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Eastern position. The Nazis struck suddenly (May friendship pact with Germany four days before, 20) at Crete with a parachute invasion that routed remained neutral. Rumania, Hungary, Italy. Slothe British forces from the island in ten days. vakia

and Finland aligned themselves with In Iraq pro-Axis Ali Al Gailani had seized Germany against Russia. power. The British tried diplomacy to win him Berlin hopes for a quick victory were dashed. over and when it failed sent an army into the Fatalistic Red Army men died by the thousands country and restored the pro-British Government. in resisting just as their fathers had done in the German planes had landed in Syria on the way to 1914-1917 war. The Germans conquered Russian Iraq in the brief fighting against the British. The territory bigger than pre-war Germany but the British accused the Vichy Government of per conflict continued. In some places the Germans mitting the infiltration of German tourists, followed the route of Napoleon with offensives familiar German Trojan horse trick. The British against Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, the Ukraine and Free French drove into Syria and were forcing and Odessa. In two weeks the Germans were 355 the campaign to a successful close when Germany miles into Russia. Then the battle slowed against attacked Russia. Later, in August, while fighting the tough resistance of the Russians, was renewed was progressing between Germany and Russia, Iran and Kiev and Odessa fell with the Ukraine, the agreed to cooperate with Russia and Great Britain granary

of Russia. When the Germans reached the as their armed forces moved into the country. Rostov district (late in October) their forces were

Britain rallied quickly to the aid of the U. S. 1,000 miles inside Russia. The Germans continued S. R., and the United States pledged material their drive into Crimea, with the rich oil fields of assistance, Turkey, which had signed a ten-year the Caucasus their apparent goal.

Casualties in the War Casualties in the first two years of the war are prisoners and missing. To these figures are added estimated at more than 10,000,000, of whom 1,000 civilians killed and wounded in air raids. probably one-fourth have been killed and of the Greece said her soldiers killed 125,000 Italians and dead 250,000 are believed to be civilians. The captured 30,000. The rest of the Italian casualties wounded, captured and missing make up the rest

are credited to the British in the Libyan campaign. of the list.

The German High Command said its losses were Estimated casualties have ranged as

6,456--2,006 killed, 3,902 wounded and 548 missing high as 16,000,000 and as low as 7,000,000, but none

or prisoners. Military men raise the German of these figures included the heavy losses in the Balkan casualties to 20,000 with at least 5,000 Russian campaign late in 1941. Military specialists killed. were inclined to accept the higher figures in view Yugoslav losses in the 12-day campaign are of the Russian and German losses.

Axed by military men at 225.000, including 10,000 The losses by campaigns are gathered from of

dead, 15.000 wounded and 200.000 missing and ficial statements and from neutrals and military

prisoners. Civilian casualties are placed at 9,000 experts where official figures are lacking. These

but the figure is criticized as too low. The Yugo

slav Government said the civilian casualties were experts also have suggested changes in official

30,000. figures.

Greeks figured their losses at 60,000 killed and Poland-Germany admitted casualties of 44,303 wounded, but boasted that they had killed 15,000 in the Polish campaign which lasted three weeks. Italians. Military men approximate the Greek Polish losses ranged from 1,500,000 to 1,675,000. casualties at 20,000 killed, 45,000 wounded and Neutral estimates place the Polish dead at 250,000, 30,000 prisoners and missing-a total of 95.000. To wounded 675,000 and missing and prisoners at this figure are added 200 civilian dead and wounded, 500,000, of whom 300,000 surrendered to the while the Greeks say that these casualties were at Germans. Civilian casualties are lumped at 300,000, least 15,000, of whom 4.000 alone were children. Warsaw alone contributing 60,000. Neutral experts The British losses reached 12,982 killed, captured add 150,000 to the Polish civilian losses. Germany and missing in Greece and 12,790 in Crete. Half classified her losses in Poland as 10,572 dead, 30,322 of these losses were suffered by the Australians, wounded and 3,409 missing. Military experts ap- who counted 1,194 dead, and 11,345 missing nd praised Germany's losses at probably 100,000 with wounded. or the Australian losses 3,560 were at least 20,000 of these killed.

listed in Greece with 423 wounded being safely Norway--- In the four weeks campaign in Norway evacuated. Australian losses in Libya were apGermany admitted losses of 5,296, but once more proximately 800 with 300 at Tobruk. Fighting conmilitary experts added to the figures, rating the tinued in this sector after this appraisal. In adcasualties much higher. Norwegian losses are set dition to the Greek and Cretan losses the British at not more than 5,000 and the British at 1,579. suffered 3,578 casualties in Egypt, listed as 700 Civilian casualties in Norway approached 5,000. killed, 1,958 wounded and 1,920 captured. Norwegians also dispute the Berlin figure of the In the East African fighting the British losses German losses and say that at least 38,000 Nazis ranged to 1,030' killed and wounded. were killed and 30,000 more drowned in the 62 The Ethiopian campaign against the Italians did days of fighting. Military men incline to accept- not cost the South Africans more than 300 casualance of the Norwegian figures. The Germans ties, of whom perhaps 50 were killed. This gives a divided their losses as 1,317 dead, 1,604 wounded total British casualty list of 32,542, of whom 6,227 and 2,375 missing and prisoners.

