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The Minimum Wage Law in New York State

Source: New York State Department of Labor A minimum wage law was passed by the New | sufficient to provide adequate maintenance and to York State Legislature and approved by Governor protect health, (2) the value of the service or Lehman (April 27, 1937). Its enactment followed class of service rendered, and (3) wages paid in the decision of the United States Supreme Court of the state for like or comparable work. March 29, 1937, reversing its stand in the Adkins After public hearing on the report of the wage case and upholding the minimum wage law of the board the Industrial Commissioner may, if he is State of Washington.

not satisfied, refer the matter to the same wage The act, entitled “Minimum Wage Standards board or a new one, or he may approve the report for Women and Minors,” states, "It is the declared and issue a directory wage order and administrapublic policy of the State of New York that women tive regulations. If the Commissioner has reason to and minors employed in any occupation should re- believe that any employer is not observing the proceive wages suficient to provide adequate main- visions of such order, he may, after a hearing. tenance and to protect their health."

cause the name of such employer to be published. The law empowers the Industrial Commissioner If at any time after a directory wage order has to investigate wages paid to women and minors in been in effect for three months, non-observance of any occupation, except domestic service in the such order threatens the maintenance of the minhome of the employer or labor on a farm, and, if, imum wage standards, the Industrial Commissioner on the basis of information in his possession, with may, after public hearing, make such order mandaor without a special investigation, the Com- toryViolation of a mandatory wage order is a missioner is of the opinion that & substantial num- misdemeanor. Any employee who is paid less than ber of women or minors in such occupation receive the wage established by a mandatory order may wages insufficient to provide adequate maintenance recover in a civil action the full amount due him. and to protect health, to appoint a wage board Any employer discriminating against an employee which shall recommend minimum wage rates for for giving testimony or serving on a wage board women and minors in such occupations.

is guilty of a misdemeanor. The wage board is composed of not more than 3 Provision is made for reconsideration and review representatives of employers, an equal number of of the minimum wage standards after a wage order representatives of employees and not more than has been in effect for six months. 3 disinterested members representing the public. Minimum wage orders covering approximately Within 60 days it shall submit a report recom. mending minimum wage standards for women and

165,000 women and minors are in effect in the minors in the occupation or occupations under laundry, beauty service, confectionery, cleaning consideration. In setting minimum wage standards and dyeing, restaurant and hotel industries. (June, the board may take into account (1) the amount 1941.)

New York State Labor Relations Act

Source: New York State Department of Labor Chapter 443, effective July 1, 1937, and known zation, or between labor organizations affiliated as the N. y. State Labor Relations Act, is modeled with the same parent organization. upon the National Labor Relations Act. The State The Act includes in unfair labor practices, such Act applies particularly to industries in intra- infringement upon the rights of employees as disstate commerce, excepting from its applications charge or refusal to hire, or discrimination in reemployers and employees admittedly subject to the gard to any condition of employment because of National Labor Relations Act or the Federal membership or activity in any labor organization, Railway Labor Act. Employees of the State, refusal to bargain collectively or discuss grievances municipality or other governmental agency, chari-with employees' duly selected representatives, astable, religious or educational organizations, do-sisting in the formation or contributing to the supmestic servants and farm laborers are also port of any company union, interference with selfexempt.

organization, spying upon employees' activities, The Act affirms the rights of employees to self- blacklisting, discharge for exercising rights conorganization, to form, join or assist labor unions, ferred by or giving information or testimony under to bargain collectively with representatives of their

the Act. own choosing, free from interference, restraint, or In cases of alleged unfair practices, the Board coercion of employers. It makes the representa- can hold hearings, subpoena persons, records, tives selected by the majority of the employees the etc., and take testimony. If violations are proved, exclusive bargaining agency in respect to condi- the Board can serve cease and desist orders upon tions of employment. Employees may at any time the employer and may take further action, such present grievances to employers directly or through as ordering reinstatement of employees discrimrepresentatives.

inated against by the unfair labor practice. PetiThe State Labor Relations Board is authorized tion to the State Supreme Court is allowed to to decide the appropriate unit for collective bar- the Labor Relations Board for enforcement of its gaining, as employer, craft or plant unit; pro- rulings and to the employers for appeal from the vided that, where the majority of employees of a Board's decisions. Interference with the activiparticular craft shall so decide, the Board must ties of the State Labor Relations Board or with designate such craft as the appropriate unit. It employees' exercise of their rights in an election may also conduct investigations, hearings and of representatives is penalized elections, if necessary, to ascertain proper repre- The Board reported it was instrumental in sentatives. Individuals hired for the duration of settling about 117 strikes, involving approximately a strike are barred from participation in elections. 1,946 employees, during 1940. For the 4-year period Company unions cannot be listed on ballots. since the establishment of the Board in July, 1937.

