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STATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAXES: RATES, EXEMPTIONS (Continued)

Personal Exemp.

[graphic]

Married

or head Single lof family

Credit Per

and

for deApplicable

Percentage Applicable centage Special rates or pendState

to
rates

to
rates
features

ents North Dakota .... First 2.000 1

6.001- 8.000 7.5

500 1,500 200 2.001- 4.000 2

8,00 1-10.000 4.001- 5,000

10.001-15,000 12.5
5,001- 6,000

Over 15,000 15
Oklahoma.
First 1,000

5,001 - 6,000 6

850 1.700 300 1,001- 2.000

6.001- 7,000 7 2,001- 3,000

7.001- 6,000 8
3,001- 4,000

Over 8,000
4,001 - 5,000
Oregor.
First 500

2.001- 3,000 5

800 1.500 300 501- 1,000

3,001 - 4,000 6

2 pct. surtax on in1,001- 2,000

Over 4,000 7

come from intangi-
bles; total tax not to
exceed 8 pct. of nor-
mal tax net income

lesa surtax exemption South Caroling First 2.000 2

1.000 1.800 200 2,001- 4.000 4.001- 6.000

Over 6.000 South Dakota .... First 3,000

40.001-140,000 5

+20 3.001- 7.000

(ver 140,000 6 7,001-15,000

8 15,001-40,000 Tennessee Interest & divi- 6

Dividends from corporations at least 75 pct of dends

the property of which is sessable for ad

valorem taxation in Tennessee, 4 pet. Utah. First 1,000 1

3,001 - 4,000 4

600 1,200 300 1,001- 2,000 2

Over 4,000 5
2.001- 3,000 3
Vertnont
Int. and divd'ds 4

1,000 2,000 250
All other inc. 2
Virginia
First 3.000 1.5

Over 5,000 3

1.000

2,000 200 3,001- 5,000 2.5 West Virginia.. First 1.000 1

2.001- 3,000 3

1,000 2.000

300 1,001- 2,000 2

Over 3.000 4
Wisconsin
First 1,000 1

7.001- 8.000 4

*3 *17.50

+4 1.001- 2,000 1.25

3.001- 9.000 4.5 Surtax: Normal tax 2,001- 3,000

9.001-10,000 5 less $37.50 divided 3.001- 4,000 2

10.001-11.004 5.5 | by 6. Temporary Nur4.001- 5,000 2.5

11.001-12,000

tax equal to 60 pct. 5,001- 6,000 3

Over 12.000 7 of normal tax rates 6,001- 7.000 3.5 Dist, ol Col., First 5,000 1

15,001-20.000 2.5

1.000 2.500 400 5,001-10.000 1.5

Over 20,000 3 10,00-15,000 2 *Tax credit deductible from amount of tax rather than from net income. 1 Personal exemption and credit for dependents deductible from lowest income bracket.

2 The exemptions shown consist of a specific exemption of $2,000 in addition to a personal exemption of $500 for husband or wife and a credit for each dependent of $250.

Tax applies only to interest and dividends. No personal exemptions are allowed.
4 An additional exemption of $1.000 is provided for a married woman with separate income.

6 For purposes of the surtax (applicable to income from intangibles) exemptions of $500 for a single
person and $800 for a married person are allowed.
& Tax applies only to interest and dividends. No personal exemptions are allowed.
. Applicable to income from salaries, wages and business or professions.

For purposes of the regular surtax, a tax credit of $37.50 is allowed. 9 In the case of a dependent father, mother or grandparent the taxpayer may take a deduction of $300 in lieu of the $5 tax credit allowed for other dependents.

Masonic Membership by States, 1940

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Source: An Official of the Organization
Mem-
Mem-

Member- Grand Lodges Lodges

Grand Lodges Lodges bership ship

ship No. No. No.

No. No. 27,420 Maryland

121
28,322 Oregon

171 24,049 5,427 Massachusetts. 325 96,630 Pennsylvania.

171,881 23,589 Michigan. 512 110.806 Rhode Island

43 14.461 126,185 Minnesota.

302 47.304 South Carolina. 267 17,828 29,129 Mississippi, 311 21.564 South Dakota

172 14.362 33,872 Missouri 624 86,469 Tennessee

391

35,890 5,162 Montana 135 17.808 Texas.

896 100,618 20,002 Nebraska. 290 30,919 Utah

26 4,472 20,102 Nevada. 26 3,130 Vermont

103 16,362 39.111 New Hampshire.