were killed. Germany sets its losses in the camFrance-The big loser in the campaign in paign in Crete at 5,893--1,353 killed, 1,919 wounded Flanders which lasted 39 days was France with and 2,621 missing. British said the German losses admitted casualties of 1.975,000, but military men in Crete were 17.000-4.000 killed, 2.000 drowned. elevate the figure to 2,750.000. Vichy counted the and 11,000 wounded-out of an army of 35.000. The French dead at 125,000, wounded 250,000, missing Axis total losses are computed at approximately and prisoners (mostly prisoners) 1,500,000. Vichy | 278,372 with 28,752 killed, while the Allied casualalso gave its civilian casualties as 80,000 but mili- ties were 352,542 with 36,227 of that figure as dead. tary men scaled this total down to 50,000. Con- Russia-The heaviest casualties of the war have servative estimates placed the losses at 190,000 been incurred in the fighting on the Russian front. dead, 675,000 wounded, 1,500,000 prisoners and Fantastic and exaggerated claims have been issued missing for a total of 2,365,000, not including by Berlin and Moscow and military experts say civilian casualties of 65,000. Belgian losses were that it would be impossible for armies to have lumped as 7,500 dead, 15,853 wounded and 200,000 suffered the losses as reported by their foes, Berlin missing and prisoners-a total count of 226,803. reported (Aug. 7) that the Russian casualties had Military men accept the figure as accurate. The reached 4.000.000 and of these that 3,000,000 had Belgian civilian dead are placed at 13,505. The been killed. This total was boosted to 4,626,000 escape of 224,585 of the British Expeditionary two weeks later, coupled with the assertion that Force from Dunkirk kept the Empire losses down. 3,500,000 were dead or wounded and that 1,126,000 London reported 6,449 killed, 14,051 wounded and Russians were prisoners. The figure was hiked 46,639 prisoners or wounded-a total of 67,139. once more by Berlin to 5,000,000 Russians lost in This makes a total of 2,692,139 Allied casualties, two months of fighting and another million was of which 244,449 are dead. Germany gave its added (Oct. 14, 1941) to swell the total to 6,000,000 losses as 156,492, divided into 27,074 killed, 111,034 of whom half were said to be prisoners. Moscow wounded and 18,384 missing and prisoners, figures was ally extravagant with the lives of the accepted by military men.

Germans for it countered with a claim (Sept. 2) Africa and the Balkans-Italy suffered the that 2,000,000 Germans had been killed or wounded. heaviest losses of the five countries engaged in Thereafter Moscow kept pace with German reports the Albanian, African and Balkan campaigns. of Russian losses with additions to its list of Rome announced its losses as 257,708, but London German casualties. raised the figure to 582.000. Neutral experts figure Germany admitted that in two months of fight. the Italian losses in the three campaigns at 252,479 ing casualties had been 402,865, divided into 85,896 classified as 22,219 dead, 54,312 wounded, 175,948 / dead, 296,670 wounded and 20,299 missing. Early

in August Russia admitted losses of 600,000. A the October fighting in Russia where the German Turkish report at that time placed the Soviet losses by all accounts were heavy. losses at 700,000 while London said that 1.000.000 Neutral observers and military experts increase was nearer the correct figure. Neutral experts the German casualties to 2,637,000, including only estimate Russian losses at 2,500,000 with 405,000 a portion of the losses in the Russian campaign. killed. 820,000 wounded and 1,360.000 prisoners or Finland The losses of the Finns in their cammissing. These figures do not include the October paign against Russia are estimated at 100,000, Aghting around Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa perhaps slightly more: in the Army and civilian and in the south or the Russian losses (1939-1940) casualties are grouped at 6,000. The milltary in Finland.

casualties are divided into 28.500 killed. 65.000 Moscow reported (Oct. 24) that the German wounded and 6,750 prisoners or missing. Casualty losses in four months of fighting exceeded the lists put the Estonian military losses at 39,000: entire German losses in the World War which were Latvian 54,000 and Lithuanian 44,000.