The Board cannot intervene in controversies it was instrumental in preventing or settling over between persons or groups within a labor organi-900 strikes involving 72,000 employees.

Average Weekly Earnings in Factories in New York State

Source: New York State Department of Labor. Includes all employees in both office and shop
Month 1928 1929 1930

1931
1932

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 Jan.. $29.21 $29.71 $29.80 $27.01 $24.35 $20.96 $22.79 $23.92 $24.82 $26.69 $25.96 $26.82 $27.74 Feb. 29.16 29.99 29.46 27.44 24.02 20.95 22.761 24.11 24.80 26.90 26.35 27.02 27 54 March. 29.64 30.35 29.90 27.96 24.14 20.73 23.39 24.62 25.21 27.78 26.46 27.65 28.11 April 28.79 30.07 29.44 27.35 23.36 21.02 23.34 24.36 24.83 27.97 25.86 26.84 27 44 May.

29.19 30.03 29.101 26.96 22.59 21.49 23.38 24.05 24.88 27.92 25.56 26.68 27.77 June 29.48 30.02 28.96 26.34 22.2021.95 23.24 24.04 25.01 28.00 25.71 27.05 28 13 July 29.15 29.80 28.50 26.39 21.82 22.34 23.12 23.93 25.25 27.81 25.99 27.09 28.18 Aug 29.38 30.09) 28.59 26.33) 21.92 22.481 23.43 24.52 25.79 28.09 26.50 27.52 28.67 Sept. 29.72 30.47 28.94 26.16 22,50 22.87 23.24 24.83 25.19 27.41 27.16 27.16 29.11 Oct. 29.78 30.08 28.03 25.34 22 55 22.52 23.02 24.68 25.75 27.24 26.88 27.80 29.00 Nov. 29.62 29.54 27.42 24.99 21.74 22.25 22.92 24. 24 25.68 26.12 26.27 27.72 28.94 Dec. 30.12 29.75 27.52 24.74 21.62 22.43 23.63 25.02 26.84 26.36 26.90 28.19 30 09 Av.for yr. $29.44 $29.99 $28.81 $26.42 $22.73 $21.83 $23.19 $24.36 $25.34 $27.36 $26.29 $27.29 $28.40

Average for-(1915) $12.85; (1916) $14.43; (1917) $16.37; (1918) $20.35; (1919) $23.50; (1920) $28.15; (1921) $25.72; (1922) $25.04; (1923) $27.24; (1924) $27.68, (1925) $28.26; (1926) $29.02(1927) $29.30.

Unemployment Insurance in New York State

Source: New York State Department of Labor The Unemployment Insurance Law of the State ployer under a retirement, sickness, or accident of New York (Article 18 of the Labor Law) became disability plan, effective January 1, 1940, are not effective April 25, 1935, and on January 24, 1936, it

wages to be used as a basis for benefit payment. was approved by the Social Security Board under

Exemptions under the Law include: employers of the provisions of Title IX of the Federal Social

agricultural labor as defined in the Law (ampliSecurity Act which had not been enacted until

fied by 1941 amendments); employers of spouse or

minor child; non-profitmaking religious, scientific, August 14, 1935.

charitable, literary, and educational bodies; New Employer contributions to the unemployment York St es munic corporations and other Insurance Fund became assessable January 1, 1936, at the rate of 1 per cent of insured payrolls during caddy (effective March 21, 1940); employment as

governmental subdivisions; employment as a goll 1936, and at 2 per cent during 1937, and at 3 per & part-time worker of any person actually in regucent during 1938 and 1939. By a 1940 amendment lar attendance during the day time as a student in to the Law, the contribution rates for 1940 and an institution of learning (effective April 26, 1940); thereafter were reduced from 3 to 2.7 per cent. As

and (after June 30, 1940) employment covered by required by the Social Security Act, all monies collected under the New York State Unemployment National banks and other Federal instrumentalities

the Federal Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. Insurance Law are deposited with the Secretary of except those wholly owned by the United States or the Treasury in an Unemployment Trust Fund, those exempt from the Federal Unemployment Tax subject to requisition by the State Division of Act were brought under the coverage of the Law as Placement and Unemployment Insurance for the of January 1, 1940. payment of benefits as provided under the State Benefits are payable according to a fixed schedule Law. Contributions are payable quarterly and in the Law. Benefits range from a minimum of $7 must be accompanied by detailed payroll reports. to a maximum of $15 a week at $1 intervals. DuraSince January 1, 1938, contributions were payable tion of benefits is limited to 13 weeks within the on the first $3,000 of wages of all workers in the benefit year. The base year (during which wages employ of covered employers.