81
12,960 Virginia,

327 38,490
8,925 New Jersey.
278 72,363 Washington

268

38.919 192,836 New Mexico. 55 6,195 West Virginia.

165 28.981 105,811 New York 1,037 244,858 Wisconsin

307 51.109 66.691 North Carolina. 328 26,255 Wyoming

50 7,805 59,603 North Dakota.. 123 10,759 Puerto Rico..

50 2,643 42.348 Ohio..

822 172,403 20,289 Oklahoma

409 43,823 United States, 15,441 2,461,605 34,665

[graphic]

Public Libraries in Large U. S. Cities, 1940

Source: The American Library Association
Circu- Expen-

Circu. Expen-
Books lation ditures

Books lation ditures Akron, Ohio. 208,586 1,172,748 168,205 Brooklyn

1,170,280 6,772,789 1,005,073 Atlanta, Ga 225,498 1.187.382 128,444 Queens

719,048 4,356,968 767.723 Baltimore, Md 740,752 3,136,087 565,969 Newark, N. J.

621,966 2,314,977 553,755 Birmingham, Ala. 232,749 1,298,714 111,483 Oakland, Calil

275,001 2,460,924 297,444 Boston, Mass., Cir. 542,932 3,563,017 709,083 Oklahoma City

124,250 968,404 61,586 Buffalo, N. Y. 625,610 3,275,185 428,266 Omaha, Neb

212,852 676,101 82,998 Chicago, m.

1,892,016 13,555,454 2,134,163 Philadelphia, Pa. 737,711 3,170,227 731,160 Cincinnati, Ohio.. 1,292,472 4,479,740 614,022 Pittsburgh, Pa. 1.319,610 4,507,440 629.254 Cleveland, Ohio. 2,112,129 8,330,441 1,982,380 Old City

1,063,519 4.081,187 562,095 Dallas, Texas. 153,434 861,4331 78,185 Allegheny

256,091 426,253 67.159 Dayton, Ohio. 408,208 1,743,663 270,131 Portland, Ore.

672,846 2,894,026 344,587 Denver, Colo.

396,411 1,828.000 238,617 Providence, R. I 527,907 1,802,212 281,716 Detroit, Mich.. 1,012,328 5.290,465 1,279,229 Providence P. L. 474,136 1,535,986 255.047 Houston, Texas 225,502 812.882 89.131 Elmwood P. L.

53.771 266,226 26.679 Indianapolis, Ind 631,483 3,033,610 364,914 Rochester, N. Y 440,270 2,249,914 394,705 Jersey City, N. J 408,678 1.633,506 293,258 St. Louis, Mo.

917,639 3,167,069 475,368 Kansas City, Mo. 571,364 2,251,026 248,447 St. Paul, Minn, 390,771 1,318,190 253,313 Los Angeles (City) 1,641,195 9,498,993 1,067,156 San Antonio

138,203 493,487 78.788 Louisville, Ky.

329,965 1,264,825 192,169 San Diego, Calil.. 183,620 1,581,491 153,977 Memphis, Tenn. 259,708 1,801,604 109,605 San Francisco. 525,215 3.700.289 403,243 Milwaukee, Wis 969,278 3,950, 166 434,938 Seattle, Wash.

540,330 2,996,743 351,386 Min'eapolis, Minn. 765,834 3,677,526

Syracuse, N. Y. 185,190 1.231.834 142.061 New Orleans, La.. 267,656) 724,488 91.928 Toledo, Ohio.

365,410 1,663,213 316,005 New York City... 3,336,170 22,396,900 3,597,760 Washington, D. C. 613,756 3,383,927 551,566 N.Y.P.L. Circ. D. 1,446,842 11,267,143 1,824,964

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Daily
Sunday

Daily

Sunday Year No. Circu

No.

Circu- Year No. Circu. No. Circupapers lation papers

lation

papers lation papers lation 1940. 1.878 41,131,611 525 32,371,092 || 1929.. 1,944 39,425,615 528 26,879,536 1939. 1,888 39,670,682 524 31.519,009 1928.

1,939 37,972,592 522 25,771,583 1938. 1,936 39,571,839 523 30,480,922 1927.

1,949 37,966, 766 526 25,469,037 1937 1,993 41,418,730 539 30,956,916 1926.

2,001 36,001,803 545 24,435,192 1936. 1.989 40,292, 266 520 29,962,120 1925.

