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The Capitol at Washington The Capitol building in Washington, D. C. is sandstone from quarries on Aquia Creek, Va. The situated on a plateau 88 ft. above the level of the original designs were prepared by Dr. William Potomac River and covers an area of 153,112 sq. ft., Thorton, and the work was done under the direcor approximately 312 acres. Its length, from north tion of Stephen H. Hallet, James Hoban, George to south, is 751 st., 4 ins.; its width, including ap- Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. proaches, is 350 ft.; and its location is described The north wing was finished in 1800 and the as being in latitude 380 53' 20.4" north and longi- south wing in 1811. A wooden passageway contude 770 00' 35.7" west from Greenwich. Its height nected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of above the base line on the east front to the top of both wings was destroyed by fire, set by the British. the Statue of Freedom is 287 ft., 592 ins. The dome The damage to the building was immediately reis built of iron, and the aggregate weight of ma- paired. terial used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. In 1818 the central portion of the building was

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is commenced, under the architectural superintendof bronze and weighs 14,985 pounds. It was modeled ence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building by Thomas Crawford, 'father of Francis Marion was finally completed in 1827. Its cost, including Crawford, the novelist, in Rome, and the plaster the grading of the grounds, alterations, and remodel shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze pairs, up to 1827,

was $2,433,844.13 at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg The corner stone of the extensions was laid on Road, near Washington. The cost of the casting the 4th of July, 1851, by President Fillmore, Daniel and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, Webster officiating as orator. This work was proseand the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster cuted under the architectural direction of Thomas model. It was erected and placed in its present V. Walter till 1865, when he resigned, and it was position Dec. 2, 1863.

completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at The material used in the walls is white marble one time a part of Cern Abby Manor, and at an

from the quarries at Lee, Mass., and that in the early date were occupied by a subtribe of the columns from the quarries at Cockeysville, Md. Algonquin Indians known as the Powhatans, whose

The House extension was first occupied for legislacouncil house was then located at the foot of the tive purpose Dec. 16, 1857, and the Senate Jan. 4, hill. By subsequent purchase of ground at the

1859. north of the Capitol and at the west of the new

The House office building was begun in 1905 House Omce building the area of the grounds have and occupied on Jan. 10, 1908; later, a story on been increased to 13972 acres.

top was added. The Senate Office building was The Rotunda is 97 ft. 6 ins. in diameter, and its started in 1906 and occupied on March 6, 1909. height from the floor to the top of the canopy is

The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the 180 ft., 3 ins.

Senate structure, $5,019,251. The Senate Chamber is 113 ft., 3 ins., in length

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: by 80 it., 3 in., in width and 36 ft. in height. The dependence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Sur

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Ingalleries will accommodate 682 persons. The Representatives' Hall is 139 ft. in length by render of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va.,

George

Washington Resigning His Commission as Com93 ft. in width and 36 ft. in height. The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the bull. Also temporarily displayed until permanently

mander in Chief of the Army, all by John TrumSupreme Court, was, until 1859, occupied as the located is the scene at the Signing of the U. S. Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court Constitution by Howard Chandler Christy. occupied the room immediately beneath, now used Baptism

of Pocahontas, by John G. chapman; as a law library.

Landing of Columbus, by John Vanderlyn; DisThe Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 covery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by rooms are devoted to office, committee, and storage william H. Powell; Embarkation of the Pilgrims, purposes. There are 14,518 sq. ft. of skylights, 679 by Robert W. Weir. windows, and 550 doorways.

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire The dome receives light through 108 windows,

Takes its Way, by Emanuel Leutze; First Reading and from the architect's office to the dome there of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis are 365 steps, one for each day of the year.

Bicknell Carpenter. The southeast corner stone of the original build- In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William ing was laid Sept. 18, 1793, by President Washing-H. Powell; Battle of Chapultepec, by James ton, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of I Walker.

National Statuary Hall The National Hall of Statuary, formerly the Hall of the United States House of Representatives, in the Capitol at Washington, was established by Congress July 2, 1864, and contains the following:

Alabama - Gen. Joe Illinois Frances E. Mississippi -- Jefferson Rhode Island — Roger
Wheeler.
Willard.
Davis.

Williams.
Arkansas-Uriah M. Indiana - Gen. Lew

Missouri-Thomas H. South Dakota - GenWallace. Rose.