are earned determining eligibility) is the calendar Employers not subject to the Law may become year immediately preceding the beginning of a voluntarily insured for an initial two-year period benefit year. A new benefit year begins each April and for one-year periods thereafter with the con- 1. The waiting period covers three weeks, which sent of the Industrial Commissioner. Both subject need not be consecutive. and non-subject employers are required to keep If "reasonably fitted" by training and experience, accurate records of wages paid to each employee. eligible claimants must accept offered employment By a 1941 amendment to the Law employers who unless its acceptance include joining a company fail to comply with the demand to furnish state- union, quitting a labor union, working in an estabments not previously submitted-on individual lishment where an industrial controversy exists, employee's earnings are subject to a penalty of working for substandard wages or under sub$3.00 with respect to each employee and to each standard conditions, or working at a place so calendar quarter involved, not to exceed $500 with remote from home that expenses of travel are subrespect to any calendar quarter. Once subject, an stantially greater than that required in his former employer ceases to be subject only after a finding employment unless the expense is provided for. An by the Industrial Commissioner that he has not employee may also refuse employment for “good within any 15 days in the preceding calendar year cause, but, whatever may be the cause for refusal employed four or more persons in employment of employment, benefits are not paid if the cirsubject to the Law. An employer who has become cumstances show that the employee has withdrawn subject to the Law and fails to notify the Industrial temporarily or permanently from the labor market Commissioner of such fact within six months is (1941 amendment of the Law). subject to a penalty in the amount of 100 per cent A 1941 amendment to the Law provides a penalty of accrued earnings not to exceed $500 nor to be for workers who voluntarily leave their employless than $50 for each calendar year (effectivement without good cause. Another amendment, in April 17, 1941).

effect September 29, 1941, provides for a suspension Employment of four or more persons within each of accumulation of benefit rights rather than an of 13 or more calendar weeks in the years 1935 and extended waiting period for loss of employment 1936 made employers subject to the Law on and due to a strike, lockout, or other industrial conafter January 1, 1936. Employment of four or troversy. The same amendment makes provision more persons within each of fifteen or more days for reduction of benefits in cases of wilful false within any calendar year after December 31, 1936 statement or representation to obtain benefits. makes an employer subject to the Law on and after Provision is made in the Law for hearings by the first of the fifteen days within which such Referees on disputed points with regard to benefit employment occurs.

claims or with regard to determinations affecting Employees of New York or out-of-State employees employers' contributions. Appeal may be made are eligible to apply for benefits in New York if from the decisions of the Referees to the Appeal the major part of their base-year employment was Board and then, on question of law, to the courts. in New York State; or, in case the work was not It is estimated that approximately 4,700.000 perconfined to any one State, if some of their employ- sons worked in covered employment during 1940. ment was in New York and the base of operations At the

beginning of 1940, the Unemployment Insurwas in New York; or if the base of operations or ance Fund totaled $177,912,009; net contributions place from which service is directed is not any deposited during the year were $127,069,116; inState in which some part of the service is per- terest credited amounted to $4,651,847; benefits paid formed, but the individual's residence is in New during the calendar year totaled $98,798,082; and York State. Tips, bonuses, vacation pay, and other transfer of $6,857,977 to the Railroad Unemploygratuities are wages on which contributions must ment Insurance Account (Federal) was effected be paid; dismissal wages, except under special cir- during the year. This left a balance on hand of cumstances, are not. Payments made by an em- $203,976,913 at the end of 1940.

Public Assistance in New York State

Source: State Department of Social Welfare Public assistance in New York State consists of Home relief expenditures for the year totalled the home relief program-including veteran relief- $112,128,243. A monthly average of 266,615 cases financed by state and local fånds, and the three received this form of assistance.

Old age assistance granted to a monthly average special types of assistance in whose financing the

of 118,523 persons in 1940 totaled $36,939,716. Federal Government participates-old age assis

An average of 35,706 families received a total of tance, aid to dependent children, and assistance to $19,784,271 under the aid to dependent children the blind.

The distribution of Federal surplus program during the same year. commodities, an additional form of relief, is carried Assistance to the blind, covering an average of out in conjunction with the public assistance 2,838 individuals per month, amounted to $880,450 program

in 1940. During the calendar year 1940, a monthly average Administrative costs for the whole public asof 423,682 persons received public assistance total- sistance program are 12.7 percent of the total ing $169,732,680. Of this amount 36.0 percent was expenditures (for assistance and administration) from state funds, 50.2 percent from local funds, of which 0.5 percent represents the cost of state and 13.8 percent from federal funds.

supervision.

Places

Urban

Rural

Population of N. Y. State—Urban and Rural: 1790 to 1940

Source: United States Bureau of the Census; minus sign (-) denotes decrease
The state
Urban places

Rural territory Pct. tot.
Census
Increase over

Increase over

Increase over year Popula- precd. cens. Popula- precd. census Popula- precd. cens. tion

tion

tion Number Pct.