2,008 33,739,369 548 23,354,622 1935.

1,950 38,155.540 518 28,147,343 | 1924. 2,014 32.999,437 539 22,219,646 1934. 1,929 36,709,010 505 26,544,516 1923.

2,036 31,453,683 547 21,463,289 1933. 1,911 35,175,238 506 24.040,630 1922.

2,033 29,680,328 546 19,712,874 1932. 1,913 36,407,679 518 24,859,888 1921.

2,028 28,423,740 545 19.041,413 1931.

1.923 38,761,187 513 25,701,798 1920.. 2,042 27,790,656 522 17,083,604 1930.. 1,942 39,589, 1721 521 126,413,047

There were 1,998 daily newspapers (circulation 40,772,937) in the United States at the close of 1940, according to N. W. Ayer & Son's Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals.

The combined total of dailies, weeklies, semi-weeklies and tri-weeklies in publication at the end of 1940 was 13, 206, as compared with 13,281 at the end of 1939.

Paper was invented about 100 A. D. and soon came into common use as a cheap substitute for silk in the scrolls of the time.

Many of these ancient scrolls are yellow in color because they were impregnated with a preservative substance taken from the amoor cork tree, several specimens of which are growing outside the rear doors of the Library of Congress in Washington.

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1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1909. 1910. 1911.

New Books and New Editions by American Publishers

Source: Publishers' Weekly, New York
New New
New New
New New

New New
Books Edit.
Books Edit.
Books Edit.

Books Edit.
No.
No.

No.
No.
No. No.

No. No.
5,485 2,348
1912. 10,135 708 1922.

5,999 865 1932. 7.556 1,479 5,793 2,072 1913.. 9,687 1,623 1923. 6,257 921 1933.. 6,813 1,279 6,456 1,878 1914. 9,513 1,835 1924.. 6,380 1.158 1934. 6,788 1.410 6,817 1,435 1915 6,817 1.385 1925 6,680 1,493 1935. 6,914 1.852 6,985 1,618 1916. 7.219 1,285 1926 6,832 1,527

1936.

8,584 1.852 7.701 2,213 1917. 6,596 1,211 1927. 7,450 1,449 1937. 9,273 1,639 8.745 509 '1918.

5,709 1,152 1928. 7,614 1.562 1938 9,464 1,603 10,193 708 1919.. 4.772 969 1929. 8,342 1,845 1939 9.015 1,625 11.671 1.799 1920. 5,101 1.086 1930. 8,134 1.893

1940. 9,515 1.813 10,440 783 1921. 5,438 1,008 1931 8,506 1.801

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Philosophy
Religion,
Sociology, Economics.
Education (books on).
Philology.
Science.
Technical Books.
Medicine, Hygiene.
Agriculture, Gardening
Domestic Economy
Business,
Fine Arts

91 669 773 138 293 256 422 336 307 100

88 298 202

28 81 25 22 30 101 116 124 29 16 59 26

99 781 796 141 317 274 398 470 326 108

70 344 213

11 62 80 61 32 45 95 141 146 31

Music..
Games, Sports
General Literature.
Poetry, Drama..
Fiction
Juvenile.
History
Geography, Travel.
Biography
Miscellaneous

111 190 511

580 1,133

830 708 296 557

13 29 73 73 414 119 96 61 71 8

115 156 466 671 1,221 852 783 262 569 83

615 132 70 46 78

70

Total...

58 9

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Beginnings of Famous Foreign Universities

Source: Records of the Institutions The Moslem University of Al-Azhar, in Cairo, King Louis the Great at Pecs in 1367. It was ir Egypt, was founded in 970.

its prosperity attended by 2,000 students, but Louvain University in Belgium was founded in passed out of existence in 1543 at the time of the 1426 by Duke John IV of Brabant in the town that occupation of Pecs by the Turks. In 1635 the had been the capital before the rise of Brussels. University of Nagyzombat, now the University of

At the end of the 12th Century there were three Budapest, was founded by Peter Pazmany, Archprominent universities in Europe Bologna for law, bishop of Estergom, Salerno for medicine, Paris for theology. There The oldest Spanish university is that of Sala. were, at Bologna. practically four universities in manca, founded in 1239. It was preceded in 1209 the Studium Generale-Lombards, Ultramontanes, by the University of Palenza. There was a school Tuscans, Romans.

at Cordova in 968. At Bologna the university consisted of a body of The University of Lima, Peru, was founded in students who hired professors to teach them. At 1551 by Charles V. Paris the students were younger and were con- The University of Copenhagen, Denmark, was sidered as apprentices.

founded in 1478 and opened in 1479 by virtue o! a The University of Pavia, Italy, was founded by bull issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1475. The TechLothaire, grandson of Charlemagne, in 825. nical College of Denmark was founded in 1829.