Civilian 1,773.700 killed, 4,216,058 wounded and 1,152,000 losses in Estonia are estimated at 11,000, Latvia prisoners and missing. a grand total of 7,142,558. 17,000 and Lithua ia 8.000. Estonian military It is estimated by neutral experts that 36,000 casualties are divided dead 8.000; wounded 10,000 Russian civilians have been killed and 48,000 and missing 21,000; Latvian dead' 12,000, wounded wounded

14,000 and missing 28.000; Lithuanian killed 9,000, Berlin revised its casualty figures again (Nov. wounded 12,000 and missing 23.000. 7, 1941) and placed the Russian losses at between

Air Bombing-The bombing of cities has caused 3,000,000 and 8,000,000 killed, captured or other

thousands of civilian casualties, especially In wise put out of action. Premier Stalin admitted London, Warsaw, Rotterdam, Belgrade, Coventry. (Nov. 6, 1941) that the Russian losses were 1,748,

Berlin and Bremen. The foregoing civilian lists 000, divided into 350,000 killed, 378,000 missing and contain these losses, but the British, Russian and 1,020,000 wounded. Reichschancellor Hitler ele

German raids have caused thousands more. The vated the Russian losses to between 8,000,000 and

British Government announced civilian casualties 10,000,000, while Premier Stalin said the German as 94,830 dead, wounded and missing of whom casualties in four months were 4,500,000.

14,281 were killed and 20.325 injured (between The Soviet Information Bureau acknowledged

Aug. 8 and Oct. 1, 1940). Neutral experts figure (Nov. 25, 1941) Russian losses of 2,122,000 in killed,

British casualties (to Sept. 1, 1941) at 84,000, Histwounded and missing in five months of fighting.

ing 36.000 dead and 48,000 wounded. The same The losses were divided 490,000 killed, 1,112,000

authority estimated 3.900 civilians killed and 9,500 wounded, and more than 520,000 missing. The

wounded in Germany. Other sources place the Bureau at the same time put the German losses

German losses as high as 15.000 killed. Berlin at 6,000,000. The Bureau also acknowledged Rus

admitted 3,853 dead and 9,445 wounded (to Aug. slan losses of 7,900 tanks, 6,400 planes, and 12,900

29, 1941), guns. Against these were placed German losses of

British Empire-British military losses reported more than 15,000 tanks about 13,000 planes and

(to Aug. 1, 1941) were 133,598 of whom 32,787 were 79,000 guns.

dead. The Australians lost 13,729 of these, of

whom 1.194 were dead. Canadian losses were A week earlier Germany had set Russian casualties at 10,000,000, including 4,000,000 prisoners.

placed (Oct. 9, 1941) at 1,661 dead and missing.

including deaths from natural causes. South The German military losses are placed by Berlin Arfican losses were 300, of whom 50 were dead. It at 619,355 to which must be added 13,338 civilian is estimated that the Royal Air Force has suffered casualties in air raids. The Germans listed 128,218 casualties of 10.996, divided into 6,326 dead, 1.338 killed, 445,451 wounded and 67,596 prisoners or wounded and 498 prisoners. Of the dead 1,045 are missing. To this are added 3,853 civilian dead and recorded as natural as a result of service connec9,445 wounded in air raids. The military casualty tion. British naval casualties are recorded at figures include the campaigns on all fronts with 15,896, classified

as 5,747 killed, 7,323 missing. the exception of Africa where the German losses 3,566 wounded. 517

captured and 81 deaths laid to were slight. The figures, however, do not include natural causes.

The Battle on the Seas The British Navy entered the third year of the The British Navy also has been effective against war holding a comfortable edge in the Battle of the Italian Navy in the Mediterranean. Italian the Atlantic, and still dominating the Mediterranean

losses are listed as four 8-inch gun cruisers sunk, and other ocean battle zones. The widened zone

one doubtful; one damaged; three 6-inch gun of milltary operations extended the Navy's front

cruisers sunk and two to six damaged; 30, possibly from the Arctic throughout the North and South

more. destroyers and torpedo boats sunk, and an

undisclosed number of submarines. No Italian Atlantic, through the Mediterranean and around battleship is listed as sunk, but one was damaged the Cape of Good Hope to the Indian Ocean and

in the battle of Calabria early in the war, three the South Pacific. The Navy was compelled to were torpedoed at Taranto, one in the battle off concentrate its main strength on the lifeline" in

Cape Matapan and one salvaged, but out of comthe Atlantic to carry to Britain American supplies mission. and food,

The British report that more than 50 per cent The U-boats intensified their attacks early in of Italy's torpedo boats and destroyers are gone, 1941 but were forced to alter their strategy by the all the 10.000 8-inch gun cruisers are out of action combined action of the British and American fleets. or sunk. British sources also let it be known that The submarines were forced to prowl in packs of Italy has lost a third of her merchant fleet, more four and five bobbing up in the midst of convoys than 850.000 tons having been sent to the bottom and discharging their torpedoes.

of the Mediterranean and Red Seas in two years The toll of Allied and British shipping falling of war. prey to the U-boats showed a decrease in the It is estimated that more than 7,000,000 tons of second half of the year. President Roosevelt British and Allied shipping have been sunk in two ordered the Atlantic Fleet to patrol the vital ocean years. The British stopped giving out figures on traffic lanes and report the presence of German merchant losses in July, but at the time admitted air and sea marauders to British warships and that approximately 6,000,000 tons had gone down planes. Much of the danger to Atlantic convoys since the outbreak of the war. The number of from German surface raiders was minimized when