Number Pct.

Number Pct. 1940. 13,479.142 891,076 7.1 203 11,165,893 643.941 6.1 2,313,249 247.135 12.0 82.8 17.2 1930 12,588.066 2,202,839 21.2 196 10.521,952 1.933.366 22.5 2,066,114 269,473 15.0 83.6 16.4 1920. 10,385,227 1,271,613 14.0 169 8.588,586 1.400.455 19.5 1.796,641 - 128.842 - 6.7 82.7 17.3 1910.. 9,113,614 1,844,720 25.4 149 7,188,131 1,890,020 35.7 1,925,483 45,300 -2.3 78.9 21.1 1900. 7.268,894 1.265,720 21.1 122 5,298,111 1,387,833 35.5 1.970,783 - 122,113 - 5.8 72.9 27.1 1890. 6,003,174 920,303 18.1 117 3,910,278 1,041,749 36.3 2,092,896 - 121,446 - 5.5 65.1 34.9 1880. 5,082.871 700,112 16.0 98 2,868,529 679,074 31.0 2.214,342 21,038 1.0 56.4 43.6 1870. 4,382,759 502,024 12.9 881 2.189,455 665,111 43.6 2,193,304 - 163.087 - 6.9 50.0 50.0 1860

3,880,7351 783,341 25.3 311 1,524,344 650,930 74,52.356,391 132,411 6.0 39.3 60.7 1850. 3,097,394 668,473 27.5 16 873,414 402,148 85.3 2,223,980 266,325 13.6 28.2 71.8 1840. 2,428,921 510,313 26.6 10 471,266 184,648 64.4 1,957,655 325,665 20.0 19.4 80.6 1830. 1,918,608 545,796 39.8 9 286,618 125.622 78.0 1,631,990 420,174 34.7 14.9 85.1 1820. 1,372,812 413,763 43.1 7 160,996 39.508 32.5 1,211,816 374,255 44.7 11.788.3 1810.

959.049 369,998 62.8 5 121,488 46,731 62.5 837,561 323,267 62.9 12.7 87.3 1800.

589,051 248,931 73.2 4 74,757 35,544 90.6 514.294 213,387 70.9 12.7 87.3 1790. 340, 1201 3 39,2131

300,907

11.5 88.5
POPULATION OF NEW YORK STATE, URBAN AND RURAL: 1890 TO 1930

Iac. 1920-30
Class

1930

1920 1910 1900 1890

(Apr. 1) (Jan. 1) (Apr. 15) (June 1) (June 1) No. P. ct. Urban,

10,521,952 8,589,8447.185,494 5,298,111 3,899,737 1,932, 108 22.5 Urban-farm 14,483 17.793

--3,310 -18.6 Rural.

2.066.114 1,795,383 1,928,120 1,970,783 2.103.437 270.731 15.1 Rural-farm. 706,446 782,954

-76,508) --9.8 Rural-nonfarm. 1,359,668 1.012,429

347,239 34.3 Per cent urban.

83.7 82.7 78.8 72.9 65.0 Per cent rural.

16.4

17.3 21.2 27.1 35.01 Per cent rural-farm..

5.6

7.5
Urban groups:
Cities of 100.000 or more'. Number

7
6

5
Population 8,404,778 6.807,810 5,646,249 4,060,571 2,711,204 1,596,968 23.5
Citles of 25.000–100,000 .. Number 16

16

16
Population 800,121 755,097 685,322 396,462 442,324 45,024 6.0
Places of 10.000-25,000. Number 47

36
30
28
22

11 Population 730,349 540,139| 439.571 458,937 346,523 190,210 35.2 Places of 5,000–10,000 . Number

41
30
25
26
30

11
Population 277,831 200,606 162,373 184,029' 221,375 77.225

38.3 Places of 2.500-5,000 .. Nurnber

85
81
72
56
49

4
Population 308,873 286,192 251,979) 198,112 178,311 22.681 7.9
Rural Incorporated places:
Places of 1.000-2,500.... Number 146

144
150
145
118)

2 1.4 Population 228,791 229.086 235,197 231,521 183,412 -295 -0.1 Places under 1,000..... Number

254
221
201
192 155

33

14.9 Population 135,139 117.791 117,097 114,205 96,036 17,348 14.7 Other rural territory.... Population 1,702.184 1,448,506 1.575,826 1.625,057 1.823.989 253.678 17.5 Total

(12,588,066 10.385,227 9,113,614 7,268,89416,003,174 2,202,839) 21.2
Farms in New York State How Owned

Source: United States Bureau of the Census
Full Part

Full Part
County
Owners Owners County

Owners Owners
Farms Farms

Farms Farms
Albany

1,731
195 Niagara,

2.774

506 Allegany 2,230 350 Oneida

3,647 513 Bronx

0 Onondaga

3,427 472 Broome.

