairs, 1096-99 The first of the Crusades (Godfrey of

who sailed from Iceland to Greenland. LabBouillon, leader): capture of Jerusalem;

rador, Newfoundland, and the American second Crusade, 1147-49, under Conrad III

continent. Who was Columbus? It is now and Louis VII; third, 1189-92, under Fred

said that he was the son of a wool weaver of erick Barbarossa, Philip II, Richard Coeur

Genoa, Italy, belonged to a family of conde Lion, Acre captured; fourth, 1202-4, un

verted Jews which had settled about 1391 in der Count Baldwin of Flanders: fifth, 1228

Genoa, having come from Catalonia, Spain, 9, under Frederick II; sixth, 1248-54, under

where the name was Colom. The family Louis IX (St. Louis). The first Crusaders

also had dwelt in Castile, under the name established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusa

of Colon, and Cristoforo became Cristobal, lem, a.feudal monarchy. 1100-1291. One of

Columbus was & Catholic. On his first West

1492 Indian voyage, he left 40 of his men to 1568 Ivan IV, the Terrible, Czar of Russia. orfound the colony of Navidad, maybe on the

ganized a band of secret police (Oprichnorth coast of Haiti. When he returned

niki) and "purged" his country of those there in Dec., 1493, there was no sign of

who had plotted to kill his son. Hundreds the colony and all the Spaniards were gone.

were tried and executed as traitors. Finally Jews expelled from Spain. Banishment of

the Oprichniki were "purged," and their Mohammedans began in 1499, that of

chiefs, Basmaner and Skurator, were killed, Moors (900,000) in 1508. The Jews previ

as traitors. Ivan proposed to Queen Elizaously had been expelled in the 7th Century.

beth of England, but she declined his offer. 1497 John Cabot discovered or explored east coast 1572 St. Bartholomew Day massacre of Huguenots of Canada. June 24. His son Sebastian ac

(Protestants) at Paris, France, Aug. 24, companied him on the second voyage, in

following the marriage of Henry of Na1498.

varre and Margaret of Valois. Armed 1498 Savonarola burned as a heretic, at Florence,

conflicts between the Huguenots under Italy, May 23.

Bourbon nobles, and the Catholics, under 1500 Hernando de Soto born in Spain. He and

the Guise family, ended for a time with Balboa married sisters: on June 3. 1539, he

the signing. April 13, 1598, at Nantes, of took formal possession of Florida in the

a royal edíct, giving religious toleration to name of Spain.

the Huguenots. But hostilities were re1513 Ponce de Leon landed in Florida, April 8, at

newed in 1624, and in 1685 the edict of St. Augustine, but that place was not ac

Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV. The tually settled until 1565, when Gen. Aviles

Code Napoleon restored Protestant rights, de Menendez was sent from Spain with

religious and civil. soldiers to drive away a colony of Hugue- 1579 Sir Francis Drake went ashore in Marin nots, under Jean Ribault, that had lo

County, California, and nailed a metal plate cated somewhat to the north.

to a post, claiming that region for Queen Battle of Flodden Field, in Northumber

Elizabeth of England. He named it Nova land County, England, Sept. 9, where the

Albion. The plate was found in June, 1936. troops of Henry VIII, defeated the Scots 1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, Feb. 8. under James IV and slew him.

Her secretary, Rizzio, had been assassi--- Balboa discovered Pacific Ocean, Sept. 25.

nated in March, 1566. 1517 The Reformation began in Germany, perse - Virginia Dare, first child of English parents cution of Protestants commenced in France;

in Colony of Virginia, born at Roanoke Luther was excommunicated by the diet

Island, Aug. 18, seven days after Sir Walter at Worms on April 17, 1521; he published

Raleigh's colonists arrived there from overhis German Bible in 1534; born, Nov. 10.

seas. His first party settled there in 1584 1483; married, June 13, 1525, Catharine von

and disappeared. Bora, a former nun; he died Feb. 18, 1546. | 1588 Spanish Armada defeated, July 21-29.. by a 1519-21 Conquest of Mexico by Cortez, who de

British fleet, which sent flaming ships into feated Montezuma, the emperor, and es

the midst of the enemy's craft. The Artablished a kingdom; Mexico became inde

mada consisted of 132 armed craft with pendent in 1821; a republic.was declared in

33.000 men (21.855 soldiers). including 150 1823; an empire under Archduke Maximilan

monks and the Vicar of the Inquisition, sent of Austria was established, in 1864; he was

by Phillip II. Only 50 ships and 10,000 men shot, in 1867, and the republic was re

returned to Spain. stored.