Other old Italian universities are Bologna, The Royal Frederick University at Oslo wa founded 1200; Padua, 1228; Naples, 1224; Genoa, founded in 1811 and opened in 1813. 1243; Perugla, 1276; Macerata, 1290. There were The University of Leyden, in the Netherlands. nine more founded between 1300 and 1550. Italy was founded by Prince William (the Silent) of was the greatest resort of students for the higher Orange in 1575. education in the middle ages.

The Municipal University of Amsterdam was The University of Paris was founded by King founded in 1632. Philip II, 1140-1170, exact date unknown. It was Trinity College, Dublin, was incorporated by an outgrowth of the Cathedral School of Notre royal charter in 1591. Dame.

St. Andrews University, in Scotland, was founded The University of Poitiers, western France, was by Bishop Wardlaw in 1411. founded in 1431.

The University of Glasgow was founded by In England, Walter of Merton, began to round Bishop Turnbull in 1451. his Oxford College in 1266.

The University of Edinburgh was founded in Winchester School, in Hampshire, England, was 1582 by a charter granted by King James Vi, of founded by Bishop William of Wykeham, 1382-1387. Scotland.

The first college of the University of Cambridge Dulwich College, near London, was founded in was founded by Hugo. Bishop of Ely, in 1257. But 1619, by Edward Alleyn, a noted actor of that time. there was a school there as early as 635. In 1109 The Royal College of Physicians, London, dates education was revived there.

from letters patent granted under Henry VIII in Eton College, in Buckinghamshire, England, was 1518 to his physician, Dr. Linacre, who became the founded by Henry VI in 1440 and was intended as a first president. The College of Physicians at Dublin preparatory school for King's College, Cambridge. was created in 1667; that at Edinburgh in 1681; the Henry took many ideas for Eton from the Casa College of Surgeons, London, in 1745; and that at Glacosa, the great school near Mantua, Italy, Dublin in 1786. founded by its Marquis about 1429.

The University of Cracow, Poland, where CoperThe University of Prague, Bohemia, was founded nicus received his education, was founded in 1364 in 1348. The University of Heidelberg was founded by King Casimir III (the Great). in 1380

The University of Havana, Cuba, was opened on Uppsala University, in the ancient capital of Feb. 15, 1730 Sweden, was founded in 1477.

The College of San Nicolas de Hidalgo was The University of Moscow was founded in 1755 founded in Patzcuaro in the State of Michoacan, by the Empress Elizabeth, and the University of Mexico, i 1540, by Vasco de Quiroga. St. Petersburg in 1819 by Czar Alexander I. There The University of Mexico was founded in 1553 was a school there in 1747.

by the Roman Catholic Church, The first Hungarian University was founded by The University of Finland was founded in 1640.

The Simpler Spelling Movement

Source: William Russell, M.S. The following is a list of representative reform words in common use thruout America today, along with general rules for further simplifications: altho controler inclose nite

technic
ameba
donut
Indorse
Porto Rico

theater
draft
kwiz
plow

tho
catalog
gipsy
mold
sirup

thoro(ly) (fare) cigaret hiccup nabor(hood) sulfur

thru(out) (1) Substitute e for ae or oe. Examples: cyclo- (7) When final ed is pronounst d drop e unless pedia, ameba, esthetic, maneuver.

necessary to show preceding vowel is long. If pro(2) Avoid the use of gh. Examples: nite, altho, nounst t spell as such. enur, furlo, thru.

(8) Avoid use of old English spellings ending in (3) Drop ue from words ending in gue. Examples: catalog. dialog, pedagog, prolog: (4) Change final ise to ize when so pronounst.

(9) Form plurals in s or es according to general Examples: surprize, advize.

rule, avoiding Latin endings. Example: formulas, (5) Change ph to f when so pronounst. Ex- not formulae. amples: fantasy, fantom, fonetic, sulfur, telefone, (10) In all cases where two or more forms are (6) Omit silent letters.

acceptable choose the simpler and more fonetic.

оur оr те.