2,371
181 Ontario.

2,161 363 Cattaraugus.

3,172
378 Orange

2,367 386 Cayuga

2,463
Orleans

1,436 241 Chautauqua.

4,309

624
Oswego

3,780 228 Chemung.

1,193

114
Otsègo.

3,018

301 Chenango. 2,804 201 Putnam

222

29 Clinton

2,240
156 Queens

83

9 Columbia

1,782
145 Rensselaer.

2,307 155 Cortland.

1,359
209 Richmond

68

5 Delaware.

3,153
195 Rockland..

267

21 Dutchess,

1,431
174 St. Lawrence

4,698

360 Erie..

4,451
728 Saratoga

2,231 126 Essex.

1,399
53 Schenectady

764

77 Franklin 2.257 149 Schoharie.

1,979

193 Fulton

1.153
79 Schuyler.

894

115 Genesee.

1,719
340 Seneca

930

232 Greene 1,347 160 Steuben

3,341 519 Hamilton

233
6 Suffolk

1,393

513 Herkimer

1.806
145 Sullivan

2,435

132 Jefferson.

2,913
312 Tioga

1,721

252 Kings.

16
3 Tompkins

1.540 248 Lewis,

1.886

85
Ulster.

2,884

125 Livingston. 1,299 367 Warren

977

19 Madison

2,129
303 Washington

2,463

180 Monroe.

3,111

415
Wayne

3,256

391 Montgomery

1,328
Westchester.

348

29 Nassau.

345
103 Wyoming

1.806

360 New York

lYates.

1.118 189

[graphic]
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Housing Units (Families) in N. Y. State, 1940

Source: United States Bureau of the Census.
Occu-
Occu.

OccuCounty Total pied County Total

pied

County Total pied The state. 4,033,540 3,662,618 Genesee

12,524
11,861 Rensselaer.

38,158 34,442 Urban 3,279,922 3,055,710 Greene.

10,503 8,203 Richmond. 48,831 43.059 Rural 753,618 606,908 Hamilton.

2,552 1,188 Rockland

18,855 16,484 Pct. urban. 81.3 83.4 Herkimer.

18,985 16,425 St. Lawrence.. 25,333 23,060 Counties

Jeferson..

26,951 23,115 Saratoga... 20,594 18.262 Albany 66,641 62,611 Kings.

762,764 717,121 Schenectady 37,233 35,243 Allegany 12,309 11,190 Lewis 6,666 5,980 Schoharie.

7,661 6,118 Bronx 395,366 377,947 Livingston 11,287 9,522 Schuyler..

4,195 3,743 Broome. 46,940 43,730 Madison.. 12,767 11,272 Seneca

7,062 6,352 Cattaraugus, 21,469 19,872 Monroe.

127,775 121,091 Steuben.

25,543 23,580 Cayuga.. 20,317 18,063 Montgomery 17,337 16,500 Suffolk

75,627) 47,644 Chautauqua. 40,5371 35,981 Nassau. 123,506 108,099 Sullivan

23,543 10.783 Chemung 21.752 20.578 New York 617,433 548,383 Tioga

8,522 7.913 Chenango. 11,672 10,389 Niagara. 44,532 42,040 Tompkins.

13,405 12,354 Clinton. 12,730 11,859 Oneida. 57,446 52,816 Ulster.

30,966 24,765 Columbia 14,191 11,714 Onondaga. 85,658 80,634 Warren

13, 214

10,351 Cortland. 10,564 9,696 Ontario.

16,968 14,872 Washington, 14,050 12,371 Delaware.

13.379
11,415 Orange.
43,138 36,970 Wayne.

16,664 15.017 Dutchess. 31,833 28,537 Orleans.

8,774 7,956 Westchester. 161,280 147,774 Erie... 219,608 208,869 Oswego. 21,957 19,555 Wyoming

9,664 8,311 Essex 10,418 8,710 Otsego.. 15,919 13,491 Yates

6,285 4,949 Franklin. 12.251 11,188 Putnam

7,968 4,431 Fulton. 17.254 14,652 Queens,

394,214 361,517 of the 4,033,540 dwelling units in New York on that is, in incorporated places having 2,500 inhabiApril 1, 1940, 294,879 or 7.3 percent were vacant tants or more: and 18.7 percent were in rural and for sale or rent (these representing the com

areas. Only 6.4 percent of the urban dwelling

units were vacant and for sale or rent, as commercially significant vacancies), while 3,662,618

pared with 11.1 percent of the rural units. dwelling units were occupied by households enu