Benton.

eral Wm. Henry HarriIowa--S. J. Kirkwood. Arizona-John Camp

Nebraska Williamson Beadle.

Kansas John J. bell Greenway.

Jennings Bryan.
Ingalls.

South Carolina-John California Junipero Kentucky

New Hampshire-Dan-c.. Calhoun.
Henry

iel Webster.
CI
Serra.

Tennessee John
New
Louisiana-Huey Pierce

Jersey-Richard

Sevier.
Connecticut Roger
Long.

Stockton.
Sherman.

Texas Samuel HousMaine Hannibal New York-Robert R. Delaware-Caesar Rod-Hamlin.

Livingston

Vermont-Ethan Allen, ney. Maryland Charles North Carolina-Zebu

Virginia - Robert E. Florida-John Gorrie, Carroll.

lon B. Vance. Massachusetts

Lee.
Georgia-Alexander H.

Ohio-William Allen.
Samuel Adams.

West Virginia Francis Stephens

Michigan-Lewis Cass.

Oklahoma-Sequoyah. H. Pierpont.
Idaho - George

L.
Minnesota-Henry M. Pennsylvania - Robert

Wisconsin-Robert M.
Shoup.
Rice.
Fulton.

La Follette. LOCATIONS OF STATUES OTHER THAN IN STATUARY HALL In the Hall of Columns (Street Floor, House In the Small Vestibule North of Statuary Hall Wing). Alabama-J. L. M. Curry. Arkansas- are: New York-George Clinton. Pennsylvania James P. Clarke. California-Thomas Starr King. J. P. G. Muhlenberg. Texas-Stephen F. Austin. Florida-E. Kirby Smith, Illinois-James Shields.

In the Vestibule Fronting the old Supreme Court Indiana-Oliver P. Morton. Iowa-James Harlan. Room are: New Hampshire-John Stark. Rhode Kansas-George W. Glick. Massachusetts-John Island-Nathanael Greene. Winthrop. Michigan-Zachariah Chandler. Mis

In the Senate Connection are: Delaware-John sissippi-James z. George. Missouri --Francis P.

M. Clayton. Blair

Georgia-Dr. Crawford W. Long. Nebraska-J. Sterling Morton. New Jersey

Maryland-John Philip Kearny. North Carolina Charles B

Kentucky-Ephraim McDowell. Aycock. Vermont-Jacob Collamer.

Hanson.

West Virginia-John E. Kenna.

In the House Connection are: ConnecticutIn the Rotunda are: Ohio-James A. Garfield. Jonathan Trumbull. Maine-William King. South Tennessee Andrew Jackson. Virginia-George Carolina-Wade Hampton. Oklahoma-Will RogWashington.

ers. Wisconsin-James Marquette.

ton.

NEW YORK STATE STATISTICS

Population by Counties

Source: United States Bureau of the Census.

516

71

County

1940
1930 1 1920 1910 1900 1890

Sq. M.

1930 New York State.

13,479,142 12.588.066 10,385,227 9,113,614 7,268,894 6,003,174 47,654 Albany

221.315 211,953 186.106 173.666 165,571 164,555 Allegany

527 39,681 38,025 36,842 41,412 41,501 Bronx.

43,240 1,047 1,394,711 1.265,258 732,016) Broome

165,749 147,022 113,610

78,809
69.149 62,973

705 Cattaraugus 72,652 72,398 71,323 65,919

65,643 60,866 1,343 Cayuga.

65.508 64.751 65,221 67.106 66,234 65.302 Chautauqua

703 123,580 126,457 115,348 105,126 88,314 75,202 Chemung

1,069 73,718 74.680 65,872 54,662 54,063 48,265 407 Chenango

36.454 34,665 34,969 35,575 36.568 37.776 894 Clinton

54,006 46,687 43,898 48,230 47,430 46,437 Columbia

1,049 41,464 41,617 38.930 43,658

43,211 46,172 Cortland,

644 33,668 31,709 29,625 29,249 27,576 28,657 Delaware.

503 40,989 41.163 42,774 45,575 46,413 45,496 1,449 Dutchess

120,542 105.462 91,747 87,661 81,670 77,879 806 Erle.