1598 First attempt at colonization, in Acadia: Mar1524 Giovanni de Verrazzano, a Florentine, ex

quis de la Roche lands 60 convicts on Sable plored the coast of North America from

Island.
Newfoundland to Florida, discovered New 118 2 Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, of Falmouth,
York Bay, and named the country New

England (the first known white man to set
France.

foot on New England. landed at South 1526 William Tyndale's translation of the New

Dartmouth, near New Bedford, Mass. May
Testament which he had begun in 1525 in
Cologne, was published in England. In 1536 | 1603 Crowns of England and Scotland joined, Mch.
he was convicted of heresy, in Antwerp.

24. under James VI of Scotland, who beBelgium, and was burned at the stake,

came James I, and on Oct. 24, 1604, was proOct. 6.

claimed "King of Great Britain, France, 1530 Reading of the Augsburg Confession, em

and Ireland": legislative union on May 1. bodying Martin Luther's views, to the Diet

1707. there, June 25.

1605 Gunpowder plot by Guy Faux (or Fawkes) to 1531-35 Marquis Francisco Pizarro conquered Peru.

blow up British Parliament discovered. 1534 Act of Supremacy makes the King head of

Nov. 4. the Church of England; ends Papal power | 1607 Jamestown, Va., settled, May 13 (the first perthere.

manent English settlement in America), unSociety of Jesus (Jesuits) formed, Aug. 15. It

der Capt. John Smith, with 105 Cavaliers in is said that it was only, at that time, & tem

3 ships. At Jamestown, on July 30, 1619, porary union that bound together S. Igna

they convened the first representative astius Loyola and his companions, and that

sembly in America. They had landed at the formal and final union dates from Sept.

Cape Henry on April 26, 1807. 27, 1540. when it was confirmed by a bull 1609 Henry Hudson, in "Half Moon," went up from Pope Paul III.

Hudson River, Sept. 11; discovered Man1535 First English Bible translated and issued by

hattan Island, Sept. 4. Samuel ChamMiles Coverdale. In 1539 he printed Crom

plain of France, advancing from the north, well's Bible; he edited Cranmer's Bible in

discovered Lake Champlain, July 4. 1540.

1610 Thomas West (Baron Delawarr) Governor 1536-39 Monasteries closed in England.

of Virginia, sailed into Delaware Bay, but 1540 Francisco Coronado of Salamanca, Spain,

did not colonize in what is now Delaware. who had gone to Mexico in 1535, organized 14 Captain Hunt, who accompanied Capt. John there an expedition and, 1540-42, explored

Smith on a tour of the New England coast, what is now Arizona and New Mexico in

kidnapped 27 Indians and carried them to search of the "Seven Cities of Cibola"

Malaga for sale as slaves. (Zuni Pueblos?) and rumored stores of gold | 1618 Thirty Years War began in Germany (B0and silver.

hemia) between Catholics and Protestants: 1541 Executions of so-called witches began in

ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphallia, England; the victims numbered 130 up to

Alsace was given to France, Swiss inde1682. Some were burned at the stake.

pendence was recognized, and the German others lost their heads by the axe.

states got their religious and political 1545 Council of Trent in the Austrian Tyrol, con

rights, as did Sweden under Gustavus vened Dec. 13, and lasted until Dec. 3. 1563.

Adolphus.
It was called to condemn the doctrines of Sir Walter Raleigh beheaded at London, Oct.
Luther and Calvin.