Frequency of Letters in English

Source: The late Frank H. Vizetelly In the work of computing the frequency of letters in use in English words done for the Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary, the following results were obtained. Capital initial letters were found to have been used in the following ratio: х 4 V 144 H 258 T 478

Some years ago, Dr. William S. Walsh gave the Z 15 0 173 E 285 A 481 Y 19 U 191 I 316 P 673

following computation of the relative proportions K 39 G

223 F 325 с 785 in which the various letters of the alphabet are 0 49 W 228 M 368 S 1000

used: 57 R

244 B 388 N 128 L

250
D 423

А 85 H 64 O 80 V 12 of the lower case letters, the figures are:

B
16

I 80 P 17 W 20 z 22 g 168 u 296 8 680

с 30 J
26

4 0 5
1
р 168
360

х
1 704
g 50
184 d 392

728
D

K 8 R 62 Y 20 j 55 w 190

528

770

E 120 L 40 S 80 z 2 88

236 h 540 e 1000 b 120

F m 272

25 670

M 30 T 90 152 с 280 O 672

17 N 80 U 34

The Principal Languages of the World.

Source: Dr. Charles Earle Funk, Editor of the New Standard Dictionary The actual number of languages computed by French from Low German, 54; French from officers of French Academy is put at 2,796.

Dutch or Middle Dutch, 45, French from ScandiThe English language is spoken by more than navian. 63; French from (1) German, 85, French 270,000,000 of people of which more than half are from (2) Middle High German, 27; French from Americans. Of these 150.500,000 are citizens of the (3) Old High German, 154; French from (4) TeuUnited States of America, 1,000,000 are Liberians, tonic, 225; French (Romance languages), 297; and 70,900,000 are English-speaking people of Eng- French from Latin, 4,842; French from Late Latin, land, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales,

and 828; French from Italian, 162. the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, and Ireland, Celtic, 170; Latin (direct), 2,880; Provencal, from Gibraltar and Malta and the Dominions of Canada, Latin, 25; Italian, 99; Spanish, 108; Portuguese, 21. Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The Greek direct or through Latin, Late Latin, population of the various other self-governing French or other sources, 2,493; Slavonic, 31; Lithunits or dependent colonies of Great Britain, uanian, 1. which combined form the British Empire, has been Asiatic: Aryan languages, including Persian and computed at 381,084,000 persons. Assuming that Sanskrit, 163; European non-Aryan languages, 20. one-eighth of this number understands and uses Semitic: Hebrew, 99, Arabic, 272. English speech in barter, trade exchange, or other Asiatic: Non-Aryan,

not

Semitic, including manner of communication, a total of 47.633,000 Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Tartar, Australian, 135; more persons is to be added to the number who African languages, 32; American, 102; hybrid, 675: understand and speak English,

unknown, 12. Total, 19,160. The principal other languages of the world are The select vocabulary of the New Standard listed below, followed by the number of persons Dictionary of the English Language totals approxspeaking them according to official reports avail- imately 455,000 words. If the dead words of our able in 1941.

speech be added, the total, as shown by the New The reputable English language contains approx- English Dictionary on Historical Principles, would imately 700,000 words. Possibly 300,000 more terms reach 700,000 words for the English tongue, living may be stigmatized as nonce, obsolete, vulgar, low, and dead. etc., and therefore seldom or never sought in dic- The latter work admits to a vocabulary of 418,825 tionaries designed for the home,

terms in use in the literary language. It has not of the bulk-700,000 terms-nearly one-half con- specialized in scientific terminology. sists of scientific terminology seldom met outside The vocabulary of the New International Dicof text books and of archaic, obsolescent or obsolete tionary, Second Edition, as reported by its Editorterms.

in-Chief, Dr. W. A. Neilson, (July 2, 1934) was Various estimates of the sources of English words placed at 550,000 entries, which total was increased have been made at different times. W. W. Skeat to 600,000 by adding 36,000 names in the Gazetteer, in the fourth edition of his "Etymological Dic- 13,000 in the Biographical Section, and 5,000 Ab

which contains approximately 20,000 breviations. words, shows the following sources:

The German word-book (Kurschner's UniversalAnglo-Saxon and English, 3,681; Low German, Konversations-Lexikon) contains not more than 126; Dutch, 207; Scandinavian, 693; German, 333. '300,000 words, including personal names.

tionary

TABULATION OF THOSE WHO SPEAK THE CHIEF LANGUAGES

Abyssinian,

Chinese, inc. embracing

dial.