798,377 762,4081 634,688 528,985 433,686 322,981 1,034 Essex

34,178 33.959 31,871 33,458 30.707 33,052 Franklin

1.836 44,286 45,694 43,541 45,717

42,853 38 110 1,678 Fulton

48,597 46,560 44,927 44,534 42,842 37,650 Genesee

44,481 44,468 37,976 37,615 34,561 33,265 496 Greene

27.926 25,808 25,796 30,214 31.478 31,598 643 Hamilton

4,188 3,929 3,970 4,373 4,947 4,762 1.700 Herkimer

59,527

64.006) 64,962 56.356 51.049 45,608 1.450 Jefferson

84.003 83,574 82,250 80,382 76,748 68,806 1.274 Kings,

2,698,285 2.560,401 2,018,356 1,634,351 1,166,582 838,547 Lewis

22,815 23,447
23,704 24,849 27,427 29.806

1,270 Livingston

38,510 37,560 36,830 38,037 37,059 37.801 631 Madison.

39.598 39,790 39,535 39,289 40,545 42,892 650 Monroe..

438,230

423,881 352,034 283,212 217,854 189,586 663 Montgomery

59,142

60,076 57,928 57,567 47,488 45,699 398 Nassau

406.748
303.053 126.120 83,930 55,448

274 New York

1,889,924 1,867.312 2,284, 10312,762,522 2,050, 600 1,515,301 Niagara

160,110 149,329 118,705 92,036 74,961 62,491 Onelda

203.636 198,763 182.833 154,157 132.800 122,922 1,250 Onondaga

295. 108 291,606 241,465 200.298 168,735 146.247 781 Ontario

55,307

54,276 52,652 52,286 49,605 48,453 Orange

140.113

130,383 119.844 116.001 103,859 97,859 834 Orleans

27,760
28,795 28,619 32,000 30,164

30,803 396 Oswego

71,275 69,645 71,045 71,664 70,881 71,883 966 Otsego

46,082

46,710 46,200 47,216 48.939 50,861 1,009 Putnam

16,555

13,744 10.802 14,665 13.787 14,849 233 Queens.

1,297,634 1,079,129

469,042 284,041 152,999 128,059 108 Rensselaer

121,834

119,781 113,129 122.276 121,697 124,511 663 Richmond

174,441

158,346 116,531 85,9691 67,021 51,693 57 Roekland

74.261

59,599 45,548 46,873 38.298 35,162 183 St. Lawrence

91.098

90,960 88.121 89,005 89,083 85,048 2,701 Saratoga

65.606
63,214 60,029 61.917

61,089 57,663 823 Schenectady

122,494

125,021 109,363 88,235 46,852 29,797 206 Schobarie

20,812
19,667 21,303 23.855 26,854 29,164

642 Schuyler

12,979

12,909 13,098 14.004 15,811 16,711 336 Seneca

25,732

24.983 24.735 26.972 28.114 28,227 336 Steuben

84,927

82.671 80,627 83.362 82,822 81,473 1,398 Suffolk

197.355

161,055 110.246 96,138 77,582 62,491 920 Sullivan,

37,901

35,272 33.163 33.808 32,306 31,031 1,002 Tioga

27.072

25,480 24,212 25.624 27,951 29,935 520 Tompkins.

42.340

41,490 35,285 33,647 33,830 32,923 476 Ulster ..

87,017

80.155 74,979 91.769 88.422 87,062 1,137 Warren

36,035

34.174 31,673 32,223 29,943 27.866 876 Washington

46.726

46,482 44,888 47,778 45,624 45,690 837 Wayne

52.747 49.995 48,827 50.179 48,660 49.729 599 Westchester

073,558 520.947 344,436 283,055 184.257 146,772 448 Wyoming

31,394 28.764

30.314

31.8801 30,413 31,193 601 Yates..

16,381 10,848 16,641 18,642 20,318 21,001 343 In 1940 the land area of New York state was 47,929 square miles, as against 47,654, (1880-1930).