Dwelling units vacant and for sale or rent merated in the population Census at their usual

formed 7.3 percent of all dwelling units in New place of residence. The remaining group of 76,043 York City and 3.4 percent in Buffalo, the two units (representing roughly the remainder of the cities with the largest population in the state. units shown as vacant in the preliminary release) The number of occupied dwelling units reprewas made up for the most part of vacant units sents approximately the number of private housebeing held for absent households, though it in- holds in the respective areas and may be compared cluded also a few units temporarily occupied by roughly with the number of private families shown nonresident households, that is, by households in the Census Reports for 1930. Such a compariwhich reported that their homes were located else- son shows that the number of private households where. Seasonal as well as ordinary dwelling units increased approximately 16.2 percent, as contrasted are included in all of these figures.

with the 7.1 percent increase in population between Dwelling units that were vacant, uninhabitable, 1930 and 1940. This is explained by the fact that and beyond repair were not included in the Hous- the average size of family in New York has deing Census. The figures do include vacant dwelling creased considerably since 1930, as it has throughunits that were uninhabitable at the time of the out the country. The average number of persons enumeration, but which were not beyond repair. in the populatin per occupied dwelling unit in

of the total number of dwelling units in New 1940 was 3.68 for the State as compared with an York, 81.3 percent were located in urban places, average population per family of 3.99 in 1930.

3,153, 124 FAMILIES IN NEW YORK STATE, 1930 Counties No. Counties No.

Counties

No. Counties No. Albany 55.697 | Franklin. 10,663|| Oneida. 48,472 Schuyler..

3,721 Allegany 10.673 | Fulton. 13.216|Onondage 73,708 Seneca

6,225 Bronx 321,270 | Genesee. 11,141 | Ontario 14,332 Bteuben,

22,580 Broome 36,342 || Greene 7,530 Orange. 32,859 Suffolk,

38,189 Cattaraugus 18,891 |Hamilton..

989|| Orleans.
7.907 Sullivan.

9,669 Cayuga 17,203 | Herkimer. 16,479 Oswego. 18,380 || Tloga

7,330 Chautauqua 33,936 | Jefferson.

22,365|| Otsego.
13,488 Tompkins

11,518 Chemung 19,638 Kings.. 616,875 Putnam.

3,435 Ulster.

21,798 Chenango 9.840 Lewis.. 5,948 Queens

280,064
Warren

9,404 Clinton 10,309 || Livingston.. 9,235 Rensselaer.

31,897 Washington.. 12,032 Columbia 11,057 |Madison. 11,224 Richmond, 35,789 Wayne.

14,105 Cortland.

8.771
Monroe...
106,829 Rockland..

13,671 Westchester.. 122,657 Delaware. 11,162 ||Montgomery. 15,303 St. Lawrence.. 22,417 Wyoming..

7,814 Dutcbess. 25,200 || Nassau 75,192 Saratoga.

16,561
Yates

4,907 Erle

184,520 || New York. 468,956 Schenectady. 31.891 Essex. 8.100|| Niagara. 35,960|| Schoharie.

5,790 Totai. | 3,153,124

[graphic]

The Insane in New York State
Source: Horatio M. Pollock, Statistician, State Department of Mental Hygiene
Total
Per

Total

Per June

100,000
June

100,000 30

30
Males Fem'les! Total
Pop.
Males Fem'les! Total

Pop. . 1920. 19,515 21,265 40,780 390.0

1931.

29.665 28,657 58,322 447.6 1921. 20,182 21,922 42,104 397.2 1932.

31,156 29,865 61,021 458.3 1922. 20,921 22,310 43,231 402.4 1933.

33,108 31,172 64,280 472.3 1923. 21,323 22,618 43,941 403.6 1934.

34,965 32,540 67.505 485.5 1924. 21,961 23,106 45,067 408.6 1935.

36,124 33,943 70.067 493.4 1925. 22.667 23,858 46,525 413.6 1936.

37.696 35.538 73,234 505.2 1926. 23,385 24,129 47,514 411.6 1937.

39,419 36.944 76,363 516.3 1927 24,702 24,966 49,668 419.5 1938.

40,907 38,282 79,189 524.9 1928. 26,180 26,157 52,337 431.3 1939

42,683 39.860 82,543 536.7 1929 27.630 26,961 54,591 439.2 1940

44,108 41,198 85,306 637.6 1930 28,674 27,737 56,411 444.0 1941

45,870 43,393 89,263 664.2 State hospitals for non-criminal insane, as of River (Poughkeepsie), Kings Park, Manhattan Sept., 1941- Binghamton, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cen- (Ward's Island), Marcy, Middletown, Pilgrim tral Islip, Creedmoor (Queens Village), Gowanda, (Brentwood, L. I.), Rochester, Rockland (Orange(Helmuth), Harlem Valley (Wingdale). Hudson burg), St. Lawrence (Ogdensburg), Utica, Willard.