29. He had been convicted in 1603 with 1546 Persecutions and executions of Protestants

Lords Cobham and Gray of treason in began in Scotland after the assassination

having plotted to put Arabella Stuart on of the Regent, Cardinal Beaton, at St. An

the English throne in place of James I. drews. In 1560 Parliament abolished the 1619 Slavery introduced into 'American Colonies jurisdiction of the Pope in Scotland, Aug.

in Aug., when 20 African negroes were

landed from a Dutch ship, at Jamestown, 1555 Bishops Ridley of London and Latimer of

Va. Many American Indians captured in Worcester were burned at the stake at Ox

warfare in New England were sold into ford, Oct. 16: Archbishop Cranmer of Can

slavery in the West Indies. terbury. Mch. 21, 1556; 277 burned at the 1620 Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, Dec. 21, stake in Queen Mary's reign.

They were English, but some had dwelt

15.

24.

1620 since 1608 in Holland. The latter party | 1676 Governor Berkeley. he raised a force of went from Holland to Southampton on the

farmers who, like him, had been oppressed Speedwell,” where that vessel was aban

by taxes. He burned Jamestown, but died doned, and most of them came to America

suddenly: 23 of his followers were executed. on the Mayflower." The compact signed

Indian Chief, King Philip (Metasomet), a son in Provincetown Harbor before landing

of Massasoit, hunted down and killed, Aug. bore 41 names; the entire company aboard

12, at Mt. Hope, R. I., by whites under numbered 101 persons. The captain was

Capt. Benj. Church. That ended one of the Christopher Jones, of Harwich, England.

fiercest wars in New England colonial times. The Pilgrims on the "Mayflower" were

It was Massasoit who had welcomed the bound for New York when they left Hol

Pilgrims of the Mayflower land, but landed at Plvmonth by mistake. 1688 William of Orange Stadholder of Holland, inPriscilla Molines, a French woman, daugh

vaded England with 13.000 men on 600 ter of Guillaume Molines, was one of those

transports escorted by 50 warships. He was on the Mayflower. By her marriage to John

the husband of the eldest daughter of James Alden, she became an ancestor of John

II.
Adams, second President, and John Quincy 16 91 The first post office in the United States was
Adams.

organized under a royal patent granted to 1624 The ship "New Netherland" arrived at what

Thomas Neale. is now N. Y. City in May, let 8 men off | 10 92 "Witchcraft delusion" at Danvers (Salem to take possession, and went up the Hud

Village), Mass.; 16 women and 5 men were son to Albany. In 1626 (May 4) Peter

tried. convicted and hanged between June Minuit arrived at N. Y. City from Holland,

and Sept. and on May 6 he bought the island from the Port Royal, Jamaica, W. I., destroyed by Indians. As early as 1613, Dutch traders

earthquake, in June. had built a few huts at the Battery, to 93 Earthquake and eruption of Mt. Etna, in trade with the Indians; Fort Nassau was

Sicily, 60,000 killed, Sept. built in 1615.

1694 Thence to 1744 Massachusetts passed statutes 1635 April 23- The first naval battle by white men

offering bounties for the scalps of Indian in America was fought on the Little Poco

rebels and enemies. The price for male moke River, Eastern Shore of Maryland,

scalps ran as high as £100, females were between Claiborne's pinnace Long Tail and

less, children 10 years of age £10. In VirGovernor Calvert's two pinnaces, the St.

ginia and Carolina and in the Colony of Margaret and the St. Helen. In 1643 Cal

New Plymouth, Indians could be sold for vert was driven from the province by Wil

debt and for stealing. liam Ingle.

01 Capt. William Kidd, American ship-master, 1638 In March, an expedition on two ships, Kal

and 9 of his men, hanged in London, May mar Myckel (Key of Kalmar) and Vogel

23, for piracy. He had been commissioned Grip (Bird Griffin) which had left Gothen

by the British Government to capture piburg, Sweden, in Nov. 1637, under com

rates, but he also seized, or his crew did, an mand of Peter Minuit, arrived in Min

English ship, as well as the Great, Moquas Kill (Christiana River) within the

gul's vessel, the Quedah Merchant, and the limits of the present city of Wilmington,

East Indian trader craft, Rouparelle, which Delaware. There they built a fort, and

carried French passes. This angered the left there a colony of 13 soldiers. That

British East India Company. was the origin of the State of Delaware.

| 1703 Earthquake in Japan, 200,000 killed, Feb. 2. Many Finns were among the early settlers. | 1704 Gibraltar taken by the English from Spain, 1644 Manchus established their dynasty in China,

July 24; formally ceded to Britain by the at Pekin. It lasted without interruption

Treaty of Utrecht, April 11, 1713. until Feb. 12, 1912, when Pu Yi, son of

In Maryland an Act was passed to prevent Prince Ch'un and nephew of the late Em

the growth of popery." In 1716 the Roman peror Kuang Hsu, abdicated. He became

Catholics were disfranchised.
Emperor of Manchukuo on Mch. 1, 1934.