22 522

[blocks in formation]

Brief History of New York State

Source: The Legislative Manual New York State, one of the thirteen original chosen head of the American forces, until he bade states of the Union, was named in honor of the farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern, New Duke of York, and is commonly referred to as the York City, on December 4, 1783. It was in New "Empire State.” Visited by Verrazano in 1524, and

York State that he received the Declaration of Infirst explored by Henry Hudson and Samuel de dependence; here he planned some of his most

important campaigns; here he proclaimed the Champlain in 1609, it was settled by the Dutch in

cessation of hostilities; here he declined a kingship 1624. After forty years as the Dutch province of

and wrote some of his most

masterful state papers. New Netherland, it was conquered by England in Here on April 30, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York 1664 and then renamed New York. Existing as an

City, he took the oath of office as the first PresiEnglish province for over a century, it declared its dent of the United States. independence of Great Britain on July 9, 1776. George Clinton, following an election in June, The colony of 180,000 persons has developed during 1777, ordered by the Council of Safety created by the past 150 years into the most populous state in the Convention of the Representatives of New the Union, with 12,588,066 inhabitants, when the York, was declared elected first Governor of the Federal census was taken in 1930.

State of New York July 9, 1777. He was opposed New York's first Constitution was adopted on by three candidates: John Jay, Philip Schuyler and April 20, 1777, and George Clinton was declared John Morin Scott. Not only was he elected Gov. elected the first Governor of the State on July 9,

ernor but also Lieutenant-Governor; the latter 1777. New York State was in many ways the office he declined. principal battleground of the Revolutionary War. He was inaugurated as Governor July 30, 1777, Out of the three hundred and eight skirmishes and

at Kingston, N. Y. According to historical records, engagements, no less than ninety-two were fought the ceremony was memorable though not ostenon New York State soil. The Battle of Saratoga, tatious. Standing on the same upturned barrel in cited as one of the decisive battles of the World, front of the Kingston Courthouse from which the made possible the crowning victory at Yorktown. New York State Constitution had been read and The British evacuated New York City on November proclaimed April 22, 1777, Governor Clinton in the 25, 1783. The Constitution of the United States uniform of a Brigadier-General of Militia, took the was ratified by New York State on July 26, 1788. oath of office as the first Governor of the State of New York City became the first capital of the New York. The unsheathed sword he held in his Federal Republic, and there George Washington, upraised hand was perhaps mute token that the after being inaugurated as the first President, lived Governor was determined to be faithful and ef. for one year and four months.

ficient in his other vital responsibility--that of The name of George Washington is linked with Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the New York State's early history on many occa- State. On the same day, the Council of Safety sions. He first visited New York in 1756. Except- proclaimed Clinton as Governor-General and ing the year 1777, he lived in New York State & Commander-in-Chief of all the Militia, and Adportion of each year from 1775, when he was miral of the Navy of the State.

EARLY CHRONOLOGY, NEW YORK STATE 1609 Champlain enters New York from Canada; Hudson enters New York Bay. 1614--Fort Nassau built on Castle Island below Albany: the “Onrust" launched; Amsterdam merchants

given & trading charter for "New Netherland." 1620-Puritans refused right to settle in New Netherland. 1626– Minuit arrives as the first "Director-General of New Netherland;" Manhattan Island bought for

$23; block house and palisades built and called Fort Amsterdam. 1653- City government at Manhattan, earliest within U. S.; "Remonstrance" of the eight towns called

at New Amsterdam. 1664 --New Netherland granted to the Duke of York by Charles II; Popular Assembly called; New

Netherland surrenders to the English. 1665—Duke's Laws' promulgated by Nicolls, first English Governor of New York; powers of taxation

in Governor and Council. 1673-Dutch recapture New York; first postal service in America. 1674-By treaty England regains New York; Andros appointed Governor. 1679—Indian slavery abolished; Fort Niagara built by La Salle, 1683—Dongan made Governor first elected representative Assembly called; "Charter of Liberties"

granted; ten counties created within present New York. 1686--New York and New England consolidated (dissolved in 1689); City of Albany incorporated, Peter

Schuyler first Mayor. 1690--First Continental Congress at New York City. 1693-First printingpress in the colony; Episcopal Church established in the colony. 1731- French build fort at Crown Point: boundary with Connecticut settled. 1732-Public free school in New York city. 1738-Jews disfranchised. 1765-Stamp Act passed; "Sons of Liberty" organized; Stamp Act Congress at New York city. This

act was repealed in 1766. 1775-Delegates sent to Second Continental Congress; temporary State government established by First

Provincial Congress; Crown Point and Ticonderoga captured: Canadian expedition fails. 1776-Declaration of Independence read to troops; New York ratifies the Declaration of Independence; Battle of Long Island (August 26-29); British capture New York (Sept. 15); Nathan Hale executed;

naval combat on Lake Champlain. 1771–First State Constitution adopted; State government organized; George Clinton elected as first