Allied ships sunk by the Axis through the end of the two pocket battleships Scharnhorst and Gnei- July, 1941, was put at 1,753 of which 1,078 were senau went to Brest for refitting and refueling late British, 334 Allied and 326 neutral with a comIn March and were trapped by the ceaseless bomb- bined tonnage of 7,118,122. Berlin asserted that ing of the British air force. These attacks put 13,088,283 tons of shipping had been destroyed in these ships out of action indefinitely. A third two years by the German Navy and Air Force. The Nazi cruiser was trapped in Brest after fleeing the tonnage lost by Germany, Italy and other countries full strength of the Atlantic fleet in pursuit of the allied to the Axis was estimated at more than ill-fated Bismarck,

4,000,000. The British Navy in two years of war lost 260 The records of the Associated Press showed that vessels, including two battleships, the Hood and the number of ships lost crossed the 2,000 mark the Royal Oak, two aircraft carriers, the Courageous (Oct. 25. 1941). These records showed that 2,004 and the Glorious, nine cruisers, 51 destroyers, 29 vessels-an average of about two-and-a-half ships submarines, 14 armed merchant cruisers, including a day-had been lost by 31 nations. The total lost the Jervis Bay. whose gallant battle against an tonnage, according to this record, reached 7.548.enemy ralder saved all but four vessels of a convoy 894. Accompanying the high toll to that date was of 38, and 153 mine sweepers, trawlers and drifters. a loss of 18.108 lives and 9.318 persons missing.

At sea the major German losses have been the Submarines, planes and warships accounted for Gral Spee and the battleship Bismarck, one air- 1.075 ships, the records revealed: mines for 252 craft carrier, two 8-inch gun cruisers. 15 destroyers and other or unknown causes for 677. and many submarines.

Britain has been the big loser. 875 of her naval and merchant vessels having been sent to the Official figures published in Vichy showed that bottom. Her allies, Norway and Greece, have lost the French merchant marine had lost about half 225 and 155. respectively, while the conflict has of its prewar tonnage since the beginning of the cost her enemies, Germany and Italy, 145 and 105 war. The losses were presented: sunk during the ships, respectively.

war, 300,00 tons; sunk since the armistice, 57.000 Sweden has been the hardest hit neutral, losing tons; seized by the British, 598,000 tons; blocked 118. While 11 United States-owned ship's have gone in foreign ports, 400,000 tons; a total of 1,355,000 down, only four have flown the American flag, the tons. The commercial fleet operating at the time rest sailing under the colors of Panama. Fifteen (Sept. 21, 1941) represented 1,516,000 with the ships of the latter registery have been sunk. French shipyards turning out new vessels.

The War in the Air The opening of the third year of the war found paign. And by mid-June the R. A. F. began an a complete change-about in the war in the air offensive against the invasion ports by day and the compared with the year before. The Battle of industrial sections of the Ruhr by night. Great Britain was nearing its peak in 1940 with

A heavy British raid at one time was assumed Luftwaffe hordes hurling themselves against a

to mean anything up to 300 planes participating.

but 1942 probably will see 500 or even 600 of the numerically inferior R. A. F. in almost incessant long distance bombers, many of them of American night and day'attacks. In 1941 the initiative had

manufacture, strafing the Reich in a single attack. passed almost entirely to the British. With June At the same time Britain has been warned to the air battle shifted some 60 miles or so to the expect a renewal of German attacks. eastward from Britain to Northern France and The air correspondent of the London Daily TeleGermany with heavy night and day raids, some- graph estimated (Oct. 1, 1941) that Germany had times with 400 or more planes participating. lost 16,000 planes which he estimated to be about

Some experts predict Britain will have nu- equal to German production for the last year. merical superiority in the air in 1942. One of the British losses were put at 3,100. This expert figures chief factors in the rise in British planes is that the R. A. F. will achieve actual parity 11 not American aid. From a trickle in 1940 the flow superiority in the air by the Summer of 1942. The of planes has become a steady and increasing London Times (July 17, 1941) puts German pilot stream, with indications that the flood of contracts losses at 18,750. placed in May and June, 1940, will begin arriving The Economist, the British financial Journal, before Spring.

put the value of property destroyed by German The fighting in Russia drew large numbers of air raids against England in the first two years German planes to the eastward. This left the of the war at $480,000,000. The estimate was based R. A. F. in practically uninterrupted possession of on the figures of a prominent insurance company the Western skies, able to attack German plane which revealed its losses to be 392 per cent on factories and other military objectives with slight. extensive real estate holdings in Greater London. if any, opposition. The Russian air force inflicted Since the damage in London had been more exheavy damage on the Luftwaffe. Neutral experts tensive than elsewhere The Economist set the per estimated the German losses at from 30 to 40 centage for the entire country at 2 per cent of the planes daily. Some experts doubt that Germany estimated real estate values of $24,000,000,000. can maintain a production of 1,000 planes monthly Herbert Morrison, secretary of Home Affairs, told after the factory damage caused by British raids. Commons (Oct. 23, 1941) that British civilian

The two heaviest blitz attacks on England were casualties in the first six months, ending Sept. 30, made in April and May of 1940. After the May 1941, were 13,381 killed, 13,182 wounded as com: raids, these attacks ceased, the Luftwaffe appar-pared with 8,180 killed and missing and 10,408 ently assembling its planes for the Russian cam- wounded during the same period in 1940.