1707 Union of England and Scotland. 1649 King Charles I beheaded at London, Jan. 30

1712 Slave insurrection in N. Y. City, April 6: after a trial for treason, and condemna

quickly suppressed; 6 negroes killed themtion by the House of Commons sitting as

selves; 21 others were executed. a High Court, at which but 67 of the 135

13 Peace of Utrecht, April 11, among Great members were present. He had ruled 11

Britain, France and the allies. It ended years without a Parliament. The Maryland General Assembly passed "an

the wars of Queen Anne, secured the Act Concerning Religion," which has been

Protestant succession in England, and sepacalled the pioneer toleration law in Amer

rated France from Spain. In England ica. It authorized public places of worship

the Company of Merchants got exclusive for the Anglican Church. A law punished

trading rights in South America, for which all mutinous and seditious speeches and

it agreed to wipe out the war debt. The acts by imprisonment during pleasure. fine,

capital was increased to £10,000,000. Not banishment, boring of the tongue, slitting

much trading was done. Meantime thouthe nose, cutting off one ear or both ears,

sands of investors had paid ten times the whipping, branding with a red-hot iron

par value of shares. Then the crash on the hand or forehead, according as the

came. This was the South Sea Bubble. court should think suitable. Other pun

17 Triple Alliance of England, Holland and ishments were losing the right hand and

France against Spain, Jan. being nailed by the ears to the pillory.

20 Mississippi Scheme bursts. John Law, a 1656 Anne Hibbins hanged as a witch at Salem,

Scot who had fled from England after he Mass.

killed a man in a duel, and who had 1660 John Bunyan, a tinker, imprisoned at Bed

formed in France a colonial trading comford, England, in November for unlawful

pany, got the government to give the preaching. He was released in 1672, after

company control of currency and finance. having written part of Pilgrim's Progress.

Shares were sold at 15 times par value. 1664 New Amsterdam surrendered by Dutch to

Then there was a run on the bank, and English, Sept 8; became New York.

the whole scheme blew up, ruining the 1666 Fire in London, England, covered 436 acres,

Investors. Law fed to Italy. destroyed 13,200 houses and 89 churches, 1 7 (Some say 1722) Last legal trial in Scotland including St. Paul's, Sept. 2-6. The fire

for witchcraft. The victim, an old woman followed the Great Plague of 1665 which

of Dornoch, was tried, convicted and was killed 68.000 in London and thousands else

stuffed into & pitch barrel in June and where in England. Fires kept going to kill

burned to death. Her daughter also was the vapors of the pestilence were blamed

convicted, but escaped from prison. for the Great Conflagration.

1735

Freedom of the press in the United States 1668 Yellow fever made its first recorded appear

established by the acquittal, by a jury, at ance in North America; severe epidemics in

N. Y. City of John Peter Zenger, of a N. Y. City and Philadelphia.

charge of libel for having criticized the ad1669 In Sweden, in one of the final outbursts of

ministration of Gov. Cosby. The trial be. the witchcraft mania, 38 children, seven to

gan on Aug. 4. He died in 1746. His sixteen years of age, in Mohrg and Elfdal,

Weekly Journal was continued for 3 years who had accused themselves, were

by his wife and son. executed.

1741 Negro (slave) plot in May to burn N. Y. 1676 Bacon's Rebellion (March-October) in Vir

City: 13 were burned at the stake. 18 ginia, was led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy

hanged, 71 transported; among whites planter from England, a member of Sir

hanged were John Ury. an Episcopal domiWilliam Berkeley's Council. The Susque

nie; 2 negroes burned at stake, Hackenhanna Indians raided his crops. Defying

sack, N. 3.

alaly, In behSense" in

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1746 Battle of Culloden (Drumossie Moor) near | 1775 Yorktown, Va., where Cornwallis, attacked Inverness, where the English defeated the

and overcome by the allied American and Scots, April 16, under Prince Charles,

French forces under Washington and Stuart Pretender, who died at Rome, 1788.