Governor.
1782—New York transfers her western lands to the nation.
1783-Washington refuses crown at Newburgh; treaty of peace signed; New York city evacuated by the
1781-State Legislature meets in New York city: Continental Congress removes to New York city.
1787-Constitution of the United States formed: Act disfranchising Tories repealed.
1788—New York adopts the Constitution of U.S. (July 26); Representatives to Federal Congress elected.
1789 - Washington inaugurated at New York city (Apr. 30); Schuyler and King chosen as first Senators.
1797-Albany made the state capital.
Registered Motor Vehicles in New York State '

Source: State Bureau of Motor Vehicles
Year
No.
Year
No.
Year
No.
Year

No. 1905

8,625
1926 1,826.026
1931 2,354,993

1936 2,525,199 1910 62,655

1927
1,961,107
1932 2,302,259

1937 2,640,675 1915 234,032 1928 2,115,178 1933 2,276.967

1938

2,668 799 1920 682,919 1929 2.298,985

1934 2,330,570 1939 2,749,135 1925 1,635,337 1930 2.347,011 1935 2,395,144

1940 2,848,515 The 1940 registrations were: vehicles—passenger. | suburban, 18.883; motorcycle, 12,006; transporter, 2.382.865; omnibus, 32,738; commercial, 335,859; 117; farm vehicle, 7,691; exempt cars, 29.700; trailer, 52,291; dealer 5,505; ambulance. 677; chauffeurs, 812,453; operators, 3,110,138.

Geological History of the Empire State

Source: The late John M. Clarke, State Geologist, New York State Museum The geological history of New York can be traced During the early part of this period the sea had back to the Precambrian era, the oldest recogniz- spread over only Central and Western New York, able in the rocks of the earth.

while during the late Silurian it had extended over These earliest rocks known are the Grenville the state west and south of the Adirondack region. metamorphosed sediments (gneisses, marble, etc.). The strate of the next or Devonian era comprises

They are exposed in the Adirondacks and the the whole Catskill and southwestern plateau provHudson Highlands. They prove that in Grenville inces and cover more than a third of the state. time Northern, Eastern, and probably Southwestern These rocks abound in fossils and show that the NY. was under the water.

sea continued to cover at least the southern halt. After the deposition of the Grenville sediments The sea of the Carboniferous period hardly came igneous activity took place on a large scale and over the boundary of the State from Pennsylvania. huge masses of molten rock (granite, anorthosite, At the end of Paleozoic time New York, except gabbro, syenite) were pushed into the sediments for a small area at the mouth of the Hudson, was from below.

raised during the Appalachian revolution well above Some time after the whole Adirondack region the sea, never to be invaded again until the end was subjected to enormous pressure and intensely of the glacial period. folded, and then the great mass of Grenville sedi- During the long Mesozoic period New York was ments was upraised well above the sea.

dry land; in Triassic time considerable volcanic At the beginning of the Cambrian time, when or activity prevailed in Southeastern New York, when ganic life becomes first recognizable in the State, sheets of lava (the trap of the Palisades) were only the eastern margin was submerged, but toward forced into nonmarine Triassic beds. the end (Potsdam time) the sea covered the whole During the next, or Jurassic, period the State region except the central

and northwestern was above the sea and actively eroded, but in the Adirondacks.

following Cretaceous period Staten and Long IsIn the long Ordovician period, during which the lands disappeared under the sea. Beekmantown, Chazy, Black River and Trenton At the end of this period the State, which had limestones and the utica, Frankfort and Lorraine been eroded nearly to a plain, was uplifted 2,000shales and sandstones were deposited, the State 3,000 feet. was most of the time submerged under the Ordo- After this time in the Tertiary period the present vician sea, except for the Adirondack island. drainage and relief of the State were developed in

Toward the end of that period, however, the its major features. Green and Taconic Mountains arose along the Finally came the glacial period, which enriched eastern border of the State and practically all of the State with thousands of lakes and waterfalls. Northern, Central, Eastern and Northeastern New It ended with the Champlain subsidence, during York became dry land.

which the sea came for the last time into New York. In the following Silurian period were deposited into the Champlain Basin and Hudson Valley. the Medina and Oneida sandstone and conglom- A recent elevation has again drained these erate, the Clinton shale, sandstone, limestone regions. and iron ore, the Rochester shale, the Lockport and The Hudson River is one of the most ancient Guelph dolomites, the Salina shales, salt and rivers of the continent and flows over rocks which waterline, etc.

have been frequently and heavily faulted.