Estimated Cost of the War Great Britain-In the 1941-1942 fiscal year rate of 65,000,000,000 to 70,000,000,000 reichmarks (March to March) expenditures in October ranged per year, including the 5, 00,000 reichmarks to $64,000,000 a day. These figures are taken from being spent for allowances to soldiers' families. Exchequer returns (Oct. 8, 1941). Expenditures, The many types of currency in Germany do not including defense in the first two years of the permit an accurate transition from marks into war, reached £5,668,000,000. (The value of the dollars and therefore it is impossible to get more pound is estimated at $4). The war service budgets than an approximation of war expenditures. One were (1939-1940) £1,049,189,000; (1940-1941) €1.408,- financial specialist figured that the war bill of 867,000; (1941-1942) £1,636,000,000.

Germany was running at the rate of $38,000,000 a Germany-According to an official statement by day and rising. the Ministry of Finance and analyzed in the France The German Army of Occupation costs Foreign Commerce Weekly (Nov. 15, 1941) of the France approximately 280,000,000 francs a day. United States Department of Commerce, the Reich's (The franc is valued at two-and-one-half cents). non-military expenditures amounted to 17,800,000,- The occupation cost levied against France was cut 000 marks in the fiscal year (1939-1940) and now 100.000,000 francs a day (Nov. 23, 1941) and made totals about 20,000,000,000 reichmarks a year. (The retroactive to May 10. The Petain regime allotted last available quotation on the mark (1940) put its the Army (1941) 13,000,000,000 francs and the Navy value at approximately 40 cents. Since then quo- 5,500,000,000 francs, and aviation 4,500,000,000 tations have not been available). This amount francs. compares with a civilian expenditure of 5,500,- Japan-The authorized military expenditures 000.000 reichmarks (1933-1934) the first year of (April 1, 1937 to March 1, 1940) were 24, 245,500,000 the National Socialist regime. The figure of yen. (The last available quotation on the yen 20,000,000,000 reichmarks includes, according to the (1939) put its value at approximately 25 cents). Ministry, "several billions of reichmarks" of ex- The percentage of national income devoted to millpenditures in territories that have been incorpo- tary expenditures was estimated at 26.1 (1939) and rated since 1933.

is said to have increased in 1940 and 1941. The only specific reference to the Reich's war- Russia- The 1941 defense fund amounted to 54,time expenditure made by the Ministry was a 000,000,000 rubles. (The ruble was valued at is statement to the effect that the payment of al- cents). lowances to wives and families of mobilized soldiers Italy-The Navy allottment (1941) was 5,500,would require a sum of approximately

5,000,000,000 000,000 lire: Army. 13,000,000,000 lire: aviation reichmarks during the 1941-1942 fiscal year. 4,500,000,000 lire. (The lira was valued at ap

Inasmuch the Reich will probably obtain 85.000,- | proximately 20 cents). 000,000 to 90,000,000,000 reichmarks from various The combined annual defensive and offensive revenues, including levies to cover cost of occupa- armament expenditures of the United States and tion, and borrowing during the current year, the the powers actually

in the war are estimated at figure for non-military expenditures of 20,000,000,- (1933-1937) $50,000,000,000; (1938) $20,000,000,000; 000 reichmarks leaves the implication that the 1939) $30,000,000,000; (1940) $45,000,000,000: (1941) actual cost of the war itself at present is at the $65,000,000,000.

U. S. Built Bomber Flies Atlantic in 712 Hours

The Brtish Ministry of Aircraft Production announced (Aug. 27, 1941) that a British Liberator bomber had made a flight across the Atlantic in seven and a half hours, averaging more than 300 miles an hour in subzero weather

The four-motor land bomber made the 2,350-mile trip at such high altitude that the crew wore oxygen masks. The outside temperature was 32 degrees below zero, but the navigator reported that the heated cabin was warm.

War Chronology, Dec. 1, 1940 - Nov. 30, 1941

1940-DECEMBER Dec. 1-German planes made another mass raid

on Southampton. British motor torpedo boats

attacked German patrol vessels and convoys. -The British submarine, Triad, is overdue and

rated as lost with 53 men aboard. Dec. 2-Fog and clouds kept German bombing

planes from London, but they shelled Bristol, There, as in Southampton on the two previous nights, many were killed and much property destroyed. British planes raided military targets from Norway to France. - In the Atlantic. west of Ireland, German submarines torpedoed eight merchant ships in British

convoys, Berlin said. -Roine announced that Italian raids on the British

naval base at 'Alexandria since Nov. 13 had resulted in the destruction of the French battleship Lorraine and the British destroyer Hasty, had set fire to two steamers, had destroyed a customs

house and had killed 200 persons. Dec, 3-In Albania, the Athens radio says, the

southern camp of Italy's Balkan colony east from the plains of Porta Edda is now under Greek control. Such Italian detachments as may still be in this vicinity, either intact or in broken units or individual soldiers, are said to be in