488,573,000 Ethiopic,

Danish

3,707,000 Gaila,

Dutch

16,548,500 Geez, Am

Estonian

1,127,000 haric and

Finnish

3,022,000 Tigré 7,600,000 Flemish

3,500,000 Afghan 12,000,000 French

68,895,000 African dial... 93,923.000 German 78,947,000 Albanian 1,004,000 Greek

6,936,000 Arabic

29,000,000 Gujarati 10,682,000 Bengali

51,000,000 Hindi and Bohemian 10,612,000 Other lanBulgarian 6,078,000 guages (See

Note below) 216,000,000 Roumanian 19,400,000
Hungarian 8,001,112 Russian and
Italian

43,700.000 dialects 166,000,000 Japanese 97,700,000 Serbian

11,000.000 Javanese 42,000,000 Siamese 14,500,000 Lettish 1,905.000 Slovenia

5,185.000 Lithuanian 2,393.000 Spanish 102,700,000 Marathi 20.000.000 Swedish

6,266.000 Nepali 6,000,000 Tamil

19,000,000 Norwegian 2,814,200 Telegu

25,000,000 Persian

15,000,000 TibetoPolish

32.000.000 Burmese: .. 17,000,000 Portuguese 48,800,000 | Turkish

16,160,000 Punjabi 24,000,000 | Urdu (See Note below)

Dutch figures in the above table_include one- guages of Baluchistan), and Sinhalese (the speech eighth of the total population of the Dutch colonial of the southern half of the island of Ceylon). possessions (60,731,025), 7,591,378.

The Dravidian group includes twelve distinct French ngures include one-eighth of the total languages-Tamil, Telegu, Kanarese, Malayalam, population of the French colonial possessions (68,- Tulu, Kodagu, Tuda, Kota, Gond, Khond, Oraon, 480,000) 8,560,000.

and Rajmahal. These languages are spoken in the German figures include German-speaking citi- following regions or districts of India: Southzens of Switzerland, Yu oslavi and elsewhere. eastern, northeastern, northwestern, and southThe effect of the recent mass migrations in Po

western, the Malabar coast, Coorg (adjoining the land and other European States upon the languages Malabar coast), Nilgiri hills, Central India, Northof those peoples cannot be reliably computed. west Orissa, the Rajmahal hills of Bengal. Tamil is

The population of India including Feudatory spoken also in the northern part of Ceylon. States is reported as consisting of 370,500,000 per- The Mohammedan people of India numbering cons. The languages spoken have been classified as nearly 70,000,000 generally speak one language belonging to Aryan, Dravidian, Kolarian, and Hindustani or Urdu. The Mohammedans of EastTibeto-Burman stocks. No computation of reliable ern Bengal speak Bengali. In general, Arabic and character that shows the number of persons speak- Persian are known as classic languages to the Moing these languages is available for none has been hammedans of India, but are not spoken by them. or could be made.

Urdu or Hindustani, or Hindi with the addition of the stocks the Indo-Aryan group embraces the of Persian and Arabic words, written in the Persian Vedic, the earliest accessible form of Aryan speech character, originated after the Mohammedan conin India. From this, through the development of quest through official intercourse of Persian-speakgrammatical and phonetic studies, came a literary ing rulers with their Hindu subjects. A southern language-the Sanskrit, & word that signifies cor- variant of it is Dakhani. rectly or completely formed;" hence, cultivated or The Kolarian (50-called from the Kols of Bengal) polished. Thereafter followed Pali and Maharashtri, or Munda group consists of ten languages of which of Behar and Mahratta-dialects that were called the best known are the Santali (spoken by a tribe Prakrits, i.e., common, vulgar or derived (from the which inhabits the western frontier of Lower BenSanskrit). The chief Neo-Aryan languages of India gal) and the Mundari (spoken by the Mundas, are Bengali (Bengal), Uriya (Orissa), Hindi (Up- Bhumij. and Larka Kols). More than 2,000,000 per Provinces) with Punjabi and Nepali, the closely persons have been said to speak these languages. allied language of the Gurkhas, the ruling class of The Tibeto-Burman group has not yet been comNepal, Sindhi (Lower Indus), Kashmiri, Marathi, pletely surveyed. It has been divided by Cust to five Gujarati (the last of which is sometimes classed as geographical groups--the Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, & dialect of Hindi), Assamese (once considered a Manipur-Chittagong, and Trans-Himalayan dialect of Bengali), Brahut (one of the two lan- groups.

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