Minerals and Mining in New York State

Source: An Official of the State Museum The mines and quarries of New York State, ac- 1940 valued at $5,855,422. Both rock salt and cording to the New York State Museum at Albany, evaporated salt are obtained. yield materials valued at more than $75,000,000 & Cement manufacture, in which local clays and year in their first marketable forms. The state has limestones are utilized, has had a rapid growth no gold or coal deposits. Iron ore has been mined The works are mostly centered in the Hudson River and smelted since about 1750. The deposits are valley below Albany, but there are also plants in widely distributed; magnetite is obtained in the Warren, Schoharie. Tompkins, Onondaga and Erie Adirondacks and the Hudson Highlands, hematite counties. The present output of Portland cement is in the Clinton belt of the central and western around 6,100,000 barrels, worth nearly $9,000,000 counties, limonite in Dutchess and Columbia Clay and clay manufactures inclusive of brick, tile. counties.

terra cotta and pottery recently have amounted to Zinc ore occurs in St. Lawrence, Orange, Ulster $8,900,000. and Sullivan counties, but the first named is the The quarry stones include granite and marble in only producer. The output of metallic zine in 1940 the Adirondacks and Hudson Highlands, and a amounted to 35,700 short tons, with a value of varied assortment of limestones and sandstones $4,641,000.

from other regions. Trap rock is obtained in RockPetroleum and natural gas represent a value of land county. The total products have a value in about $20,000,000. Gypsum in recent years has excess of $12,000,000. The mines of talc in St. come into wide use for building purposes and in Lawrence county are the largest in the country the mining and manufacture of this material New Other minerals produced in New York State York leads. The output is about 700,000 short tons are garnet, diatomaceous earth, quartz, emery. with & value of $1,100,000.

graphite, feldspar, pyrite, slate, millstones, moldSalt produced amounted to 14,582,086 barrels in ing sand and building sand and gravel.

NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM The State Museum is a part of the Education well-mounted specimens. The mounted series of Department of the University of the State of New domestic poultry, including the domestic fowl, York. The collections are arranged on the upper turkeys, pigeons, peacock, ducks, geese and pheasfloors of the State Education Building, opposite the ants is extensive. The collection of birds' eggs is Capitol, at Albany. The collections are open free one of the most complete in America. This section on week days.

also contains a representative series of insects. Hall of Geology and Mineralogy. Special exhibits State Herbarium. The State Herbarium contains in geology illustrate various industries such as 75,000 specimens, mostly of New York plants, and clays, sands, limestone, salt, gypsum, building has a large collection of fungi. A special exhibit

of wax models illustrates the common edible and "Hall of Paleontology. This hall includes verte- poisonous fungi. brates and invertebrates. The exhibits of trilobites Halls of Archaeology and Ethnology. The former and eurypterids are of unusual scientific interest. illustrates the implements used by the Iroquois The wax restorations of very ancient extinct Indians, such as flint arrow and spear heads, axes, marine life in New York show the general appear- pipes, pottery and various articles used for adorn ance of these animals on the sea bottom. The Gil- ment. boa fossil forest shows three layers or horizons of General. The State Museum conducts geologic tree trunks representing as many forests that and economic surveys of its natural resources and flourished in ancient Devonian time. These trunks their relation to its industries, also a natural hisbelong to the oldest known forests in the world. tory survey of the plants and animals, including

Hall of Zoology. The animals of New York are insects, and acts as a general bureau of information exhibited in this hall, the larger mammals in publishing popular and technical reports. The hishabitat groups and the smaller mammals, birds, toric and industrial collections are of considerable fishes, reptiles and mollusks in extensive series of value and are growing

New York State Mountain Peaks

Source: The U. S. Geological Survey; figures show feet above mean sea level Adirondacks—The principal mountain group in Catskills-They cover an area of 1,000 square the Empire State, occupying an area of 5,000 square miles, principally in Greene, Ulster, Sullivan, and miles in the north-northeast area.

Delaware counties, west of the Hudson River.

CHIEF ADIRONDACK PEAKS (Figures ending in 0 usually are derived from contours and may be as much as 20 feet in error) Elv.

Elv.

Elv.
Peak
County

ft.
Peak
County ft.