& trap. Dec. Athens reported that Greek troops occupied

Premedi, and the Italians were retreating from Porto Edda to Khimara, on the coast further north. In the Argyrokastron battle the Italians

were reported retreating to Tepelini and Klisura. -The Rumanian government seized all pipe lines

and accessories belonging to every oil company in the country, including American concerns, and announced that the property would be paid for

with 3 per cent bonds maturing in 25 years. Dec. 5-The House of Commons, 341 to 4, rejected

& peace conference proposed by a member of the Independent Labor party. - British planes raided Dusseldorf and Turin. -The German Prison Camp Administration an

nounced that Germany had 1,410,000 war prisoners, mostly French, British and Belgian, who were captured in the West, in 120 camps. Of this number 87 per cent were working and receiving wages equal to those of German workmen after . taxes and contributions Most Polish prisoners had been released, but several hundred thousand

remained in civil employment. -The Commissariat for Reconstruction in Belgium

stated in the 18 days of German military occupation, one-fifth of Belgium's 2,500 towns and villages escaped damage-9,832 houses had been razed, 24,156 severely damaged and 116,710 slightly damaged; 352 factories had been destroyed; more than 100 railway depots had been demolished and 1,455 bridges and tunnels had been blown up in the flight of the Allied forces

through Belgium. Dee. 6- The British auxiliary cruiser (recon

structed luxury liner) Carnarvon Castle was damaged in a fight with a German warship off

Brazil and put into Montevideo for repairs. -Marshal Pietro Badoglio resigned as Italian Chief

of Staff; Gen. Cesare M. de Vecchi quit as

Governor of the Dodecanese Islands. -The Greeks took Porto Edda in Albania. -Fighting was renewed near Sidi Barrani, Egypt,

where Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's invasion has been stalled for 3 months, 75 miles inside Egypt

from the frontier of Libya. Dec. 7- The Germans have completed a second

Westwall of concrete forts with guns to blast English coastal cities, ports and shipping along the conquered Channel coast. Deeper inland are airdromes from which reconnaissance planes take off to scout the enemy and report to German gunners the ranges of enemy ships in the Channel

and ports and cities. -Members of the Italian Armistice Commission

were killed when a military plane headed toward Rome from Turin crashed near Acqui. Among those killed were General-designate Pietro Pintor

and Air Squadron General Aldo Pellegrini. Dec. 8- The Greeks took Argyrokastron, which had

been made a part of the new State of Albania in 1913. -The German freighter Idarwald, which left Tampico, Mexico, with another German ship Nov. 29 in an attempt to run the British blockade, was attacked by a British cruiser south of

Cuba, but was scuttled by the crew Dec. 9- Britain, including London, passed a raid

less day and night. -In Egypt, in the Sidi Barrani area, the Italian

camp was attacked by the British by land and air. -Å Dutch submarine has been sunk and

2

Canadian destroyer damaged by German sub

marines. Dec. 10-Hungary and Yugoslavia signed an amity

pact. -Britain rejected a plan sponsored by former

President Hoover to send American food to the German-occupied nations of Europe, but said medical supplies would be permitted to pass the

blockade. -An official notice on the door of Pentonville

Prison in England gave first news that Jose
Waldberg, 25, and Karo Meier, 24, had been tried

by jury, convicted and hanged for espionage. Dec. 11-There was fighting on an increasing scale

in Egypt and the British claimed capture of the advance base of the Italians at Sidi Barrani, 75 miles inside the border. Gen. Pietro Maletti was

killed in action. Dec. 12– The Marquess of Lothian (Philip Henry

Kerr), 58, Birtish Ambassador to the United

States, died in the Embassy in Washington. -German planes raided London and Sheffield;

British planes shelled Mannheim, Calais and

Boulogne. Dec. 13-Greek forces occupied Palermo on the

Albanian coast. Dec. 14–Marshal Petain dismissed Pierre Laval as

Vice Premier of France. The office was abolished and ex-Premier Pierre-Etienne Flandin was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, in place of

Laval. --The 10,000-ton British freighter Western Prince

reported that she had been torpedoed 430 miles northwest of Ireland, with a cargo of war equipment; 16 lives were lost, including the Captain, John Reed, and Gordon Scott, ex-Treasurer of

Quebec. -President Roosevelt ended his Caribbean tour,

got off the warship Tuscaloosa at Charleston, S. C., and went to Warm Springs, Ga. His sea trip had taken him from Miami to Gauntanamo, Cuba, and thence to the British islands of Jamaica, St. Lucia, Antigua and Mayaguana, Bahamas, with a brief halt off Martinique to receive reports from the American naval observers there, - British planes raided Italian warships at Naples. -Italian forces evacuated Sidi Barrani in Egypt. Dec. 15-In both Albania and at the Egyptian

Libyan border, the Italians are being reinforced and are holding off attacks by enemy forces. British troops, breaking through the frontier defenses along the coast, had advanced into Libya up as far as the zone of Bardia, eight miles from the border. Fighting is taking place along a triargle-shaped front extending 20 miles between

Solum, Fort Capuzzo and Bardia. Dec. 16—The British occupied Solum in Egypt, and

Capi.220 in Libya. -In Albania, Greeks and Italians fought in a

blizzard. -British planes bombed Berlin for the first time

in 19 days and said they hit a subway line.