[graphic]

University of the State of New York

Source: New York State Department of Education Regents of the University with year when terms (1946); Gordon Knox Bell, N. Y. City (1944). expire:

President of the University and Commissioner of Chancellor, Thomas J. Mangan, Binghamton Education--Ernest E. Cole (term expires June 30, (1943); Vice Chancellor, William J. Wallin, Yon- 1942). kers (1945); Christopher C. Mollenhauer, N. Y.

Deputy Commissioner --Lewis A. Wilson. City (1947); John Lord O'Brian, Buffalo (1948);

Associate Commissioners-George M. Wiley and

J. H. Miller. Susan Brandeis, N. Y. City (1949); Roland B.

Assistant Commissioners-J. Cayce Morrison, Woodward, Rochester (1950); William Leland

Milton E. Loomis, Herman Cooper, Lloyd L. CheThompson, Troy (1951): Grant C. Madill, Ogdens- ney, Alfred D. Simpson. Director of State Library, burg (1952); W. K. Macy, Islip (1953); George H. R. W. G. Vail. Director of State Museum, Charles Bond, Syracuse (1942); Owen D. Young, N. Y. City C. Adams. State Historian. Arthur Pound.

George D. Stoddard was chosen in 1941 to succeed President Cole in 1942.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE EMPIRE STATE; OFFICIAL FIGURES
Daily Teach-Teach'rs Total Val. of

Daily Teach-Teach'rs Total Val, of Yr. Attend.

ers Wages Expend. Schools Yr. Attend. ers Wages Expend. Schools $1,000 $1,000 $1,000

$1,000 $1,000 $1,000 1900 857,488 31.768 19,219 33,421 81.768 1931 1.911,215 77,488 193,483 369,035 857,258 1905 960,433 36,115 26.563 47,804 121.713 1932 1.958,164 79,494 199,820 377,281 903,272 1910 1,118,073 41,999 34,802 50,665 183,017 1933 2,005,832 78,491 194,149 343,455 892, 452 1915 1.288,047 47,881 46,690 71,016 202,717 1934 2,014,439 78,512 185,461 315,188 895,289 1920 1.361,600 54.165 70,710 108,597 273.9811935 2,006,795 78,947 186,800 329,182 903,613 1925 1.651,126 64.321 134,323 283,506 524,530' 1936 2,002,645 80,159 193,707 351,823 922,132 1926 1,684,595 66,434 140,930 257,672 577.396 1937 1,998,909 81,657 197,217 375, 176 953,138 1927 1,726,772 68,716 148.870 294,312 624,605 1938 1,985,214 82,454 209,023 391.976 992,975 1928 1,768,364 70,849 162,183 324,406 671.255 1939 1,960,946 82,392 202,296 393,841 1,026,930 1929 1,801,530 73.218 176,147 376,071 737,948 1940 1.919,684) 80,553 209,727 402,444 1,062,320 1930 1,866,241 75.511! 186.062 391,417 805,645

Expenditures excluding moneys from the sale of bonds and certificates of indebtedness were since 1931: (1931) $318,666,977; (1932) $337,749, 152; (1933) $322,396,309; (1934) $309.834,631; (1935) $314,970,661; (1936) $325,994,476; (1937) $334,889,510; (1938) $354,109,166; (1939) $347,775,704; (1940) $357,637,229

Births, Deaths, Marriages, with Rates, in New York State

6.8

Source: New York State Department of Health

Rates per 1,000 Pop.
Year
Estimated
Mar-

Deaths Pct. of Population Births Deaths (Cal.)

riages

Under Deaths
July 1

Persons
Births Deaths

Married

5 Years Under 5 1920

10,496,881 235,460 144,466 112.843 22.4 13.8 21.5 29,584 20.5 1921.

10,719,968 240.210 130.110 103,657 22.4 12.1 19.3 25,021 19.2 1922 10.945,595 231,363 138,942 100,986 21.1

12.7
18.5

25,535 18.4 1923. 11,170,343 230,889 141,107 111,817 20.7

12.6 20.0 22,537

16.0 1924

11.394,071 233,839 140.181 106,819 20.5 12.3 18.7 22,459 16.0 1925 11,618,199 230,350 142,549 109,579 19.8 12.3 18.9

20.803 14.6 1926 11.822,836 223.819 151,350 114,817 18.9 12.8 19.4

22,105 14.6 1927.. 12.026.673 228,134 141.006 112,836 19.0 11.7 18.8

18.108 12.8 1928. 12,231,003 223,070 151,593 107,796 18.2 12.4

17.6

19,845 13.1 1929. 12.434.947 217.634 154,034 114,644 17.5 12.4 18.4

17,633

11.4 1930.. 12,609,280 216,556 147.424 109,938 17.2 11.7 17.4 16.366

11.1 1931, 12.698.888 206.238 149,219 107,172 16,4

11.8 16.9 15,886 10.6 1932. 12,788,890 198,195 147.639 101.216 15.5 11.5 15.8

13,601 9.2 1933..