Peak County

ft. Adams..! Essex

3,584|Esther.

Essex
4,270 Nye.

Essex 4,160 Algonquin Peak. Essex

5,112||Giant.

Essex
4,622||Panther

Hamilton 3,865 Allen

Essex
4,345 | Gore

Warren
3,595||Panther Peak. Essex

4,448 Armstrong

Essex
4,4551 Gothic

Essex
4,738||Porter

Essex

4,070 Averill Peak Clinton 3,810||Gray

Essex
4,900||Redfield

Essex

14,606 Bartlett Ridge, Essex

3,880||Green.
Essex 3,928||Rocky Pk. Rdg.. Essex

4,375 Basin

Essex
4,825||Haystack

Essex
4,918|Saddle Back. Essex

4,530 Big Slide. Essex 4,255||Henderson. Essex

3.660||Santanoni. Essex

4,621 Blue Hamilton 3,759|Hoffman.. Essex

3,715||Saw Teeth. Essex

14,138 Blue Ridge. Essex 3,715 |Hurricane. Essex

3,687||Sentinel Peak... Essex 3.858 Blue Ridge Hamilton 3,865||Jay

Essex

3,601 Sentinel Range.. Essex 3,902 Boregs

Essex
3,815||Lewey
Hamilton 3,740||Seward.

Franklin 14,404 Boundary Peak Essex

4,920 Little Haystack. Essex 4,700||Seymour. Franklin 4,120 Calamity. Essex 3,641 | Little Moose.. Hamilton 3,630|||Skylight.

Essex 4,920 Cascade.

Essex
4,092|Lyon....
Clinton 3,810||Snowy

Hamilton 3.903 Cheney Cobble Essex 3,673MacIntyre Mt. Essex

5,112|Street.

Essex 4,216 Cli...

Essex
4,000 Marcy

Essex

5,344||Table Top Essex 4,440 Colden.

Essex
4,713||MeComb. Essex

4,425|Twin Mts. Essex 3,720 Colvin..

Essex
4,074||McKenzie. Essex

3,872||Wakely

Hamilton 3,617 Dial..

Essex
14,023||Moose.

Essex
3,921 Wallface

Essex

3,860 Essex 4,842||Nipple Top.

Essex Dix.

4,620||Whiteface Essex

4.872 Donaldson Franklin 4,215|Noonmark Essex

3,552||Woll Jaw

Essex 4,225 Drew Brook.... Hamilton (3,565|North River.... Essex 3,890|| Wright.

Essex

14,585 CHIEF CATSKILL MOUNTAIN PEAKS Balsam Cap Ulster 3,700 High Peak. Greene

3,660 Rose.

Ulster

13,123 Balsam Greene 3,565 Hunter

Greene 4.025 Round Top. Delaware 3,448 Balsam

Ulster
3,590 Huntersfield Greene

3,450 Round Top Greene

3,470 Bism. Rod. Top. Ulster 3,723 Indian Head Greene 3.585 Rusk.

Greene 3,680
Bearpen
Del-Greene 3,500 Lone

Ulster
3,740 Slide.

Ulster

4,204 Belle Ayr . Ulster 3,406 McGregor. Delaware 3,253 Spruce.

Ulster

13.380 Big Indian Ulster 3,721 Mill Br'k. Rdge. Ulster-Del. 3,380 Spruce Top Greene

3,620 Black Dome Greene 3,990 Mombaccus. Ulster

3,000 Stoppel Point... Greene 3.425 Blackhead Peak. Greene 3,937 Mongaup

Ulster
3,150 Sugarloaf.

Greene

|3,647 Bloomberg. Delaware 3,448 Mor'sy'le R'ng.. Delaware 3,253 Table

Ulster 3,856 Cornell.

Ulster
3,906 North Dome.

Greene 3,593 Thos. Cole. Greene 3,935
Denman
Sullivan 3,051 Overlook.

Ulster
3,150 Twin..

Greene 3,782 Dry Brook Rdg. Del-Ulster 3,510 Panther.

Ulster

3,760 Utsayanthe Delaware 3,213 Evergreen. Greene 3,531 Peekamoose. Ulster

3,863 Van Wyck Ulster 3,260 Fir...

Ulster
3,619 Pisgah.
Delaware 3,365 Vey.

Greene |3,476 Giant Ledge. Ulster

3,218 Plateau.
Greene 3,855 West Kill. Greene

|3,777 Graham.