Rochambeau, surrendered. 1747 Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat. Scottish Jacob --- Paul Revere's midnight ride, Boston to Lexite, supporter of the Pretender, executed

ington, was on April 18-19, to warn the at London, for treason, April 9; last per

Middlesex villagers that British troops • son beheaded by legal process in England.

were marching to seize military supplies 1754-63 French and Indian War in America. On

of the Minute Men in Concord. He made May 28, 1754, Washington led a company

many other rides to warn colonists, and of Virginia militia and defeated the French

on secret missions, one of them to New near Brownsville, Pa.; his first fight. The

York City. contest was between the British and the -- First British flag hauled down at sea in the French for possession of the Ohio coun

American Revolution when the sloop Unity. try, from the Appalachian Mountains to

Capt. Jeremiah O'Brien, captured Britthe Mississippi River. The British claimed

ish armed tender, Margaretta, off Machias, title from the Iroquois Indians. The

Me., May 12.
French claimed their own discovery and

Mecklenburg, North Carolina, so-called Decsettlement.

laration of Independence, May 20. 1755 Earthquake in Portugal, 50,000 killed at The schooner Hannah, under Nicholson Lisbon, Nov. 1.

Broughton, who had been commissioned an 1756 At Calcutta, India, June 19, & dungeon

army captain by Gen. Washington, sailed the Black Hole-was filled with 146 British

from Beverly, Mass, on Sept 5, and the prisoners, of whom only 23 survived suffo

next day captured a British vessel. The ce tion.

Hannah, owned by Col. John Glover, off1763 New France, including Wisconsin, ceded by

cially ranks as the "mother of the Navy. the British to become New Quebec

1776 In Williamsburg, Va., May 6, the fifth revo1765 Stamp Act enacted by Parliament, March 22,

lutionary convention in Virginia convened N. Y., R. I., Del., Mass., Conn., N. J., Pa.,

and adopted the first constitution of a free Md. and S. C. held Stamp Act Congress at

and independent state; on May 15 1t called N. Y. City and issued a Declaration of

on the Continental Congress to declare the Rights, Oct, 7.

Colonies free and independent. 1769 Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) born Aug.

Tom Paine published "Common Sense' in 15 on the Island of Corsica, in the Medi

Philadelphia, in January, in behalf of the terranean: died in exile, May 5, 1821, on

American cause. the Island of St. Helena, where inspection Declaration of Independence signed, July 4, of his body revealed a deep bayonet wound

*by order and in behalf of the Congress, received in the siege of Toulon.

John Hancock, President. Attest, Charles 1770 Boston Massacre, March 5, three killed, 8

Thompson, Secretary." The manuscript wounded by British regular troops.

Journal of July 4, 1776, does not contain any 1772 First partition of Poland, second, 1793; third,

other statement in regard to signing the 1795. Before the first partition the eastern

Declaration at that time or the names of Polish boundary ran along Dnieper and

the members present and agreeing to its Berezina Rivers. Most of the country was

adoption. The engrossed copy of August 2. divided among Russia, Austria, and

1776, "was signed by the members." This Prussia.

was the parchment copy. There were some 1773 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) abolished by Pope

members who signed afterwards. Clement XIV, July 21; expelled from France Nathan Hale, 21, executed, Sept. 22, in N. Y. in 1764, from Spain in 1767; restored as a

City. As an American spy: it is said he was Society on Aug. 7, 1814, by Pope Pius VII:

accused of a hand in the fire in N. Y. City thereafter expelled from various European

the day before, when 500 houses, including countries, and from Italy in 1873.

Trinity Church, were burned. Tea destroyed in Boston Harbor, Dec. 16. To

The opening naval engagement of the Revoluhelp the East India Company, the British

tion was fought on Lake Champlain, Oct. Government had arranged for its tea to be

11, when an American fleet under Benedict shipped, with an import duty of threepence

Arnold was defeated by a British fleet under at the American ports. The cry "No taxa

Guv Carlton. tion without representation" was raised,

Washington crossed the Delaware River, Dec. and the tea arriving at Boston was dumped

25-26, and defeated the British at Trenton, overboard by men disguised as Indians..