12,879,593 187.295 148,290 106,912 14.5 11.5 16.6 13,250 8.9 1934.

12,968.623 185,709 149.192 122,876 14.3 11.5 18.9 12,154 8.1 1935. 13,056, 490 184.424 148,433 128,460

14.1 11.4

19.7

11.414 7.7 1936.

13.144.883 181.921 153,498 142,036 13.8 11.7 21,6 10,740 7.0 1937..

13,234,316 186.391 154.034 135,425 14.1 11.6 20.5 10,509 1938.

13,323,137 189.675 147.101 107,977 14.2 11.0 16.2 9,513 6.5 1939.

13,411.866 188,247 149,388 104,820 14.0 11.1 15.6 8,902 6.0 1940.

13,501.465 197,424 150.187 132.501 14.6 11.1 19.6 8,699 5.8 Still births (of which there were 5,785 in 1940) are not included in the above table.

DEATHS, CHIEF CAUSES, NEW YORK STATE (Rates per 100,000 Population)

Pulm.Tuber Pneumonia Cardio Vasc. Bright's Cancer Diphth. Suicide Year (Cal.) D'ths Rate D'ths Rate D'ths Rate D'ths Rate D'ths Rate D'ths Rate D'ths Rate 1921. 9,503 88.6 10.645 99.3 36.594 341.4 9,481 88.4 11,163 104.1 1,702 15.9 1,442 13.5 1922 9,394 85.8 14,229 130.0 39,598 361.8 10,018 | 91.5 11,706 106.9 1,454 13.3 1,440 13.2 1923. 9,462 84.7 14.086 126.1 41,451 371.1 10.034 89.8 12.257 109.7 1.008 9.0 1,479 13.2

9,222 80.9 13,930 122.3 42.922 376.7 9,518 83.512,791 112.3 1,083 9.5 1.520 13.3 1925 9,162 78.9 13,571 116.8 43,370 373.3 10,171 87.5 13,201 113.6 1,001 8.6 1,664

14.3 1926 9,095 76.9 16.666 141.0 46.750 395.4 11,040 93.4 13,613 115.1 727 6.1 1.635 13.8 1927 8,435

70.1 12,267 102.0 45.069 374.7 9,432 78.4 14,331 119.2 980 8.1 1.856 15.4 1928 8.667 70.9 15.519 126.9 48,550 396.9 9.608 78.6 14.709 120.3 863 7.1 1.932

15.8 1929 8.516 68.5 15,433 124.1 50,491 406.0 9,473 76.2 15,144 121.8 656 5.3 2,135

17.2 1930. 8,146 64.6 12.908 102.4 48,487 384.5 9,719 77.1 15,588 123.6 342 2.7 2.345 18.6 1931 7.833 61.7 13,590 107.0 49,931 393.2 9,419 74.2 15,989 1 25.9 281 2.2 2,503 19.7 1932 7,354 57.5 12,636 98.8 51,113 399.71 9,848 77.0 16,344 127.8 270 2.1 2.711 21.2 1933 7,192 55.8 12,134 94.2 51,657 401.1 10,179 79.0 17,003 132.0 151 1.2 2,357 18.3 1934 6.983 53.8 11.224 86.5 54,356 419.1 10.946 84.4 17,698 136.5 134 1.0 2,216 17.1 1935 6,847 52.4 11.018 84.4 55,109 422.1 10,374 79.5 18,600 142.5 102 0.8 2,180 16.7 1936 7.047 53.6 11.514 87.6 58,912 448.2 10,175 77.4 19,189 146.0 64 0.5 2.088 15.9 1937. 6,829 51.6 11,368 85.9 59.964 453.1 9,809 74.1 19,618 148.2 80 0.6 2,122 16.0 1938 6,042 45.3 8,337 62.6 60,111 451.2 9.229 69.3 20,307 152.4 38 0.3 2,253 16.9 1939. 5.998 44.7 7,434 55.463,477 1473.3 8.779 65.5 20.792 155.0 32 0.2 2,207 16.5 194).. 5,793 42.9 6,143 45.564,987 481.3 8,861 65.6 21,384 | 158.4 15 0.11 2.188

16.2 Homicide deaths-(1931) 795; (1932) 764; (1933) 738; (1934) 647; (1935) 593; (1936) 521; (1937) 502; (1938) 433; (1939) 407.

Deaths from alcoholism---(1905) 576; (1910) 990; (1915) 782; (1925) 878; (1930) 1,078; (1931) 1,100; (1932) 839; (1933) 828; (1934) 592; (1935) 534; (1936) 564, (1931) 513; (1938) 412; (1939) 433.

1924.

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