Ulster
3,890 Plattskill. Delaware 3,250||Wildcat.

Ulster 3,268 Halcott..

Greene

3,537 Richmond. Greene 3,213Wndbm.Hgh Pt. Greene 3,508 Hemlock. Ulster (3,264||Rocky..

Ulster 13,620|| Wittenberg...

Ulster

3,502 CHIEF LAKES AND PONDS IN NEW YORK STATE Sq. Elev.

Sq. Elev.
Lake

County
M. Feet

Lake

County

M. Feet Beaver River Flow. Herkimer

3.95 1,660 Long

Hamilton.

6.14 1,630 Big Moose. Hamilton-Herkimer 1.93 1,24 Meacham

Franklin

1.88 1,551 Black St. Lawrence

17.16
272 Moose-Little Herkimer.

1.05 1,788 Blue Mt'n. Hamilton

2.05 1.789
Oneida

Oneida-Oswego. 79.8 370
Brandreth.
Hamilton
1.38 1,878 Onondaga.

Onondaga.

4.75 364 Brant. Warren. 2.12 801 Otisco

Onondage

3.50 784 Canadarago. Otsego

3.06 1,276 Otsego

Otsego

6.23 1,194 Canandaigua. Ontario-Yates. 16.57

686 Owasco

Cayuga.

10.3 710 Cayuga Cay-Tomp-Seneca. 66.4

381
Peck
Fulton

1.07) 1,360 Cazenovia. Madison

1.72 1,190
Plseco
Hamilton

4.32 1,661 Champlain, Essex-Clinton-Vt.

Placid
Essex

4.37) 1,859
Canada
490.0 95 Pleasant.

Hamilton

2.351,724 Chateaugay, upper Clinton

3.85) 1,310 Raquette

Hamilton

8.43 1,762 Chautauqua. Chautauqua 20.9 1,308 Raquette Pond Franklin.

1.60 1,542 Chazy. Clinton 2.32 1,531 Round

Hamilton

1.21 1.718 Clear. Franklin 1.59 1,610 Sacandaga.

Hamilton

2.50 1.724 Conesus. Livingston. 5.08 818 St. Regis, upper... Franklin.

1.08 1,617 Cross Cayuga-Onondaga 370 Saranac Lk, lower Franklin.

3.46 1,534 Follensby, pond. Franklin 1.42 1,548 Saranac Lk., m'dle Franklin.

2.6 | 1,536 Forked. Hamilton. 1.95 1,741 Saranac Lk., lipper Franklin,

7.95 1,571 Fulton Chain 1st Herkimer.

1.03 1,706 Saratoga.

Saratoga.

6.781204 Fulton Chain-4th Herkimer.

3.29 1,707 Schroon.

Essex-Warren.

6.61 807 George, Lake.... Essex-Warren.

44.44 317 Seneca.

Seneca-Schuyler; 66.7 Greenwood.. Orange.

3.0 610

Ontario-Yates
Hemlock
Livingston
2.90 896 Silver

Clinton

1.30 1,393 Hinckley, reservoir Herk-Oneida.

5.11 1,225 Silver

Wyoming

1.19|1,356 Honeoye Liv-Ontario. 2.61 800 Skaneateles

Cay-Cortl-Onond. 13.8 867 Honnedaga Herkimer. 1.46 2.187 Tupper

St. Law-Franklin, 5.91 1,542 Indian. Hamilton 6.96 1,650 Tupper, Little Hamilton.

3.80 1.718 Keuka. Yates-Steuben 17.43709 Woll Pond..

Franklin

1.35 1,563 Lila Hamilton 2.26 1,714 Woodhull.

Herkimer.

1.741,880 Little. Schuyler

1.27 1.096 Lake Erie borders on New York State for an tral New York. From west to east they are Cone. airline distance of 64 miles.

sus, Hemlock, Canadice, Honeoye, Canandaigua. Area in U. 3.-4.990 square miles.

Keuka, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, Skaneateles, Lake Ontario forms the northern boundary of Otisco and Onondaga. N. Y. State for an air line distance of 146 miles. There are 2,300 lakes, ponds, or reservoirs in Area in U. S.-3,470 square miles.

New York State, of which 78 have an area of 1 Finger Lakes form a group of glacial lakes in cen- square mile or more.

[graphic]
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