One account says Washington's troops 774 Continental Congress in session; in Phil

crossed on the ice. Other accounts report adelphia, Sept. 5, 1774-Oct. 26, 1774; there

boats and rafts were used. The troops again, May 10, 1775-Dec. 12, 1776; in Balti

marched 9 miles from McKonkeys (Mcmore, Dec. 20, 1776-Mch. 4, 1777; in

Conkeys) Ferry, now Washington Crossing. Philadelphia, Mch. 4, 1777-Sept. 18. 1777;

N. J., to Trenton. in Lancaster, Pa., Sept. 27, 1777 (one day); 1777 Stars and Stripes flag adopted by Continental in York, Pa., Sept. 30, 1777-June 27, 1778;

Congress, June 14. at Philadelphia, July 2, 1778-June 21, 1783; Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Princeton, N. J., June 30, 1783-Nov. 4, 1783;

Union, adopted by Continental Congress, in Annapolis, Md., Nov. 26, 1783-June 3,

Nov, 15; ratified by the 13 States (Feb, 5, 1784, at Trenton, N.J., Nov. 1, 1784-Dec.

1778-March 1 1781) and announced by the 24, 1784; in New York City, with inter

Congress as formally ratified on Mch 1. vals, Jan. 11. 1785-Mch. 2, 1789.

1781. 1775 First blood of the American War of Inde

Franklin negotiated U. S. treaty with France, pendence shed--Westminster (Vt.) Massa

recognizing American independence, Feb. 6. cre, March 13. The chief battles of the

779 In retaliation for the Wyoming Valley masRevolution were

sacre of American settlers, in 1778, com1775-April 19, Concord, Mass.; April 19,

mitted by a force of 800 Seneca Indians Lexington, Mass.; May 10, Ticonderoga,

and British soldiers, Gen. John Sullivan N. Y., June 17, Bunker Hill, Mass.; Nov.

and his Continental troops, in August, 13. Montreal, Can.: Dec, 31, Quebec, Can.

burned the crops and villages in southern1776June 28Ft, Moultrie, S. C.; Aug.

middle N. Y. State, at Newtown (Elmira) 27. Long Island (Brooklyn-Flushing);

and 40 other places.
Sept. 16. Harlem Heights, N Y city: 1780 Bank of Philadelphia chartered (first in
Oct. 28,' White Plains, N Y.; Nov. 16,

U. S.). March 1.
Ft. Washington, N. Y.' city; Nov. 18. Ft.

No-Popery riots in London, England, under
Lee, N. J.; Dec. 26, Trenton, N J

lead of Lord George Gordon, May 10: 1777---Jan. 3. Princeton, N. J.; July 6,

June 2-9.
Ticonderoga, N. Y.; Aug. 6, Oriskany,

Major Andre captured, Sept. 23; hanged Oct.
N. Y.; Aug. 16, Bennington, Vt.; Sept. 11,

2, on a hill in view of the mansion of John Brandywine, Del.: Sept. 19-Oct. 1, Saratoga

De Wint, Tappan, N. Y., where Gen, Wash(Schuylerville), N. Y., Oct. 4. Germantown,

ington and staff were quartered. It has Pa.

been said that the plot to deliver West 1778_-June 28, Monmouth, N. J. (a draw):

Point to the British was instigated by July 3, Wyoming, Pa., massacre: Aug. 29,

Peggy Shippen, American wife of BeneQuaker Hill, R. I.; Dec. 29, Savannah, Ga.

dict Arnold, as revealed by "code" letters 1779-Oct. 8, Savannah, Ga.

between her and Maj. Andre. 1780-Aug. 16, Camden, S. C.; Oct. 7, 1782 Preliminary peace articles between U. S. and King's Mountain, S. C.