Marsailles and Mannheim also were raided. Dec. 17-Italian troops are fighting in Libya on

their own lines of defense, with the bulk of

Marshal Graziani's army behind them. Dec. 18-Italian planes raided Port Sudan, on the

Red Sea. There was a further retirement in Libya of some of the Italian forces toward Derna,

150 miles from Bardia. - German submarines sank three merchant ships

in the British Atlantic service. The freighter Napier Star, 12, 196_tons. went down 650 miles west of Ireland. The Norse tanker Daltonn, 9.860 tons, and the Netherland tanker Pendrecht. 10.746 tons, were both torpedoed 450 miles west of Ireland. - Maintenance of the German occupying forces is

costing France an average of 400,000,000 francs a day, which has been met so far by increases in the Bank of France paper circulation equivalent

to the amount advanced to the treasury. Dec. 20— The Office for Production Management for

Defense was set up by President Roosevelt, to direct and speed all material aid short of war'' for Great Britain and the democracies. The new council will have, besides Willias S. Knudsen as director, Sidney Hillman as associate director, and Secretaries Stimson of the War Department and Knox of the Navy Department as members. Hillman is head of the National Amalgamated

Clothing Workers. -German planes attacked Chelmsford, England,

where roller bearings for planes are made. -British agencies placed with American yards an

order for sixty 10.000-ton freight ships. -The French submarine Siax and the French navy

tanker Rhone were torpedoed and sunk Dec. 20

off Casablanca, Morocco, by unidentified sub- Jury, St. Andrew, near the Gundnan; St. Andrew marines.

by the Wardrobe, in Queen Victoria st., St. Mary -In the Mediterranean, the Italian submarine, Aldermary, St. Stephen's, in Coleman st.; St.

Serpente, sank the British light cruiser Archeron Vedest's, in Foster Lane; St. Anne and St. Agnes, with 149 missing. five killed, 15 wounded.

Gresham st.; Christ Church, Greyfriars and St. Dec. 21-British planes damaged the Protestant Mary Woolnoth, Lombard st. The building hous

Cathedral in Berlin. German aviators again ing the Associated Press, in Tudor st., was burned bombed Liverpool at the rate of one every two

out by incendiary bombs. The Old Bailey Central minutes. They also ranged along the Mersey Criminal Court was damaged, and the roof was River and South Wales.

blown off the home of Dr. Samuel Johnson in --An official spokesman of the German Foreign

Gough Square, oft Fleet st., and the garret in Office stated that Britain's Minister of Shipping

which he finished his dictionary was burned. was "inciting America to commit a warlike act"

Dec. 31-In a radio broadcast from Berlin, Chanagainst the Axis in having suggested, in a press

cellor Hitler prophesied Germany would win the conference, that the United States assign to war in 1941. He said: "The war must be conBritain the German and Italian ships tied up in

tinued as a result of the will of democratic warU. S. harbors.

mongers and Jewish capitalists. The representa-The U. S. tanker, Charles Pratt, laden with

tives of a breaking world believe that they may 5,000,000 gallons of oil, was sunk in the Atlantic,

achieve in 1941 what they were unable to do in off Africa, by a German submarine.

1940." He declared it was a dumb and inDec. 22-King George appointed Viscount Halifax

famous lie to maintain that Germany and as British Ambassador to the United States.

Italy wanted to conquer the world "while the Anthony Eden was made Secretary of State for

actually existing world conquerors require war Foreign Affairs, and Capt. David Margesson

in order to realize higher interest on their became Secretary of State for War.

capital." -British planes raided oil stores and port facilities

There were no reprisal raids on New Year's Eve. at Wilhelmshaven, Cologne, Mannheim, Brest,

1941-JANUARY Ostend, Calais, Flushing. Antwerp. Rotterdam and Lorient; the Bergen-Oslo railway was hit Jan. 1-British and German planes made reconand one squadron crossed the Alps to bomb Porto naissance flights but there was a minimum of Malghera, near Venice.

bombing. - Marshal Graziani reported to Premier Mussolini Jan. 2-Rome announced that a large unit of the that the Italian offensive against the Suez Canal

German air force had been transferred to Italy, had been delayed at the beginning of December and that virtually all Italian air force units by a lack of water and that the later reverses

previously stationed in France to aid in the were caused by lack of mechanized equipment.