Great Britain, signed in Paris, Nov. 30; 1781-Jan. 17, Cowpens, S. C.; Mch. 15.

definitive treaty signed Sept. 3, 1783; ConGuilford Court House,

Sept. &

gress ratified on Jan. 14, 1784. George III Eutaw Springs, S. C.; Sept. 28, Oct. 19,

of England paid about $6,000,000 to the 1782 Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel for the use of 1789 mand of Fletcher Christian, rebel mate nearly 30,000 Hessian troops in his war with

sailed to Tahiti, where some of the mutithe American Colonies of this number

neers stayed. The ship, with 8 of the crew 12,500 were killed or they deserted; 17,000

and 18 Polynesians of whom 12 were went back to their homes. The Revolution

women, went to Pitcairn Islands, arriving had driven 40.000 loyalists from the United

there in 1790. They burned the vessel after States into Canada.

landing the food and tools. 1783 Congress demobilized American Army, Oct. 1791 Anthracite coal discovered, in Carbon County, 18,-Nov. 3; British evacuated New York,

Pennsylvania,
Nov. 25; Washington delivered his farewell

1792 U. S. Congress established the mint, in Philaddress at Fraunces's Tavern, N. Y., Dec.

adelphia, April 2.
4; resigned his army commission, Dec. 23,
and retired to Mt. Vernon, Va.

1794 Whiskey Insurrection, in Western PennsylMassachusetts Supreme Court outlawed slav

vania, in the summer, in defiance of the ery because of the words in the State Bill

Congress Act of 1791 imposing a tax on of Rights, all men are born free and

domestic distilled spirits. Federal troops equal."

(militia men) ended the outbreak in SepNew Quebec formally ceded to the U.S., but

tember not actually 1796 when northwest military

1795 Triple Alliance formed by Great Britain, posts were evacuated by the British

Russia and Austria, Sept. 28. Earthquake in Calabria, Italy, 60,000 killed - Orangemen, society of, organized in North of Feb. 4.

Ireland to support Protestant religion. First U. S. Government post office opened in 1796 Vaccination discovered by Jenner, N. Y. City. Nov. 28.

1797 Earthquake on west coast South America, First free hydrogen balloon ascension, in

41,000 killed at Quito, Feb. 4. France, by P. de Rozier and Marquis d'Ar

U. S. Frigate, Constellation, launched at landes, at Paris, Nov. 21, in a Montgolfier,

Baltimore, Sept. 7; Frigate, Constitution holding 60,000 cu. ft. of gas. The first

("Old Ironsides"') launched at Boston, Sept. balloon flight across the Channel, between

20; reconditioned in 1930. The Frigate, Dover and Guignes, was made by Blanchard

United States had been launched at Philaand Jeffries, Jan. 7, 1785. The first bal

delphia on July 10, 1797. The three vessels loon voyage in the United States was made

were designed by Joshua Humphreys, a by Blanchard, of France, in George Wash

Quaker of Philadelphia. ington's presence, at Philadelphia, landing

1798 The Irish rebellion began in May. It cost at Woodbury, N. J., Jan. 9, 1793.

150,000 fatalities among the Irish and over First daily paper in the United States, the

20,000 among the English: suppressed in "Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily

1799. Benjamin Towne, editor and publisher.

1800 Sixth Congress (2nd session) met (for first

time) in Washington, Nov. 17. 1784 First successful daily paper in the United States, the "Pennsylvania Packet and Daily

1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland, Jan. 1:

first Parliament of United Kingdom. Advertiser." in Philadelphia, Sept. 21, John

B02 U. S. Military Academy at West Point estab-
Dunlap and D. C. Claypoole, publishers.
The first Sunday paper, the Sunday Moni-

lished, March 16; opened July 4,

03 England and France renew war. tor," appeared Dec. 18, 1796, in Baltimore. --- John Fitch operated his steamboat on Dela

- Robert Emmet convicted of treason; exeware River. In 1785, Dec. 11, James Rum

cuted in Dublin, Sept. 19. sey's steamboat made a trial trip on the

At New Orleans, Commissioner Laussat disPotomac River near Shepherdstown, Md.

solved the Cabildo and took over the gov1787 Shays' rebellion in Massachusetts, led by

ernment for France Nov. 30. On Dec. 30, Capt. Daniel Shays; the attempt to seize

Laussat issued a proclamation transferring U.S. Arsenal in Springfield failed Jan. 25.

Louisiana to the United States. General -U. S. Constitution drawn up at a convention

Wilkinson and William C. C. Claiborne took of delegates from the States in Philadelphia,

over Louisiana; representing Thomas JefferMay 14; ratified by Convention, Sept. 17.

son, President of the United States. The 1788 Warren Hastings, Gov. Gen'l of India, put

first municipality was established in 1804. on trial before the Peers in London, Feb 1804 Alexander Hamilton (ex-Secretary of the 13; acquitted April 23, 1795.

Treasury) and Vice-President Aaron Burr -- Australia settled by the British, Jan. 26, at

(former U. Ş. Senator from N. Y. State) Port Jackson. The name of the continent

but a native of Newark, N. J., fought a up to 1814 was New Holland.

duel, July 11, on the Hudson Palisades, 1789 First U.S. Congress met, N. Y., Mch. 4.

Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton, who 1789-Mch. 3, 1791. The sessions did not ac

had fired in the air, was fatally shot by tually begin until April 6, 1789. There were

his antagonist. 3 sessions.

1805 Battle of Trafalgar; death of Nelson, Oct. 21. Washington inaugurated President. April 1807 Fulton's first steamboat (Clermont) trip, 30, in Federal Hall, New York City.

New York to Albany, Aug. 17. - The French Revolution began, June 20, when

Aaron Burr was arrested in Mississippi on 2 the delegates to the Third Estate (Com

federal charge of treason and was put on mons) met in the tennis court and took an

trial in Richmond, Va., May 22, and was oath not to disband until the King had

acquitted Sept. 1. He was charged with granted France à constitution; Bastile

having organized an expedition of about stormed, July 14, and prisoners of state

a hundred men, who embarked in flatboats released. France was declared a limited

at Blennerhasset Island, on the Ohio River, monarchy. under Louis XVI: Mirabeau

and made their way to New Orleans, with died April 2, 1791; the King and family

the purpose of establishing an empire that arrested June 21, 1791: Revolutionary Tri

was to' comprise the Louisiana Territory, bunal set up on Aug 19, 1792; National

a large section of the Western States and Convention opened Sep. 17, 1792, and a re

Mexico, with Burr as Emperor, public was established on Sep. 22: King 1811 Earthquakes in bed of Mississippi River, south Louis was tried and condemned and was

of mouth of Ohio River, destroyed small beheaded on Jan. 21. 1793; the Reign of

towns and created Reelfoot Lake, 14 miles Terror began May 31, 1793; Charlotte Cor

long. The quakes began on Dec. 16. day stabbed Marat July 13, 1793; the 1812 Second United States war with Great Britain. Queen was beheaded Oct. 16, 1793. Mme.

declared, June 18, by Congress (Senate. Roland on Nov. 8; Countess du Barry

19 to 13; House, 79 to 49); garrison at Ft. (Jeanne Becu) on Dec. 6, 1793; Danton on

Dearborn (Chicago) massacred by Indians, April 5, 1794, Robespierre on June 4, 1794;

allies of the British, Aug. 15; Detroit surRevolutionary Tribunal abolished on Dec.

rendered to British, Aug. 16; mass meeting 15, 1794; Louis XVII died in prison on

at N. Y. City denounced the war, Aug. 19; June 8, 1795: peace was made with Prussia,

frigate Constitution captured the Guerriere, the great revolution ended. Napoleon was

Aug. 19; frigrate, United States, commanded declared First Consul on Nov. 10, 1799, and

by Stephen Decatur, defeated the British on Aug. 2 was made Consul for Life. He

frigate, Macedonian, off the Azores, Oct. 25. proclaimed himself Emperor on May 18,

The expedition, under Napoleon, to Moscow: 1804, and on Dec. 2 was crowned by the

city (30,800 houses) burned by the RusPope.

sians, Sept. 16. The French retreated with U. S. Supreme Court created, September.

great losses. Intense cold, hunger, disconMutiny on the British ship Bounty, April 28;

tent, insubordination were blamed for the Capt. William Bligh and 18 sailor's set

failure of the campaign. Of Napoleon's inadrift in a launch. They rowed 3,618 miles

vading army of half a million men, less to Timor, near Java. The Bounty, in com

than half came from greater France, which

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