bombing of Britain had been recalled. -Two spies found responsible for revealing to

--Lord Beaverbrook, British Minister of Aircraft Britain the presence of the Italian warships at Production, stated that U.S. bombers were being Taranto on the night of Nov. 11 were shot to

flown across the Atlantic "in a steady stream.' death in Rome; 22 others went to prison. -Dublin announced that bombs were dropped in Dec. 23-From London (where his own Parliament the eastern counties of Ireland (Eire) and that office recently had narrowly missed destruction "an incendiary bomb picked up near Curragh by a German explosive bomb that wrecked was identified as German." Cloister Court) Prime Minister Winston Churchill --German planes bombed the coal region in South appealed by radio to the Italian people and their Wales. British planes again attacked Bremen, King to get rid of Premier Mussolini, the "one Emden and Amsterdam. man" who had arrayed the heirs of ancient Rome upon the side of "the ferocious pagan

Jan. 3—British, Australian and French (deGaulle)

forces in Libya attacked the Italian Mediterbarbarians." -Manchester was bombed again by German planes,

ranean port of Bardia and got a quarter of the also the aluminum foundry in Ft. William in

defenders. The rest, in all exceeding over 20,000 North Scotland. Deaths total 500 in the series

men, surrendered after 20 days of siege. of Manchester raids.

In Vichy, former Foreign Minister Paul Baudoin

resigned as adviser to Marshal Petain. The civil administration of Alsace, in German

-German planes showered Bristol, England, with ocupied France, announced completion of ex

thousands of incendiary and explosive bombs. pulsion of persons regarded as unsuited for

-By & German decree, Jews in Czechoslovakia incorporation in the region's new order. Dec. 24-The million Londoners who live under

must sell all jewels, gold and plate ware to a

public purchasing agency. They also must deground, in the subways and in the basements of

posit all securities with the Division Bank within lofts and office buildings, had Christmas Eve

a week. The order applies also to jewels and celebrations. No theatres were open. In down

holdings left by Jews now living elsewhere. town London these signs were displayed at eventide: "Christmas is 1.940 years old, and Hitler

Jan. 5-German planes dropped incendiary bombs

on London, but as they fell the newly organized is only 51. He can't spoil our Christmas'.

civilian "spotters" snuffed them out and shouted Dec. 25-Christmas Day was free from air raids by German and British planes in Western

in defiance at the planes overhead, "We want

more!" Europe, but planes were active as usual in Albania and Northeast Africa. British planes Jan. 6-President Roosevelt, in his annual mesdropped Christmas gifts to the children on the sage to Congress on the state of the Union, Island of Corfu.

delivered in person, reminded the members that Dec. 26—The unofficial air truce between Germany

"a dictator's peace would bring "no security and Britain continued. Mists covered the English

to the United States, and that "those who would Channel and the North Sea.

give up essential ilberty to purchase & little --The British beef-refrigerator, 12,823-ton mer- temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor

chant motorship Waistiro wirelessed that she safety." had been torpedoed by a submarine several hun

Jan, 7-Australian and British forces captured the dred miles off the Irish coast.

Italian airdrome at El Adem, 15 miles south of Dec. 27-Air attacks by British and German planes Tobruk in Libya, and began á siege of the latter

Mediterranean port. The British say they have were renewed. -A cruiser shelled the Island of Nauru, former

taken in their Libyan campaign 70,000 prisoners. It

-German planes have damaged the British broadGerman colony now under British mandate.

casting headquarters in London and the Westis between Australia and Hawaii.

minster headquarters of the Church of England. Dec. 28-A law decreeing death penalties for ex

The first explosion shattering Broadcasting House treme cases of food hoarding or destruction of

brought death to "several women" but failed to prime materials and agricultural products be

interrupt news broadcasts, including one in came effective in Italy,

German, then going out. -The British submarine Seal, captured by the President Roosevelt set up a four-man Office of

Germans last May, has put to sea, this time with Production Management--William S. Knudsen, a German crew against the British.

Sidney Hillman, Secretary of War Stimson, and Dec, 29-President Roosevelt in a world-wide radio Secretary of the Navy Knox. They are to super

broadcast urged the American people, including vise the rearmament program, The Executive labor and Congress, to stand by him in his Odrer stated that the Director General and Assoproposal to furnish Britain with arms. planes ciate Director General, Knudsen and Hillman, and ships. He declared that the Axis would would serve under the direction and supervision

attack the United States 11 Britain were defeated. of the President." -Italy established a food dictatorship.

Jan. 8-The U. S. Navy was reorganized (effective Dec. 30-German planes made the severest attack Feb. 1) by Secretary Knox into three feets

to date in the war on London. Among the his- Atlantic, Pacific, Asiatic with the Commandertoric buildings_wrecked in the square-mile area in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet also acting as Comof the City Proper were the Guildhall, the mander-in-Chief of the U. S. Fleet and prescribChurches of St. Bride's in Fleet st., St. Lawrence ing standards and methods of training for all

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